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Transcript
Table of Contents – SWH Ecoregion 3E Criterion Schedule
IDENTIFICATION OF Significant Wildlife Habitat
1. 1 Seasonal Concentration Areas of Animals
Moose Late Winter Cover
Waterfowl Stopover and Staging Areas (Terrestrial)
Waterfowl Stopover and Staging Areas (Aquatic)
Shorebird Migratory Stopover Area
Bat Hibernacula
Bat Maternity Colonies
Bat Migratory Stopover Area
Turtle Wintering Areas
Reptile Hibernacula
Colonially -Nesting Bird Breeding Habitat (Bank and Cliff)
Colonially -Nesting Bird Breeding Habitat Breeding Habitat (Tree/Shrubs)
Colonially -Nesting Bird Breeding Habitat (Ground)
1.2 Rare Vegetation Communities or Specialized Habitat for Wildlife
1.2.1 Rare Vegetation Communities
Cliffs and Talus Slopes
Rare Treed Type: - Red and White Pine Stands
Rare Treed Type: - Black Ash
Rare Treed Type - Elm
Rare Treed Type: - Oak
Rare Treed Type -Red and Sugar Maple
Rare Treed Type: -Yellow Birch
Rock Barren
Bog
Tallgrass Prairie
Sand Dunes
Great Lakes Arctic-Alpine Shoreline Type
Hardwood Swamps
3
3
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
9
10
11
12
13
15
15
17
18
18
19
20
21
21
21
21
23
23
24
DRAFT February 2012
1.2.2 Specialized Habitat for Wildlife
Waterfowl Nesting Area
Bald Eagle and Osprey Nesting, Foraging and Perching Habitat
Woodland Raptor Nesting Habitat
Turtle Nesting Areas
Seeps and Springs
Aquatic Feeding Habitat
Mineral Lick
Denning Sites for Mink, Otter, Marten Fisher and Eastern Wolf
Wolf Rendezvous Sites
Amphibian Breeding Habitat (Woodland)
Amphibian Breeding Habitat (Wetlands)
Mast Producing Areas
Sharp-tailed Grouse Leks
1.3 Habitat for Species of Conservation Concern (Not including Endangered or Threatened Species)
Marsh Bird Breeding Habitat
Open Country Bird Breeding Habitat
Shrub/Early Successional Bird Breeding Habitat
Special Concern and Rare Wildlife Species
1.4 Animal Movement Corridors
Amphibian Movement Corridors
Cervid Movement Corridors
Furbearer Movement Corridor
Eco-Region 3E
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
34
35
37
38
40
40
41
42
44
45
46
2
DRAFT February 2012
Eco-Region 3E
SCHEDULE 3E: IDENTIFICATION OF Significant Wildlife Habitat
This Schedule is designed to provide the recommended criteria for identifying Significant Wildlife Habitat (SWH) within Ecoregion 3E.
Tables 1.1 through 1.4 within the Schedules provide guidance for SWH designation for the four categories of SWH outlined in the
Significant Wildlife Habitat Technical Guide and its Appendices cxlviii, cxlix. Table 1.5 contains and provides descriptions for exceptions
criteria for ecoregional SWH which will be identified at an ecodistrict scale. Exceptions occur when criteria for a specific habitat are
different within an ecodistrict compared to the remainder of an ecoregion or if a habitat only occurs within a restricted area of the
ecoregion.
The Schedules, including description of wildlife habitat, wildlife species, and the criteria provided for determining SWH, are based on
science and expert knowledge. The ELC Ecosite codes indicate the ecosites (treed and non-treed) as outlined in Ecosites of Ontario –
Operational Draft (April 20th, 2009). The information within these schedules will require periodic updating to keep pace with changes to
wildlife species status in Species at Risk schedules, or as new scientific information pertaining to wildlife habitats becomes available.
Therefore, OMNR will occasionally need to review and update these schedules and provide addenda. A reference document for all
SWH is found after the schedules and includes citations for all ecoregional schedules. Each citation used to assist with the criteria for
SWH will be indicated by a roman numeric symbol. Where no reference exists, OMNR expert opinion is used to for determination of
criteria, this symbol “Í” represents when OMNR expert opinion was utilized to develop defining criteria.
Criteria For Significant Wildlife Habitat in Ecoregion 3E
1. 1 Seasonal Concentration Areas
Seasonal Concentration Areas are areas where wildlife species occur annually in numbers at certain times of the year, sometimes
highly concentrated within relatively small areas. In spring and autumn, migratory wildlife species will concentrate where they can rest
and feed. Other wildlife species require habitats where they can survive winter. Examples of Seasonal Concentration Areas include
breeding bird colonies and hibernation sites for bats cxlviii. Table 1.1 outlines which Seasonal Concentration Areas constitute SWH.
Table 1.1 Seasonal Concentration Areas for Wildlife Species
Wildlife Habitat
Wildlife Species
ELC Ecosite
Codes
Moose
B036 - 038,
Moose Late
B049-053,
Winter Cover
B065-068
B081-087
Rationale
Habitat important
B098-102
CANDIDATE SWH
Habitat Criteria and Information
Sources
Late winter moose habitat is
characterized by dense conifer cover
with greater than 60% canopy
closure and >6m in height.
Upland sites are preferred cxcv.
CONFIRMED SWH
Defining Criteria
Field Studies will confirm the use of
these areas as late winter habitat by
moose during the months of March
and April.
Moose are very difficult to observe
3
Wildlife Habitat
Wildlife Species
for providing
cover and
minimizing snow
depths allowing
movement of
moose in late
winter.
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Ecosite
Habitat Criteria and Information
Codes
Sources
B114-117
Snow depth in excess of 70cm
More common on
restrict moose movement during
deeper soils with
winter, however late winter thermal
dense conifer cover refuge is important in relieving heat
and vegetation in
stress.
the understory for
browse.
These habitats are extensively used
by moose during late spring and
summer due to the shade provided
cxcv
.
Conifer stands >50ha cxcv, dominated
by tall trees >6m, on gentle to
moderately rugged sites with deep
soils. Areas identified as rating 3 or
4 cxcv for late winter moose habitat
are Candidate SWH.
Information Sources
 OMNR Forester, Ecologist or
Biologist may be aware of
locations.
 The Selected Wildlife and habitat
Inventory Manual (1998)cxcv
outlines the inventory method for
Late Winter Moose Habitat.
Waterfowl
Stopover and
Staging Areas
(Terrestrial)
Rationale;
Habitat important
to migrating
American Black Duck
Wood Duck
Green-winged Teal
Blue-winged Teal
Mallard
Northern Pintail
Northern Shoveler
American Wigeon
Focus on sites that
have appropriate
vegetation and
highest likelihood
of seasonal water
accumulation
B060-062
Fields with sheet water during
Spring (mid March to May).
 Fields flooding during spring
melt and run-off provide
important invertebrate foraging
habitat for migrating waterfowl.
 Flood plains (flooded river
banks)
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Defining Criteria
in late winter habitat, therefore any
number of moose observed or moose
tracks and trails observed in the
habitat confirm this habitat as a
SWH.
The area of the SWH is the area of
treed ecosites associated with the
winter cover area plus 300 m
surrounding the site cxlviii.
The relative importance of the site to
the surrounding landscape should be
considered. Significant sites may be
only one of few in the area cxlviii.
SWHDSS cxlix Index #24 provides
development effects and mitigation
measures for aquatic feeding areas,
similar effects and mitigation can be
used for late winter habitat.
Studies carried out and verified
presence of an annual concentration
of any listed species, evaluation
methods to follow “Bird and Bird
Habitats: Guidelines for Wind
Power Projects” ccxi.
 Any mixed species aggregations
4
Wildlife Habitat
Wildlife Species
waterfowl.
Gadwall
Waterfowl
Stopover and
Staging Areas
(Aquatic)
Canada Goose
Cackling Goose
Snow Goose
American Black Duck
Northern Pintail
Northern Shoveler
American Wigeon
Gadwall
Green-winged Teal
Blue-winged Teal
Hooded Merganser
Common Merganser
Lesser Scaup
Rationale;
Important for
local and migrant
waterfowl
populations
during the spring
or fall migration
or both periods
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Ecosite
Habitat Criteria and Information
Codes
Sources
B077-079
 Cultivated fields with waste
B093-095
grains are commonly used by
B109-111
waterfowl, these are not
considered SWH.
Plus evidence of
Information Sources
annual spring
 Anecdotal information from the
flooding from melt
landowner, adjacent landowners
water or run-off
or local naturalist clubs may be
within identified
good information in determining
Ecosites.
occurrence.
 EIS Reports
 Sites documented through
waterfowl planning processes
(eg. EHJV implementation
plan)
 Naturalist Clubs
 Ducks Unlimited Canada
 Natural Heritage Information
Centre (NHIC) Waterfowl
Concentration Area
B142-152
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Defining Criteria
of 100Í or more individuals
required.
 The area of the flooded field
ecosite habitat plus a 100-300m
radius buffer dependant on local
site conditions and adjacent land
use is the significant wildlife
habitat cxlviii.
 Annual use of habitat is
documented from information
sources or field studies (annual
use can be based on studies or
determined by past surveys with
species numbers and dates).
 SWHDSS cxlix Index #7 provides
development effects and
mitigation measures.

