Ivan Pavlov - BDoughertyAmSchool
... trigger the salivation response. Pavlov therefore
demonstrated how stimulus-response bonds are
formed. He dedicated much of the rest of his
career further exploring this finding.
Ch 6: Learning
... the scraping of fingernails on a blackboard. She said that it was not important how such
fears got started. This fear-of-flying program would focus on the present, not on the
past. Sabra began to feel more relaxed.
After a brief description of the learning-based therapy to be used, the group took a
... The behavior of answering a simple question about one's past, however, seems to
defy explanation in terms of these familiar principles. When asked, "What did you have
for breakfast yesterday?" we reply with ease, "Scrambled eggs." So commonplace is the
phenomenon that, at first, there seems to be no ...
learning and behaviour - University of Calicut
... reinforcement is the primary factor that determines learning. However, in Hull's theory, drive
reduction or need satisfaction plays a much more important role in behavior than in other
frameworks (i.e., connectionism, operant conditioning).
Hull's theoretical framework consisted of many postulates s ...
Settling The Stimulus-Substitution Issue Is A Prerequisite For Sound
... Turkkan's paper, whereas many of the commentaries seem to have been
written from an organism-based viewpoint. For example, an important
theme of the target article appears to be the search for laws relating
behavior to prior stimulus correlations (cf. the "litmus tests" 1-6, p. 123):
This theme defi ...
Ivan Pavlov - manuel
... “Experiments carried out by Pavlov and his pupils showed that
conditioned reflexes originate in the cerebral cortex, which
acts as the «prime distributor and organizer of all activity of
the organism» and which is responsible for the very delicate
... Higher-Order Conditioning
= a procedure in which the conditioned
stimulus in one conditioning experience is
paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating
a second (often weaker) conditioned
stimulus. For example, an animal that has
learned that a tone predicts food might then
learn that a light pred ...
Effect of isochronic tone tempos on physiologic recovery rates after
... adjusted on each subject between trials. Not adjusting the belt between subjects,
although possible discomfort from the belt may have occurred between trials, controlled
for varying respiration rates, but could have led to irregular breathing patterns of
subjects and thus no significance in our resp ...
Garcia & Koellings (1966)
... “Any natural phenomenon chosen
at will may be converted into a
conditioned stimulus…any visual
stimulus, any desired sound, any
odor, and stimulation of any
part of the skin” (Pavlov, 1928)
... stimuli (UCS). The unconditioned stimulus (food in this example) can
elicit behavior without prior learning
•Salivating at the sight of the empty dish that has been associated with food
is an example of a learned or conditioned response (CR). The stimulus
that elicits a conditioned response is calle ...
... • Was the behavior voluntary or involuntary? Did
• What word (neutral stimulus) became associated
with the stimulus?
• How long did this take?
• What might cause the response to disappear?
the Unit 3 study guide in PDF format.
... 3. In Pavlov’s initial studies on associations in learning, what were the stimuli that were paired to create an
association in the dog?
4. What is classical conditioning? What are reflexes and what role do they play in classical conditioning?
5. What is an unconditioned stimulus? What is meant by “u ...
2 - Richard Socher
... • We develop a probabilistic model of human memory
performance in free recall experiments. In these
experiments, a subject first studies a list of words and then
tries to recall them. We assume that memories are formed
by assimilating the semantic meaning of studied words into
a slowly changing late ...
60 Years of Research
... Affective intensity of unpleasant experiences
had greater declines than pleasant
experiences, and as a consequence,
unpleasant experiences were less likely to be
Why the decline in intensity of unpleasant
Cognition and Operant Conditioning
... when adult role models use aggression to solve
their problems, children learn to model that
aggressive behavior is a problem-solving strategy
This may help explain why abusive parents tend to
... • When a conditioned stimulus acts like an
unconditioned stimulus, creating conditioned
stimuli out of events associated with it.
• Very important adaptive characteristic of cc in
preparing organism for life threatening events
... cannot ever really see what is going on in someone’s mind.
Therefore, the only thing that psychology should consider
is human behavior, not emotions and feelings.
Emotional factors in memory
... found recall for negative words higher after
• Klein’s PPs might have been distracted
during learning or demotivated during
... Acquisition is the initial stage in classical
conditioning in which an association between a
neutral stimulus and an unconditioned
stimulus takes place.
... The CS becomes associated with the absence of
the US (e.g. a dog bites only in the absence of its
owner, so the owner gets to be a signal of safety)
Chap 6 Learning
... Ideas a of classical conditioning originate from old
philosophical theories, however it was a Russian
physiologist Ivan Pavlov who elucidated classical
conditioning. His work became seminal for later
behaviorists like John Watson and B. F. Skinner.
Why People Forget - avongroveappsychology
... of lists of nonsense syllables
•He would learn a list by repeating the items over and over,
until he could recite the list w/o error.
•He would note how many trials or how long it took him to
learn the list.
•He then tested his memory of the list after an interval ranging
from 20 min. to 31 days.
Spontaneous recovery is a phenomenon of learning and memory which was first seen in classical (Pavlovian) conditioning and refers to the re-emergence of a previously extinguished conditioned response after a delay.Spontaneous recovery is associated with the learning process called classical conditioning, in which an organism learns to associate a neutral stimulus with a stimulus which produces an unconditioned response, such that the previously neutral stimulus comes to produce its own, conditioned, response, often identical to that originally produced by the other, unconditioned stimulus. Although principles of classical conditioning had been noted by many Western scholars throughout the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the discovery of classical conditioning is usually attributed to Ivan Pavlov, a nineteenth-century physiologist who came across classical conditioning while conducting research on canine digestion.To study digestion, Pavlov presented various types of food to dogs and measured their natural salivary response. Through this process, Pavlov noticed that with repeated testing, the dogs began to salivate before the food was presented, such as when they heard the footsteps of the approaching experimenter. Pavlov’s research team rigorously studied this process for decades, and this type of learning association came to be called classical or Pavlovian conditioning.While performing a variety of follow-up studies on this phenomenon, Pavlov found that when a classically conditioned salivary response was extinguished, the response gained in strength again after a period of approximately twenty minutes. Pavlov referred to this finding as spontaneous recovery. Although spontaneous recovery gradually increases with time after a conditioned response has been extinguished, conditioned responses do not generally return to full strength. Moreover, with repeated recovery/extinction cycles, the conditioned response tends to be less intense with each period of recovery. Recovery takes place even though there has not been any additional associations between the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus. The ability of the conditioned stimulus was weakened but it was not eliminated. Although spontaneous recovery can be observed within a variety of domains, the phenomenon of spontaneous recovery can be particularly relevant in terms of human memory, as some types of memory, when seemingly forgotten, can unexpectedly return to human consciousness.