Studies carried out and verified
Ponds, marshes, lakes, bays,
coastal inlets, and watercourses presence of:
used during migration. Sewage
 Aggregations of 100Í or more
treatment ponds and storm water
individuals of listed species
ponds do not qualify as a SWH,
for 7 daysÍ, results in > 700
however a reservoir managed as
waterfowl use days.
a large wetland or pond/lake
 Areas with annual staging of
does qualify.
ruddy ducks, canvasbacks,
 These habitats have an abundant
redheads and trumpeter swans
food supply (mostly aquatic
are SWH cxlix
invertebrates and vegetation in
 The combined area of the
shallow water);
ELC ecosites and a 100m
Information Sources
radius area is the SWH cxlviii
5
Wildlife Habitat
combined. Sites
identified are
usually only one
of a few in the
ecodistrict.
Wildlife Species
Greater Scaup
Long-tailed Duck
Surf Scoter
White-winged Scoter
Black Scoter
Ring-necked Duck
Common Goldeneye
Bufflehead
Redhead
Ruddy Duck
Red-breasted Merganser
Brant
Canvasback
Tundra Swan
Trumpeter Swan
Greater Yellowlegs
Lesser Yellowlegs
Marbled Godwit
Hudsonian Godwit
Black-bellied Plover
Rationale;
High quality
American Golden-Plover
shorebird
Semipalmated Plover
stopover habitat is Solitary Sandpiper
extremely rare
Spotted Sandpiper
Shorebird
Migratory
Stopover Area
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Ecosite
Habitat Criteria and Information
Codes
Sources
 OMNR District staff.
 Canadian Wildlife Service staff
know the larger, most
significant sites. Check
website:
http://wildspace.ec.gc.ca
 Naturalist clubs often are aware
of staging/stopover areas.
 OMNR Wetland Evaluations
indicate presence of locally and
regionally significant waterfowl
staging.
 Sites documented through
waterfowl planning processes
(eg. EHJV implementation
plan)
 Ducks Unlimited projects
 Element occurrence
specification on NatureServe
Explorer:
http://www.natureserve.org
 Natural Heritage Information
Centre (NHIC) Waterfowl
Concentration Area
B005-006
B160-162
B170-172
B176-178
B186-188
B204
B207
Shorelines of lakes, rivers and
wetlands, including beach areas,
bars and seasonally flooded, muddy
and un-vegetated shoreline habitats.
Great Lakes coastal shorelines,
including groynes and other forms
of armour rock lakeshores, are
extremely important for migratory
shorebirds in May to mid-June and
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Defining Criteria




Wetland area and shorelines
associated with sites identified
within the SWHTG cxlviii
Appendix K cxlix are
significant wildlife habitat.
Evaluation methods to follow
“Bird and Bird Habitats:
Guidelines for Wind Power
Projects” ccxi
Annual Use of Habitat is
Documented from Information
Sources or Field Studies
(Annual can be based on
completed studies or
determined from past surveys
with species numbers and
dates recorded).
SWHDSS cxlix Index #7
provides development effects
and mitigation measures.
Studies confirming:
 Presence of 3 or more of listed
species and > 1000Í shorebird
use days during spring or fall
migration period. (shorebird use
days are the accumulated
number of shorebirds counted
per day over the course of the
fall or spring migration period)
6
Wildlife Habitat
and typically has
a long history of
use.
Wildlife Species
Semipalmated Sandpiper
Pectoral Sandpiper
White-rumped Sandpiper
Baird’s Sandpiper
Least Sandpiper
Stilt Sandpiper
Short-billed Dowitcher
Red-necked Phalarope
Wilson’s Phalarope
Whimbrel
Ruddy Turnstone
Sanderling
Dunlin
Wilson’s Snipe
Big Brown Bat
Little Brown Myotis
Tri-coloured Bat/Eastern
Rationale;
Bat hibernacula
Pipistrelle
are rare habitats in Northern Myotis
all Ontario
Eastern Small-footed
landscapes.
Myotis
Bat Hibernacula
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Ecosite
Habitat Criteria and Information
Codes
Sources
early July to October. Storm water
retention ponds and sewage lagoons
are not considered SWH.
Information Sources
 Western hemisphere
shorebird reserve network.
 Canadian Wildlife Service
(CWS) Ontario Shorebird
Survey.
 Bird Studies Canada
 Ontario Nature
 Local birders and naturalist
clubs.
 Temiskaming Birds:
http://timbirds.info/
 NHIC Shorebird Migratory
Concentration Area
Hibernacula may be  Hibernacula may be found in
found in abandoned
abandoned caves, mine shafts,
caves, mine shafts,
underground foundations and
underground
karsts. The locations and site
foundations
characteristics of bat
(Karsts) and these
hibernacula are relatively
ecosites:
poorly known.
B158-159
 Primary criteria is identification
B164-165
of known feature
B174-175
 Buildings are not considered to
B180-181
be SWH)
Caves and mine
shafts are the
important features.
Commonly
associated as
Information Sources
 OMNR for possible locations
and contact for local experts
 NHIC Bat
Hibernaculum/Nursery.
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Defining Criteria




Sites used for multiple years are
more significant.
The area of significant
shorebird habitat includes the
mapped ELC ecosites plus a
100m radius area cxlviii
Evaluation methods to follow
“Bird and Bird Habitats:
Guidelines for Wind Power
Projects” ccxi
SWHDSS cxlix Index #8
provides development effects
and mitigation measures.

All sites with confirmed
hibernating bats are SWH Í.
 The area includes 1000m radius
around the entrance of the
hibernaculum cxlviii, ccvii, Í.
 Studies are to be conducted
during the peak swarming
period (Aug. – Sept.). Surveys
should be conducted following
methods outlined in the
“Guideline for Wind Power
Projects Potential Impacts to
Bats and Bat Habitats” ccv.
 SWHDSS cxlix Index #1
provides development effects
and mitigation measures.
7
Wildlife Habitat
Bat
Maternity
Colonies
Rationale;
Known locations
of treed bat
maternity colonies
is extremely rare
in all Ontario
landscapes.
Wildlife Species
Big Brown Bat
Little Brown Myotis
Silver-haired Bat
Northern Myotis
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Ecosite
Habitat Criteria and Information
Codes
Sources
components of
 Ministry of Northern
either Cliff or Rock
Development and Mines and
Barren ecosites.
NRVIS for location of mine
shafts and mine locations.
Once feature is
 Clubs that explore caves (e.g.
identified the
Caving Canada
substrate
(http://www.cancaver.ca/)
classification can
Sierra Club)
be used to identify
 University Biology Departments
characteristics and
with bat experts.
potential/suitability
of identified or
suspected
hibernacula.
Maternity colonies Maternity colonies can be found in
considered SWH
tree cavities, vegetation and often in
are found in treed
buildings xxii, xxv, xxvi, xxvii, xxxi
Ecosites.
(buildings are not considered to be
B015-019
SWH).
B023-028
Maternity roosts are not found in
B039-043
caves and mines in Ontario xxii.
B054-059
 Maternity colonies located in
B069-076
Mature (dominant trees > 80yrs
B087-092
old) deciduous or mixed forest
B103-108
stands ccix, ccx with >10/ha large
B118-125
diameter (>25cm dbh) wildlife
trees ccvii.
Aspen is an
 Female Bats prefer wildlife
important feature in
trees (snags) of decay class 1 or
Ecoregion 3E,
2 ccxii or class 2-4 ccxiv, can be
primarily the
living or with bark mostly
presence of larger
intact.
diameter trees in
 Northern Myotis prefer
older mixed-wood
contiguous tracts of older forest
stands.
cover for foraging and roosting
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Defining Criteria

All Maternity Colonies are
considered SWH
 The area of the habitat includes
the entire woodland or the forest
stand ELC Ecosite containing
the maternity colonyÍ.
 Evaluation methods for
maternity colonies should be
conducted following methods
outlined in the “Guideline for
Wind Power Projects Potential
Impacts to Bats and Bat
Habitats” ccv.
 SWHDSS cxlix Index #1
provides development effects
and mitigation measures.
8
Wildlife Habitat
Bat Migratory
Stopover Area
Wildlife Species
Hoary Bat
Eastern Red Bat
Silver-haired Bat
Rationale:
Movement
corridors for long
distance migrant
bats are extremely
important as these
species of bats are
susceptible to
land use change
and installation of
obstacles that may
affect movement
patterns.
Particularly
important in
ecodistrict 3E-4.
Turtle Wintering Painted Turtle
Areas
Special Concern:
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Ecosite
Habitat Criteria and Information
Codes
Sources
in snags and trees ccix
 Silver-haired Bats prefer older
mixed or deciduous forest and
form maternity colonies in tree
cavities and small hollows.
Older forest areas with at least
21 snags/ha are preferred ccx
Information Sources
 OMNR for possible locations
and contact for local experts
 University Biology
Departments with bat experts.
No specific ELC
types.
Long distance migratory bats
typically migrate during late
summer and early fall from summer
breeding habitats throughout
Ontario to southern wintering areas.
Their annual fall migrations
concentrate these species of bats at
stopover areas. The location and
characteristics of stopover habitats
are generally unknown.
Information Sources
 OMNR for possible locations
and contact for local experts
 University Biology
Departments with bat experts.
B128-142
B145-152
For most turtles, wintering areas are
in the same general area as their
core habitat. Water has to be deep
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Defining Criteria
 The confirmation criteria and
habitat areas for this SWH are
still being determined
cxlix
 SWHDSS
Index #38 provides
development effects and
mitigation measures

Presence of one or more overwintering Painted Turtles is
9
Wildlife Habitat
Wildlife Species
Snapping Turtle
Rationale;
Generally sites
are the only
known sites in the
area. Sites with
the highest
number of
individuals are
most significant.
Reptile
Hibernacula
Rationale;
Generally sites
are the only
known sites in the
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Ecosite
Habitat Criteria and Information
Codes
Sources
enough not to freeze and have soft
mud substrates.
 Over-wintering sites are
permanent water bodies, large
wetlands, and bogs or fens with
adequate Dissolved Oxygen. cix,

For all snakes,
habitat may be
found in any
forested ecosite in
northern Ontario.
Talus, rock
barren, crevice


cx, cxi, cxviii
Year-round persistence of
standing or flowing water to
depth, or presence of springs to
prevent freezing is key.
Information Sources
 Reports and other information
available from CAs.
 Local naturalists and experts,
as well as university
herpetologists may also know
where to find some of these
sites.
 OMNR ecologist or biologist
may be aware of locations of
wintering turtles
 NHIC, Ontario Herpetofaunal
Summary Atlas, Ontario
Herpetofaunal Atlas.
Snakes:

Gartersnake
Smooth Green Snake
Northern Ringneck
Snake
Northern Redbelly Snake
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Defining Criteria


significantÍ.
One or more Snapping Turtle
over-wintering within a wetland
is significantÍ.
The mapped ELC ecosite area
with the over wintering turtles is
the SWH. If the hibernation site
is within a stream or river, the
deep-water pool where the
turtles are over wintering is the
SWH.
Over wintering areas may be
identified by searching for
congregations (Basking Areas)
of turtles on warm, sunny days
during the fall (Aug. – Sept.) or
spring (Apr. - May).
Congregation of turtles is more
common where wintering areas
are limited and therefore
significant cix, cx, cxi, cxii.
SWHDSS cxlix Index #28
provides development effects
and mitigation measures for
turtle wintering habitat.
For snakes, hibernation takes place Studies confirming:
in sites located below frost lines in
 Presence of snake hibernacula
burrows, rock crevices and other
used by a minimum of five
natural locations. Areas of broken
individuals of a snake sp. or;
and fissured rock are particularly
individuals of two or more
valuable since they provide access
snake spp.
to subterranean sites below the frost  Congregations of a minimum of
10
Wildlife Habitat
Wildlife Species
area. Sites with
the highest
number of
individuals are
most significant.











Bank Swallow
Colonially Cliff Swallow
Nesting Bird
Breeding Habitat
(Bank and Cliff)
Rationale;
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Ecosite
Habitat Criteria and Information
Codes
Sources
xliv, li, cxii
and caves are
line
. Wetlands can also be
more typically
important over-wintering habitat in
related to these
conifer or shrub swamps and
habitats.
swales, poor fens, or depressions in
bedrock terrain with sparse trees or
Many suitable
shrubs with sphagnum moss or
conditions also
sedge hummock ground cover.
observed in the
very shallow

Observation of congregating snakes
ecosites
on sunny warm days in the spring
particularly on
or fall is a good indicator. The
fractured bedrock
existence of rock piles or slopes,
and lower veg
stone fences, and crumbling
cover Open and
foundations.
Sparse Tall/Low
Treed or Shrub
Information Sources
Systems.
 In spring, local residents or
B008-028
landowners have observed the
B128-139
emergence of snakes on their
B158-159
property (e.g. old dug wells).
B164-165

Reports and other information
B167-172
available from CAs.
B174-175


Local naturalists and experts, as
B180-181
well as university herpetologists
B183-188
may also know where to find
some of these sites.
 OMNR ecologist or biologist.
 NHIC.
Eroding banks,
sandy hills, borrow
pits, steep slopes,
and sand piles
(Bank Swallow).
Cliff faces, bridge

Any site or areas with exposed
soil banks, undisturbed or
naturally eroding that is not a
licensed/permitted aggregate
area.
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Defining Criteria
five individuals of a snake sp.
or; individuals of two or more
snake spp. near potential
hibernacula (e.g. foundation or
rocky slope) on sunny warm
days in Spring (Apr/May) and
Fall (Sept/Oct)Í .
Note: Sites for hibernation
possess specific habitat
parameters (e.g. temperature,
humidity, etc.) and
consequently are used annually,
often by many of the same
individuals of a local
population. Other critical life
processes (e.g. mating) often
take place in close proximity to
hibernacula. As such, the
feature in which the hibernacula
is located plus a 30 m radius
buffer is the SWHÍ
SWHDSS cxlix Index #13
provides development effects
and mitigation measures for
snake hibernacula.
Studies confirming:
 Presence of 1 or more nesting
sites with 8cxlvix or more cliff
swallow pairs or 50Í bank
swallow during the breeding
11
Wildlife Habitat
Wildlife Species
Historical use and
number of nests in
a colony make
this habitat
significant. An
identified colony
can be very
important to local
populations. All
swallow
population are
declining in
cxcix
Ontario
.
Great Blue Heron
Colonially Nesting Bird
Breeding Habitat Bonaparte’s Gull
Double-crested
(Tree/Shrubs)
Cormorant
Rationale;
Large colonies are
important to local
bird population,
typically sites are
only known
colony in area and
are used annually.
DRAFT February 2012
Eco-Region 3E
CANDIDATE SWH
CONFIRMED SWH
ELC Ecosite
Habitat Criteria and Information
Defining Criteria
Codes
Sources
abutments, silos,
season.
 Does not include man-made
barns (Cliff
structures (bridges or buildings)  A colony identified as SWH will
Swallows).
or recently (2 years) disturbed
include a 50m radius habitat area
soil areas, such as berms,
from the peripheral nests ccvii
Habitat may be
embankments, and soil or
 Field surveys to observe and
found in, but not
aggregate stockpiles.
count swallow nests are to be
limited to the
completed during the breeding
 Does not include a
following ecosites:
licensed/permitted Mineral
season (May-July). Evaluation
B001-004
Aggregate Operation.
methods to follow “Bird and
B157-159
Information Sources
Bird Habitats: Guidelines for
B173-175
Wind Power Projects” ccxi
 Reports and other information
available from CAs.
 SWHDSS cxlix Index #4 provides
development effects and
 Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas.
mitigation measures.
 Bird Studies Canada;
NatureCounts
http://www.birdscanada.org/bird
mon/
 Naturalist Clubs.
May include a wide  Great Blue Herons nest in live or Studies confirming:
variety of tall treed
dead standing trees in wetlands,
 Presence of 4 or more active
ecosites. Habitat
lakeshores, islands, and
nests of Great Blue Heron or 10
selection based on
peninsulas. Shrubs and
or more nests of Bonaparte’s
close proximity to
occasionally emergent vegetation
Gull cxlviii.
water body or on
may also be used.
 For Great Blue Heron: the edge
island:
of the colony and a minimum
 Most nests in trees are 11 to 15 m
B045-059
from ground, near the top of the
300m radius area of habitat or
B064-076
tree.
extent of the ELC ecosite
B081-092
containing the colony or any
 Bonaparte’s Gulls nest in
B097-108
island <15.0ha with a colony is
coniferous trees (preferably
B113-137
the SWH cc, ccvii.
spruce-fir) near fens, bogs,
B161-162
swamps, ponds or lakes.
 For Bonaparte’s Gull: the edge
B177-178
of the colony and a minimum
 Double-crested Cormorants
150m radius area of habitat
prefer to nest in trees but will
surrounding the colony is the
nest on the ground as well where
12
Wildlife Habitat
Colonially Nesting Bird
Breeding Habitat
(Ground)
Rationale;
Colonies are
important to local
bird population,
typically sites are
only known
colony in area and
are used annually.
Wildlife Species
Herring Gull
Ring-billed Gull
Common Tern
Double-crested
Cormorant
Brewer’s Blackbird
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Ecosite
Habitat Criteria and Information
Codes
Sources
trees are limited or have died and
fallen (OBBA).
Information Sources
 Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas,
colonial nest records.
 Ontario Heronry Inventory 1991
available from Bird Studies
Canada or NHIC (OMNR).
 NHIC Mixed Wader Nesting
Colony
 Aerial photographs can help
identify large heronries.
 Reports and other information
available from CAs
 OMNR District Offices.
 Local naturalist clubs.
 NRVIS
Any rocky island or 
peninsula (natural
or artificial) within
a lake or large river
(two-lined on a
1;50,000 NTS
map).

B160-165
B169-172
B176-181
B185-188

Close proximity to
watercourses in
open fields or
pastures with
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Defining Criteria



SWH ccvii.
For Double-crested Cormorants:
OMNR District offices will
identify significance of colony
and mitigation measures.
Confirmation of active colonies
must be achieved through site
visits conducted during the
nesting season (April to August)
or by evidence such as the
presence of fresh whitewash,
dead young and/or eggshells
SWHDSS cxlix Index #5 provides
development effects and
mitigation measures.
Studies confirming:
Nesting colonies of gulls and
terns are on islands or peninsulas  Presence of > 25 active nests for
(natural or artificial) associated
Herring Gulls or Ring-billed
with open water or in marshy
Gulls, >5 active nests for
areas, lakes or large rivers (twoCommon Tern Í.
lined on a 1:50,000 NTS map).
 Presence of 5 or more pairs for
Brewers Blackbird colonies are
Brewer’s BlackbirdÍ.
found loosely on the ground or in
 The edge of the colony and a
low bushes in close proximity to
minimum 150m area of habitat,
streams and irrigation ditches
or the extent of the ELC
within farmlands.
ecosites containing the colony
Double-crested Cormorants
or any island <3.0ha with a
prefer to nest in trees but will
colony is the SWH cc, ccvii
nest on the ground as well where
 For Double-crested Cormorants:
trees are limited or have died and
OMNR District offices will
fallen (OBBA).
identify significance of colony
13
Wildlife Habitat
Wildlife Species
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Ecosite
Habitat Criteria and Information
Codes
Sources
scattered trees or
shrubs (Brewer’s
Information Sources
Blackbird).
 Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas,
B008
rare/colonial species records.
B020-021
 Canadian Wildlife Service
B030-031
 Reports and other information
B045-046
available from CAs
B061-062
 OMNR District Offices.
B078-079
 Local naturalist clubs.
B094-095
 NHIC Colonial Waterbird
B110-111
Nesting Area
B142-144
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Defining Criteria


and mitigation measures.
Studies would be done during
May/June when actively
nesting. Evaluation methods to
follow “Bird and Bird Habitats:
Guidelines for Wind Power
Projects” ccxi
SWHDSS cxlix Index #6 provides
development effects and
mitigation measures.
14
DRAFT February 2012
1.2 Rare Vegetation Communities or Specialized Habitat for Wildlife
Eco-Region 3E
1.2.1 Rare Vegetation Communities
Rare vegetation communities often contain rare species, particularly plants and small invertebrates, which depend on such habitats for
their survival and cannot readily move to or find alternative habitats. When assessing rare vegetation communities, one of the most
important criteria is the current representation of the community in the planning area based on its area relative to the total landscape or the
number of examples within the planning area. There are a number of criterion used to define rare vegetation communities, however the
NHIC uses a system that considers the provincial rank of a species or community type as a tool to prioritize protection efforts. These ranks
are not legal designations but have been assigned using the best available scientific information, and follow a systematic ranking
procedure developed by The Nature Conservancy (U.S.). The ranks are based on three factors: estimated number of occurrences,
estimated community aerial extent, and estimated range of the community within the province:
S1 Extremely rare - usually 5 or fewer occurrences in the province, or very few remaining hectares.
S2 Very rare - usually between 5 and 20 occurrences in the province, or few remaining hectares.
S3 Rare to uncommon - usually between 20 and 100 occurrences in the province; may have fewer occurrences, but with some extensive
examples remaining.
The setting of criteria for significant wildlife habitat (SWH) has incorporated NHIC’s ranking system into its process of determining rare
vegetation communities and requires the vegetation community be considered dominant (i.e., absolute cover is >10% and/or relative cover
is >35%; Lee 1998lxxviii). As such, a rare vegetation community is defined to include areas that contain a provincially rare vegetation
community and/or areas that contain a vegetation community that is rare within the planning area.
SWH Table 1.2.1 contains a listing of rare vegetation communities that are considered SWH for the planning area contained within
Ecoregion 3E.
.
Table 1.2.1 Rare Vegetation Communities.
Rare Vegetation
Community
ELC Ecosite
Code
Cliffs and Talus Slopes
Cliffs:
B157-159
B173-175
Rationale;
Uncommon to rare in
B201-203
Ecoregion 3E.
Talus:
CANDIDATE SWH
Habitat Description
Cliffs:
Vertical consolidate
bedrock communities
with a minimum
height of 3 m and a
slope of >60° or
CONFIRMED SWH
Detailed Information and
Sources



OMNR Forester, Ecologist
or Biologist may be aware
of locations.
Noble 1982 ccxxi.
NHIC may have
Defining Criteria
All cliff and talus slope ecosites are
considered significant Í.
The cliff or talus slope ecosite area is
the SWH.
15
Rare Vegetation
Community
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Ecosite
Code
B166-168
B182-184
Characteristic
plant species of
cliffs in 3E may
include:
Polypodium
virginianum,
Woodsia ilvensis,
Cystopteris
fragilis,
Danthonia
spicata,
Dechampsia
flexuosa,
Aquilegia
Canadensis,
Sibbaldiopsis
tridentate,
Selaginella
rupestris, Cladina
rangiferina,
Cladina mitis,
Vaccinium
angustifolium,
Arctostaphylus
uva-ursi, Diervilla
lonicera, Betula
papyrifera
Characteristic
plant species of
talus in 3E may
Detailed Information and
Sources
173%. They have
information on known
limited plant growth
locations. This information
and species
is available on their
diversification.
website (Biodiversity
Ground cover
Explorer).
dominated by lichen
 Locations may be
and bryophytes.
available within NRVIS
Plant communities
layer: Significant
are tolerant of
Ecological Area
environmental
(SIGECOL.shp).
extremes, well
 Banton et al. 2009 ccxx.
adapted to
 Forest Resources
desiccation, rapid
Inventory (FRI).
fluctuations in
 Aerial photographs.
temperature, and low  ANSI Site District and
availability of
Inventory reports
nutrients.
 Significant Wildlife
Habitat Technical Guide
(OMNR 2000) cxlviii.
Talus:
 Topographical maps of
Rock accumulations
area.
at the base of cliffs,
 Soil survey reports and
or former cobble
Northern Ontario
beaches left behind
Engineering Geology
after lake levels drop.
Terrain Study mapping
These have a skeletal
(NOEGTS).
soil structure, and can

Local naturalists.
have organic
 High cliffs (>40 m) can be
accumulations
queried from Digital
between the rocks.
Elevation Models.
Lichen cover usually

Conservation Authority.
extensive. Trees and
shrubs are stunted.
Herbs and
graminoids limited to
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Habitat Description
Defining Criteria

SWHDSS cxlix Index #21 provides
development effects and mitigation
measures.
16
Rare Vegetation
Community
Rare Treed Type:
Red and White Pine
Stands
Rationale;
Uncommon to rare in
central and northern areas
of Ecoregion 3E – they
amount to less than 1% of
the total forest.
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Ecosite
Code
include:
Polypodium
virginanum,
Agrostis scabra,
Aralis hispida,
Woodisa ilvensis,
Aralia nudicaulis,
Cladina
rangiferina,
Cladina mitis,
Diervilla lonicera,
Alnus viridis ssp.
crispa, Prunus
pensylvanica,
Betula papyrifera,
Populus
tremuloides
B011
B015
B023
B027
B033
B039
B048
B054
B064
B069
B081
B087
B097
B103
B113
B118
Habitat Description
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Detailed Information and
Sources
Defining Criteria
patches of organic or
mineral soil
accumulations.
Red and White Pine
stands attain their
northern limit near
the northern margin
of the Clay Belt.
They occur as
sporadic, small
stands and are
generally found on
dry, often exposed,
and rocky sites.
However, these
conditions can vary.





OMNR Forester, Ecologist
or Biologist may be aware
of locations.
NHIC may have
information on known
locations. This information
is available on their
website (Biodiversity
Explorer).
Locations may be
available within NRVIS
layer: Significant
Ecological Area
(SIGECOL.shp).
Banton et al. 2009 ccxx.
Forest Resource Inventory
(FRI).
Stands should have > 10% absolute
cover or > 35% relative cover of
white and/or red pine.
The red and white pine ecosite is the
SWH.

SWHDSS cxlix Index #37 provides
direction for rare species and
habitats.
17
Rare Vegetation
Community
Rare Treed Type:
Black Ash
Rationale;
Uncommon to rare in
central and northern areas
of Ecoregion 3E.
Rare Treed Type:
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Ecosite
Code
Habitat Description
B019
B028
B056
B059
B071
B076
B089
B092
B105
B108
B120
B125
Black Ash stands are
found within low
lying, predominantly
alluvial material
throughout the Clay
Belt.
B019
Elm stands are found
Detailed Information and
Sources
 Noble 1982ccxxi.
 Crins et al. 2009 ccxvi.
 Sustainable Forestry
Licence (SFL) companies
will possibly know
locations through field
operations.
 OMNR Forester, Ecologist
or Biologist may be aware
of locations.
 Noble 1982 ccxxi.
 NHIC may have
information on known
locations. This information
is available on their
website (Biodiversity
Explorer).
 Locations may be
available within NRVIS
layer: Significant
Ecological Area
(SIGECOL.shp).
 Banton et al. 2009ccxx.
 Forest Resource Inventory
(FRI) – but may be under
reported, especially along
rivers.
 Sustainable Forestry
Licence (SFL) companies
will possibly know
locations through field
operations.
 Conservation Authority.
 OMNR Forester, Ecologist
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Defining Criteria
Stands should have > 10% absolute
cover or > 35% relative cover of
Black Ash.
The black ash ecosite is the SWH.

SWHDSS cxlix Index #37 provides
direction for rare species and
habitats.
Stands should have > 10% absolute
18
Rare Vegetation
Community
Elm
Rationale;
Uncommon to rare in
central and northern areas
of Ecoregion 3E.
Rare Treed Type:
Oak
Rationale;
Only found in southern
portions of Ecoregion 3E.
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Ecosite
Code
B043
B056
B059
B071
B076
B089
B092
B105
B108
B120
B125
Habitat Description
B017
B019
B028
B041
B043
B057
B059
B072
Hardwood canopy
within lower
topographic
positions. Fresh to
moist moisture
regimes with variable
substrate textures.
within low lying,
predominantly
alluvial material
throughout the Clay
Belt.
Detailed Information and
Sources
or Biologist may be aware
of locations.
 Noble 1982 ccxxi.
 Crins et al. 2009 ccxvi.
 NHIC may have
information on known
locations. This information
is available on their
website (Biodiversity
Explorer).
 Locations may be
available within NRVIS
layer: Significant
Ecological Area
(SIGECOL.shp).
 Banton et al. 2009 ccxx.
 Forest Resource Inventory
(FRI) – but may be under
reported, especially along
rivers.
 Sustainable Forestry
Licence (SFL) companies
will possibly know
locations through field
operations.
 Conservation Authority.
 OMNR Forester, Ecologist
or Biologist may be aware
of locations.
 NHIC may have
information on known
locations. This information
is available on their
website (Biodiversity
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Defining Criteria
cover or > 35% relative cover of Elm.
The elm ecosite is the SWH.

SWHDSS cxlix Index #37 provides
direction for rare species and
habitats.
Stands should have > 10% absolute
cover or > 35% relative cover of Oak.
The oak ecosite is the SWH.

SWHDSS cxlix Index #37 provides
direction for rare species and
habitats.
19
Rare Vegetation
Community
Rare Treed Type:
Red and Sugar Maple
Rationale;
Uncommon to rare in
central and northern areas
of Ecoregion 3E.
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Ecosite
Code
B076
B090
B092
B106
B108
B121
B125
Habitat Description
B018
B019
B028
B042
B043
B058
B059
B073(Mh)
B074(Mr)
B075
B076
B091
B092
B107
B108
B122(Mh)
B123(Mr)
Hardwood canopy
containing red and/or
sugar maple.
Generally on
warmer-than-normal
sites with a higher
nutrient regime.
Detailed Information and
Sources
Explorer).
 Locations may be
available within NRVIS
layer: Significant
Ecological Area
(SIGECOL.shp).
 Banton et al. 2009 ccxx.
 Forest Resource Inventory
(FRI) – but may be under
reported, especially along
rivers.
 Sustainable Forestry
Licence (SFL) companies
will possibly know
locations through field
operations.
 Conservation Authority.
 OMNR Forester, Ecologist
or Biologist may be aware
of locations.
 Noble 1982 ccxxi.
 NHIC may have
information on known
locations. This information
is available on their
website (Biodiversity
Explorer).
 Locations may be
available within NRVIS
layer: Significant
Ecological Area
(SIGECOL.shp).
 Banton et al. 2009 ccxx.
 Forest Resource Inventory
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Defining Criteria
Stands should have > 10% absolute
cover or > 35% relative cover of red
and/or sugar maple.
The red and/or sugar maple ecosite is
the SWH.

SWHDSS cxlix Index #37 provides
direction for rare species and
habitats.
20
Rare Vegetation
Community
Rare Treed Type:
Yellow Birch
Rationale;
Uncommon to rare in
central and northern areas
of Ecoregion 3E.
Rock Barren
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Ecosite
Code
B124
B125
Habitat Description
B019
B028
B040
B043
B055
B059
B070
B076
B088
B092
B0104
B108
B119
B125
Hardwood canopy
consisting mostly of
yellow birch.
Generally on
warmer-than-normal
sites with a higher
nutrient regime.
Calcareous Rock
Barren
Exposed bedrock
areas (mostly
Detailed Information and
Sources
(FRI).
 Sustainable Forestry
Licence (SFL) companies
will possibly know
locations through field
operations.
 Conservation Authority.
 OMNR Forester, Ecologist
or Biologist may be aware
of locations.
 NHIC may have
information on known
locations. This information
is available on their
website (Biodiversity
Explorer).
 Locations may be
available within NRVIS
layer: Significant
Ecological Area
(SIGECOL.shp).
 Banton et al. 2009 ccxx.
 Forest Resource Inventory
(FRI) – some stands may
have been misclassified as
white birch.
 Sustainable Forestry
Licence (SFL) companies
will possibly know
locations through field
operations.
 Conservation Authority.
 OMNR Forester, Ecologist
or Biologist may be aware
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Defining Criteria
Stands should have > 10% absolute
cover or > 35% relative cover of
yellow birch
The yellow birch ecosite is the SWH.

SWHDSS cxlix Index #37 provides
direction for rare species and
habitats.
All rock barren ecosites are considered
significant Í.
21
Rare Vegetation
Community
Rationale;
Rock barrens that are
close to roads or trails can
be significantly impacted
by invasive species and/or
trampling.
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Ecosite
Code
B179
B180
B181
Precambrian Rock
Barren
B163
B164
B165
Characteristic
plant species of
rock barrens in 3E
may include:
Danthonia
spicata,
Dechampsia
flexuosa, Carex
pensylvanica,
Corydalis
sempervirens,
Aralis hispida,
Agrostis scabra,
Aralia nudicaulis,
Pteridium
aquilinum ,
Vaccinium
angustifolium,
Rubus spp.,
Diervilla lonicera,
Betula papyrifera,
Pinus banksiana,
Populus
tremuloides
Habitat Description
exposed rock with <
5 cm mineral or < 10
cm organic material)
and < 25% vascular
vegetation.
Detailed Information and
Sources
of locations.
 Noble 1982 ccxxi.
 NHIC may have
information on known
locations. This information
is available on their
website (Biodiversity
Explorer).
 Banton et al. 2009 ccxx.
 Forest Resource Inventory
(FRI).
 Conservation Authority.
 Soil survey reports and
Northern Ontario
Engineering Geology
Terrain Study mapping
(NOEGTS).
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Defining Criteria
The rock barren ecosite area is the
SWH.

SWHDSS cxlix Index #21 provides
development effects and mitigation
measures.
22
Rare Vegetation
Community
Sand Dunes
Notably:
American Dune Grass
Type
Rationale;
Uncommon to rare in
Ecoregion 3E.
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Ecosite
Code
B005
B006
B142
Habitat Description
Exposed mineral
material community
often associated with
shorelines of lakes or
exposed inland
mineral material that
has been shaped by
eolian (wind)
processes.
Characteristic
plant species of
sand dunes grass
type in 3E may
include: Leymus
mollis, Lathyrus
japonicus, Prunus American Dune
pumila var. pumila Grass Type
Open grassy sand
dunes with Indicator
Species: American
dune grass, beach
pea, and sand cherry.
Scattered white
spruce forest islands
may also occur.
Great Lakes ArcticAlpine Shoreline Type
B161
B162
Rationale;
Rare in Ecoregion 3E.
Characteristic
plant species of
Great Lakes
arctic-alpine
shoreline type in
3E may include:
Carex capillaries,
Castilleja
septentrionalis,
Cypripedium
Found on the
shoreline of Lake
Superior on open
basic bedrock.
Vegetation consists
mostly of arcticalpine species.
Detailed Information and
Sources
 OMNR Forester, Ecologist
or Biologist may be aware
of locations.
 NHIC may have
information on known
locations. This information
is available on their
website (Biodiversity
Explorer).
 Banton et al. 2009 ccxx.
 Forest Resource Inventory
(FRI).
 Soil survey reports and
Northern Ontario
Engineering Geology
Terrain Study mapping
(NOEGTS).
 Conservation Authority.




Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Defining Criteria
Field studies confirm the presence of
any of the characteristic plant speciesÍ
The American Dune Grass Type of
Sand Dune ecosite area is the SWH Í.
B006 ecosites are considered rare in 3E
and are considered SWH Í.
SWHDSS cxlix Index #37 provides
direction for rare species and habitats.
OMNR Forester, Ecologist Limited to the shore of the Great
or Biologist may be aware Lakes.
of locations.
NHIC may have
All Great Lakes Arctic-Alpine
information on known
Shoreline Type ecosites are considered
locations. This information significant Í.
is available on their
website (Biodiversity
The Great Lakes Arctic-Alpine
Explorer).
Shoreline Type ecosite area is the
Banton et al. 2009 ccxx.
SWH.
Conservation Authority.
SWHDSS cxlix Index #37 provides
direction for rare species and habitats.
23
Rare Vegetation
Community
Hardwood Swamps
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Ecosite
Habitat Description
Code
passerinum,
Dryopteris
fragrans, Elymus
mollis, Empetrum
nigrum, Euphrasia
hudsoniana,
Festuca
brachyphylla,
Hedysarum
alpinum, Listera
borealis,
Lycopodium
selago, Pinguicula
vulgaris, Poa
glauca, Poa
glaucantha,
Polygonum
viviparum,
Primula
mistassinica,
Sagina nodosa,
Saxifraga aizoon,
Scirpus cespitosus,
Selaginella
selanginoides,
Tofieldia palustris,
Trisetum
spicatum,
Vaccinium
uliginosum,
Vaccinium vitisidaea, Woodsia
glabella
B130
Dominant hardwood
Detailed Information and
Sources

OMNR Forester, Ecologist
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Defining Criteria
All hardwood swamp ecosites are
24
Rare Vegetation
Community
Rationale;
Rare in Ecoregion 3E.
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Ecosite
Code
B131
B132
B133
Detailed Information and
Sources
canopy that is located
or Biologist may be aware
within lower
of locations.
topographic positions  NHIC may have
and subject to
information on known
flooding. Nutrient
locations. This information
regime is rich and
is available on their
substrate is mostly
website (Biodiversity
moderately deep to
Explorer).
deep with variable
 Banton et al. 2009 ccxx.
textures.
 Conservation Authority.
 Riley 1994 ccxxii
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Habitat Description
Defining Criteria
considered significant Í.
The hardwood swamp ecosite is the
SWH.

SWHDSS cxlix Index #37 provides
direction for rare species and
habitats.
25
DRAFT February 2012
Eco-Region 3E
1.2.2 Specialized Habitat for Wildlife
Some wildlife species require large areas of suitable habitat for their long-term survival. Many wildlife species require substantial
areas of suitable habitat for successful breeding. Their populations decline when habitat becomes fragmented and reduced in
size cxlviii. Specialized habitat for wildlife is a community or diversity-based category, therefore, the more wildlife species a habitat
contains, the more significant the habitat becomes to the planning area. The largest and least fragmented habitats within a
planning area will support the most significant populations of wildlife. The specialized habitats for wildlife that are considered as
SWH are outlined in Table 1.2.2.
Table 1.2.2 Specialized Habitats of Wildlife considered SWH.
Specialized
Wildlife
Habitat
Waterfowl
Nesting Area
Rationale;
Important to
local waterfowl
populations,
sites with
greatest number
of species and
highest number
of individuals
are significant.
Wildlife Species
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Ecosite Codes
American Black Duck
Northern Pintail
Northern Shoveler
Gadwall
Blue-winged Teal
Green-winged Teal
Wood Duck
Hooded Merganser
Common Merganser
Red-breasted Merganser
Mallard
Canada Goose
American Widgeon
Bufflehead
Common Goldeneye
All upland habitats
located adjacent to
ELC ecosites;
B129-135
B140-152
B224 are Candidate
SWH:
Note: includes
adjacency to
provincially
Significant
Wetlands
Habitat Criteria and Information
Sources
A waterfowl nesting area extends
120 m cxlix from a wetland (> 0.5 ha) or a
cluster of 3 or more small (<0.5 ha)
wetlands within 120 m of each
individual wetland where waterfowl
nesting is known to occur cxlix.
 Upland areas should be at least 120
m wide so that predators such as
raccoons, skunks, and foxes have
difficulty finding nests.
 Wood Ducks, Bufflehead, Common
Goldeneye and Hooded Mergansers
utilize large diameter trees in
woodlands for cavity nest sites.
Information Sources
 Ducks Unlimited staff may know
the locations of particularly
productive nesting sites.
 OMNR District Staff
 OMNR Wetland Evaluations for
indication of significant waterfowl
nesting habitat.
CONFIRMED SWH
Defining Criteria
Studies confirmed:
 Presence of 3 or more nesting
pairs for listed species
excluding MallardsÍ, or;
 Presence of 10 or more
nesting pairs for listed species
including MallardsÍ.
 Nesting studies should be
completed during the spring
breeding season (April - July).
Evaluation methods to follow
“Bird and Bird Habitats:
Guidelines for Wind Power
Projects” ccxi
 A field study confirming
waterfowl nesting habitat will
determine the boundary of the
waterfowl nesting habitat for
the SWH, this may be greater
or less than 120 m cxlviii from
the wetland and will provide
enough habitat for waterfowl
26
Specialized
Wildlife
Habitat
Bald Eagle and
Osprey Nesting
Habitat
Rationale:
Nests are used
annually by
these species.
Suitable nesting
locations may
be impacted due
to shoreline
development.
Wildlife Species
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Ecosite Codes
Osprey
Special Concern
Bald Eagle
Treed communities
directly adjacent to
riparian areas –
rivers, lakes, ponds
and wetlands
Habitat Criteria and Information
Sources
 Reports and other information
available from CAs.
Nests are associated with lakes, ponds,
rivers or wetlands along treed
shorelines, islands, or on structures
over water.
Osprey nests are usually at the top of a
tree whereas Bald Eagle nests are
typically in super canopy trees in a
notch within the tree’s canopy.
Nests located on man-made objects such
as telephone or hydro poles will not
normally be considered as SWH,
however the OMNR District retains
discretion regarding significance of
constructed nesting platforms.
Information Sources
 NHIC compiles all known nesting
sites for Bald Eagles in Ontario.
 OMNR values information
(LIO/NRVIS) will list known
nesting locations
 Nature Counts, Ontario Nest
Records Scheme data.
 OMNR Ecologist or Biologist may
be aware of locations of nesting
raptors. In addition, these staff may
know local naturalists that may be
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Defining Criteria

to successfully nest.
SWHDSS cxlix Index #25
provides development effects
and mitigation measures.
Studies confirm:
 One or more active Osprey or
Bald Eagle nests in an area.
 Considered SWH if the nest
has been used or suspected of
use within the past 5 years;
unless documented that the
nest and other associated nests
in the nesting area have been
unoccupied within the past 3
consecutive years by Osprey
or Bald Eagle cxlviii, ccvii:
 Some species have more than
one nest in a given area and
priority is given to the
primary nest with alternate
nests included within the area
of the SWH.
 For an Osprey, the active nest
and a 300 m radius around the
nest is the SWH ccvii
 For a Bald Eagle the active
nest and a 400-800 m radius
around the nest is the SWH.
cvi, ccvii
Area of the habitat
from 400-800m is dependant
on site lines from the nest to
the development and inclusion
of perching and foraging
27
Specialized
Wildlife
Habitat
Wildlife Species
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Ecosite Codes





Woodland
Raptor Nesting
Habitat
Red-tailed Hawk
Great Horned Owl:
Broad-winged Hawk
Sharp-shinned Hawk
Merlin
Coopers Hawk
Northern Goshawk
Great gray Owl
Long-eared Owl
Common Raven
Rationale:
These habitats
may be used
annually by
some species.
Nests sites for
these species are
rarely identified ------------------------in advance site
Cavity Nesters/users:
investigations;
Saw-whet Owl
Boreal Owl
Barred Owl
Northern Hawk Owl
May be found in all
forested ELC
Ecosites.
Habitat Criteria and Information
Sources
aware of the locations of raptor
nests.
Sustainable Forestry Licence (SFL)
companies will identify additional
nesting locations through field
operations.
Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas or Rare
Breeding Birds in Ontario for
species documented
Reports and other information
available from CAs.
Local naturalists may know of other
locations.
Use maps and aerial photographs to
identify forests with few roads that
tend to have less human disturbance.
All natural or conifer plantation
woodland/forest stands lxxxviiii, lxxxix, xc, xci,
xciii, xciv, xcv,xcvi, cxxxiii
.
 Stick nests found in a variety of
intermediate-aged to mature conifer,
deciduous or mixed forests within
tops or crotches of trees. Species
such as Merlin or Coopers Hawk
nest along forest edges sometimes
on peninsulas or small off-shore
islands.
 Some woodland raptors rely on
cavity trees for nesting. They do not
excavate their own cavities, but rely
on natural cavities of sufficient size
and those excavated by Pileated
Woodpeckers. Larger diameter trees
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Defining Criteria
habitat cvi
 SWHDSS cxlix Index #26
provides development effects
and mitigation measures
 Evaluation methods to follow
“Bird and Bird Habitats:
Guidelines for Wind Power
Projects” ccxi
Studies confirm:
 Presence of 1 or more
occupied nests from species
list is considered significant
cxlviii
.
 Northern Goshawk – A 400m
radius around the nest or 28 ha
of suitable habitat is the SWH
ccvii
.
 Barred Owl – A 200m radius
around the nest is the SWH
ccvii
.
 Broad-winged Hawk, Coopers
Hawk, Great Horned Owl,
Red-tailed Hawk, Long-eared
Owl – A 100m radius around
the nest is the SWH ccvii.
28
Specialized
Wildlife
Habitat
Wildlife Species
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Ecosite Codes
American Kestrel
(Northern Flying
Squirrel use cavities as
roosting sites in winter)
Turtle Nesting
Areas
Rationale;
These habitats
are rare and
when identified
will often be the
only breeding
Painted Turtle
Special Concern Species
Snapping Turtle
B003
B006-007
B031
B171-172
B187-188
Habitat Criteria and Information
Sources
are used most frequently, with nest
cavities most often found in
trembling aspen.
 Nests may be used again, or a new
nest may be in close proximity to
old nest.
Information Sources
 OMNR Ecologist or Biologist may
be aware of locations of nesting
raptors.
 Sustainable Forestry Licence (SFL)
companies will identify additional
nesting locations through field
operations.
 Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas or Rare
Breeding Birds in Ontario for
species documented.
 Check data from Bird Studies
Canada.
 Reports and other information
available from CAs.
 Use maps and aerial photographs to
identify forests with few roads that
tend to have less human disturbance.


Best nesting habitat for turtles are
close to water and away from roads
and sites less prone to loss of eggs by
predation from skunks, raccoons or
other animals.
For an area to function as a turtlenesting area, it must provide sand and
gravel that turtles are able to dig in
and are located in open, sunny areas.
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Defining Criteria



Merlin and Sharp-Shinned
Hawk – A 50m radius around
the nest is the SWH ccvii.
Conduct field investigations
from mid-March to end of
May. The use of call
broadcasts can help in locating
territorial (courting/nesting)
raptors and facilitate the
discovery of nests by
narrowing down the search
area.
SWHDSS cxlix Index #27
provides development effects
and mitigation measures.
Studies confirm:
 One or more Turtle nest is a
SWHÍ.
 The area or collection of sites
within an area of exposed
mineral soils where the turtles
nest, plus a radius of 30-100m
around the nesting area
dependant on slope, riparian
29
Specialized
Wildlife
Habitat
Wildlife Species
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Ecosite Codes
site for local
populations of
turtles.
Seeps and
Selected wildlife species
Seeps/Springs are
Habitat Criteria and Information
Sources
Nesting areas on the sides of
municipal or provincial road
embankments and shoulders are not
SWH.
 Sand and gravel beaches adjacent to
undisturbed shallow weedy areas of
marshes, lakes, and rivers are most
frequently used.
Information Sources
 Use Ontario Soil Survey reports and
maps to help find suitable substrate
for nesting turtles (well-drained
sands and fine gravels).
 Ontario Herpetofaunal Summary
Atlas records or other similar
atlases for uncommon turtles;
location information may help to
find potential nesting habitat for
them.
 Ontario Reptile and Amphibian
Atlas (Ontario Nature).
 NHIC
 Use aerial photographs and maps to
narrow the search for prime nesting
areas including shoreline beaches
located near weedy areas of
wetlands, lake and river shorelines,
road embankments near turtle
habitat, and stream
crossings/culverts.
 Reports and other information
available from CAs.
 Sightings by local Naturalist groups
Any forested area (with <25%
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Defining Criteria



vegetation and adjacent land
use is the SWH cxlviii.
Travel routes from wetland to
nesting area are to be
considered within the SWH
cxlix
.
Field investigations should be
conducted in prime nesting
season typically late spring to
early summer.
SWHDSS cxlix Index #28
provides development effects
and mitigation measures for
turtle nesting habitat
Field Studies confirm:
30
Specialized
Wildlife
Habitat
Wildlife Species
that utilize this feature:
Rationale;
Seeps/Springs
are typical of
headwater areas
and are often at
the source of
coldwater
streams.
Ruffed Grouse
Moose
White-tailed Deer
Black bear
Northern two-lined
Salamander.
Rationale;
Aquatic
Feeding
habitats are an
extremely
important
habitat
component for
moose and
other wildlife as
they supply
important
Moose
Habitat Criteria and Information
Sources
areas where ground
meadow/field/pasture) within the
water comes to the
headwaters of a stream or river system
cxlvii, cxlix
surface. Often they
.
are found within
 Seeps and springs are important
headwater areas
feeding and drinking areas especially
within forested
in the winter will typically support a
habitats. Any forested
variety of plant and animal species
cxx, cxxii, cxiv
Ecosite within the
.
headwater areas of a
Information Sources
stream could have
 Topographical Map.
seeps/springs.
 Thermography.
 Hydrological surveys conducted by
CAs and MOE.
 Local naturalists and landowners
may know some locations.
 Municipalities and Conservation
Authorities may have drainage maps
and headwater areas mapped.
Habitat may be found  OMNR maps these locations on
in all forested
Crown land and rate the site on a
ecosites adjacent to
scale of 1 – 4, with 4 having the
water.
greatest potential. Feeding sites
classed 3 or 4 are candidate
significant areasÍ.
 Identification of Moose Aquatic
Feeding Areas should follow the
method outlined in OMNR’s Selected
Wildlife and Habitat Features:
Inventory Manual cxcv
• Wetlands and isolated embayments in
rivers or lakes which provide an
abundance of submerged aquatic
vegetation such as pondweeds, water
milfoil and yellow water lily are
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
ELC Ecosite Codes
Springs
Aquatic
Feeding
Habitat
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
Defining Criteria






Presence of a site with 2 or
moreÍ seeps/springs should be
considered SWH.
The area of ELC ecosite
containing the seeps/springs is
the SWH. The protection of
the function of the feature
considering the slope,
vegetation, height of trees and
groundwater condition need to
be considered in delineation
the habitat cxlviii.
SWHDSS cxlix Index #30
provides development effects
and mitigation measures
Moose Aquatic Feeding
Habitat identified and ranked
3 or 4 by OMNR are
considered SWH.
The area of the habitat
includes the ELC ecosite area
and adjacent stands (120m) of
mixed or conifer forest,
particularly those that provide
thermal cover and/or travel
corridors to other habitat
features are considered
significant cxcvii.
Surveys should be conducted
from mid June to end of July
when submergent aquatic
31
Specialized
Wildlife
Habitat
Wildlife Species
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Ecosite Codes
nutrients.
Forest cover
adjacent to
these areas is
important as
well to provide
for summer
thermal cover,
screening and
escape cover.
Mineral Licks
Rationale;
Mineral licks
are a valuable
habitat
component but
are also very
rare on the
landscape.
Moose
Porcupine
Habitat may be found
in all treed ecosites.
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Habitat Criteria and Information
Defining Criteria
Sources
preferred sites. Adjacent stands of
vegetation has peaked cxcv.
lowland conifer or mixed woods will
 Surveys should confirm the
provide cover and shade cxlviii.
use of the site by moose or
Information Sources
other species through
observation of animal
 Local naturalists and landowners
may know some locations.
presence, tracks, etc.
 OMNR values information (NRVIS)  If a SWH is determined for
may list known locations
Aquatic Feeding Habitat then
Movement Corridors are to be
 OMNR Biologist may be aware of
considered as outlined in
locations.
Table 1.4.1 of this Schedule
 Sustainable Forestry Licence (SFL)
 SWHDSS cxlix Index #24
companies may identify additional
provides development effects
MAFA locations through field
and mitigation measures.
operations.
 Topographical Maps together with
aerial photographs will help locate
potential sites.
This habitat component is found in
 The area of the habitat is the
upwelling groundwater and the soil
wetland, seep or spring
around these seepage areas. It typically
containing the mineral lick and
occurs in areas of sedimentary and
120m of undisturbed contiguous
volcanic bedrock. In areas of granitic
forest around the site dependant
bedrock, the site is usually overlain with
on level of disturbance in the
calcareous glacial till cxlviii.
area cxlviii.
Information Sources
 Field investigations should be
 Local naturalists and landowners
conducted in early spring prior
may know some locations.
to leaf out. Since sites will be
very difficult to locate, consider
 OMNR values information (NRVIS)
may list known locations
using a small aircraft.
 OMNR Ecologist or Biologist may  SWHDSS cxlix Index #29
be aware of locations.
provides development effects
and mitigation measures.
 Sustainable Forestry Licence (SFL)
companies may identify additional
locations through field operations.
32
Specialized
Wildlife
Habitat
Denning Sites
for Mink,
Otter,
Gray Wolf
Eastern Wolf
Canada Lynx
Marten
Fisher
Black Bear
Rationale:
Species are
important furbearing
mammals and
den sites can be
a limiting factor
in sustaining
populations.
Wildlife Species
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Ecosite Codes
Mink
Otter
Gray Wolf
Canada Lynx
Special Concern
Eastern Wolf
Cavity Users
Marten
Fisher
Habitat may be found
in all treed ecosites.
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Habitat Criteria and Information
Sources
Defining Criteria
Mink prefer shorelines dominated by

coniferous or mixed forests with dens
usually underground. Mink will often
use old muskrat lodges cxlviii. Mink may 
den in root masses along shorelines of
water bodies.
Otters prefer undisturbed shorelines
along water bodies that support
productive fish populations with
abundant shrubby vegetation and
downed woody debris for denning.
They often use old beaver lodges or log
jams and crevices in rock piles cxlviii.
Marten and fisher share the same
general habitat, requiring large tracts of
coniferous or mixed forests of mature or
older age classes. Denning sites are
often in cavities in large trees or under
large downed woody debris cxlviii.
Wolves prefer a more interior forest
condition for locating their den sites.
Wolves require sandy ground, sloped for
excavation (esker areas should be
examined as potentially key sites).
Lynx den sites are most often associated
with the presence of downed woody
debris.


Wolf den sites (gray or eastern)
and a 200m radius will be
considered significant ccvii.
Any known active denning site
and a 100 m radius around it
with the remaining listed
species is considered to be
significant cxlviii.
Extensive searches for denning
sites are not recommended as
they are very difficult to locate
but protection of appropriate
habitat should be considered
during planning.
SWHDSS cxlix Index #31
provides development effects
and mitigation measures.
Black bears, particularly sub-adults, will
often den in the base of hollow trees. In
3E such trees are rare and primarily
33
Specialized
Wildlife
Habitat
Wildlife Species
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Ecosite Codes
Habitat Criteria and Information
Sources
consist of large diameter cedar or
sometimes large white spruce.
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Defining Criteria
Information Sources
 Local naturalists and landowners
may know some locations.
 OMNR values information (NRVIS)
may list known locations.
 OMNR Ecologist or Biologist may
be aware of locations.
 Sustainable Forestry Licence (SFL)
companies may identify additional
denning sites through field
operations.
 Topographical Maps together with
aerial photographs will help locate
potential sites.
 Local trappers may know the
location of prime denning sites.
Rendezvous
Sites
Gray Wolf
Special Concern
Eastern Wolf
Amphibian
Eastern Newt
Isolated open areas
including bogs, fens,
meadows, clearcuts.
Rich swamps and
• Rendezvous sites may be found in a
variety of habitats such as open bogs,
burns, clearcuts, beaver meadows,
and open forest ccvii.
• Rendezvous sites are often used by
wolf packs during multiple years ccvii.
• Areas used as rendezvous sites one
year may be used as den sites in a
subsequent year ccvii.
• Wolves in remote areas, or where
prone to harvest by humans, appear to
have a low tolerance for human
activity near rendezvous sites ccvii.
 Wetlands and pools (including
The identified rendezvous site
and a 200 m radius from the site
are considered the SWH ccvii.
Studies confirm:
34
Specialized
Wildlife
Habitat
Wildlife Species
ELC Ecosite Codes
American Toad
Spotted Salamander
Four-toed Salamander
Blue-spotted
Salamander
Rationale;
Wetlands
Gray Treefrog
supporting
Boreal Chorus Frog
breeding for
Northern Leopard Frog
these amphibian Green Frog
species are
Mink Frog
extremely
Wood Frog
important
Spring Peeper
within Northern
Ontario
landscapes.
Breeding
Habitat
(Wetlands)
Amphibian
Breeding
Habitat
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
Eastern Newt
Blue-spotted Salamander
Spotted Salamander
thickets,
vernal/seasonal
pooling, riparian and
variety of wetland
interiors and margins
B128-135
B141-152
B223-224
All treed upland
ecosites, however
more likely on fine
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Habitat Criteria and Information
Defining Criteria
Sources
vernal pools) >500m2 (about 25m
 Presence of breeding
diameter) ccvii supporting high
population of 1or more of the
species diversity are significant;
listed salamander species or 3
some small or ephemeral habitats
or more of the listed frog or
may not be identified on OMNR
toad species with at least 20
mapping and could be important
breeding individuals (adults,
amphibian breeding habitats clxxxiv.
juveniles, eggs/larval masses)
lxxi, lxxiii
 Wetlands and pools need to persist
cxlviii
until mid-July
 The ELC ecosite area and the
shoreline are the SWH.
 Presence of shrubs and logs increase
significance of pond for some
 Surveys to confirm breeding to
amphibian species because of
be completed during spring
available structure for calling,
(Apr to June) when
foraging, escape and concealment
amphibians are migrating,
from predators.
calling and breeding within the
Information Sources
wetland habitats.
 Ontario Herpetofaunal Summary
 If a SWH is determined for
Atlas
Amphibian Breeding Habitat
(Wetlands) then Movement
 Ontario Reptile and Amphibian
Atlas (Ontario Nature).
Corridors are to be considered
as outlined in Table 1.4.1 of
 Canadian Wildlife Service
this Schedule.
Amphibian Road Surveys and
Backyard Amphibian Call Count.
 SWHDSS cxlix Index #15
provides development effects
 OMNR Ecologist or Biologist may
and mitigation measures.
know of populations, wetland
evaluations may be a good source of
information..
 Use maps or aerial photography to
locate marsh habitat.
 Reports and other information
available from CAs.
Studies confirm;
 Presence of a wetland, lake or pond
2
of area >500m (about 25m
 Presence of 1 or more of the
diameter) ccvii within or adjacent
listed salamander species; or 2
35
Specialized
Wildlife
Habitat
(Woodland).
Rationale;
These habitats
are extremely
important to
amphibian
biodiversity
within a
landscape and
often represent
the only
breeding habitat
for local
amphibian
populations.
Wildlife Species
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Ecosite Codes
Four-toed Salamander
Spring Peeper
Wood Frog
American Toad
textured moist
ecosites (e.g., B119125)
The wetland breeding
ponds (including
vernal pools) may be
permanent or
seasonal, large or
small in size and
could be located
within or adjacent to
the woodland lxxii.
Habitat Criteria and Information
Sources
(within 120m) to a woodland (no
minimum size) clxxxii, lxiii, lxv, lxvi, lxvii,
lxviii, lxix, lxx
. The wetland, lake or
pond and surrounding forest, would
be the Candidate SWH. Some small 
wetlands may not be mapped and
may be important breeding pools for
amphibians.
 Pools need to be present until midJuly.
 Breeding pools within the woodland
or the shortest distance from forest
habitat are more significant because 
of reduced risk to migrating
amphibians and more likely to be
used.
 Woodlands with permanent ponds or
those containing water in most years
until mid-July are more likely to be 
used as breeding habitat cxlviii.
Information Sources
 Ontario Herpetofaunal Summary
Atlas for historical records
 Ontario Reptile and Amphibian
Atlas (Ontario Nature).
 Local landowners may also provide
assistance as they may hear springtime choruses of amphibians on their
property.
 Contact local OMNR Ecologist or
Biologist and wetland evaluations.
 Local field naturalist clubs
 Canadian Wildlife Service
Amphibian Road Call Survey
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Defining Criteria
or more of the frogs or toads
with at least 100 individuals
(adults, juveniles, eggs/larval
masses) lxxi is significant.
The habitat is the wetland and
treed area or adjacent ELC treed
ecosites. The amount of area
protected is dependant on slope,
riparian vegetation, high water
mark, density and height of
trees and ground/surface water
condition cxlviii.
A study to determine this SWH
will be required during the
spring when amphibians are
migrating or are concentrated
around suitable breeding habitat
within the woodland.
SWHDSS cxlix Index #14
provides development effects
and mitigation measures
36
Specialized
Wildlife
Habitat
Mast
Producing
Areas
Rationale:
Mast is a very
important food
requirement for
many wildlife
species.
Wildlife Species
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Ecosite Codes
Examples of wildlife
species utilizing this
habitat:
Black Bear
White-tailed deer
Ruffed Grouse
All shrub and treed
ecosites capable of
producing mast.
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Habitat Criteria and Information
Sources
information.
 Ontario Vernal Pool Association
(http://www.ontariovernalpools.org/)
Significant tree species include
mountain ash and pin cherry.
Significant shrub species include
blueberries, raspberries, beaked hazel
and choke cherry cxlviii.
Defining Criteria

Some Oak or other hard-mast producing 
species may be present in 3E and its’
significance should be evaluated as
encountered because of its importance as
a food source for various wildlife

species.
Recently disturbed sites (fire or
logging), large bedrock outcroppings,
forest openings or utility corridors >1 ha
provide excellent sites for mast
producing shrubs cxlviii.
Permanent open sites providing longterm food sources are more significant
cxlviii
.


Natural open sites with
abundant (50% ground cover) Í
mast producing shrubs (e.g.
Raspberry, Blueberry and
Beaked hazel) species are
considered significant cxlix.
Anthropogenic disturbances
(logging or otherwise) may be
considered significant at the
discretion of OMNR.
Area of the early successional
habitat or treed ELC ecosite
with mast-producing trees or
shrubs is the SWH.
Surveys should be conducted
from June to August when
plants are actively growing to
determine presence.
SWHDSS cxlix Index #3
provides development effects
and mitigation measures
Information Sources
 OMNR Ecologists, Biologists or
Foresters may know of important
feeding sites or areas with high
composition of mast producing trees
through OMNR Wildlife Food
Surveys.
37
Specialized
Wildlife
Habitat
Sharp-tailed
Grouse Leks
Rationale:
Leks are an
important
habitat feature
required to
maintain
populations of
sharp-tailed
grouse.
Wildlife Species
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Ecosite Codes
Sharp-tailed Grouse
B029-031
B044-046
B060-062
B077-079
B093-095
B109-111
B126
B136-141
Habitat Criteria and Information
Sources
 FRI maps to locate stands with mast
producing trees.
 SFL companies may know of areas
through regular forest inventory
work.
 Local naturalists clubs or hunters
may be aware of important locations.
 Aerial photography will assist in
locating forest openings and bedrock
outcrops.
The lek or dancing ground consists of
bare, grassy area as the core of the
lekking area, and may contain some
sparse shrubland.
There is often a knoll or slightly
elevated rise in topography associated
with the site ccxix. This is a better
drained site less likely to collect water.
Leks are typically a grassy
field/meadow separated by >15ha from
adjacent shrublands and >30ha from
adjacent treed areas.
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Defining Criteria
Studies confirming lek habitat are
to be completed from March to
June. Any site confirmed with
sharp-tailed grouse courtship
activities is considered significantÍ
The ELC ecosite plus a 200 meter
area with shrub or deciduous trees
is the lek habitatÍ
Field/meadows are to be >15ha when
adjacent to shrubland and >30ha when
adjacent to deciduous stands ccxix.
Field/meadows are to be as undisturbed
as possible with low intensities of
agriculture (light grazing or late haying)
Leks will be used annually if not
destroyed by cultivation or invasion by
woody plants or tree planting ccxix
38
Specialized
Wildlife
Habitat
Wildlife Species
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Ecosite Codes
Habitat Criteria and Information
Sources
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Defining Criteria
Information Sources
 OMNR district office
 Bird watching clubs
 Local landowners
 Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas
39
DRAFT February 2012
1.3 Habitat for Species of Conservation Concern (Not including Endangered or Threatened Species)
Eco-Region 3E
Habitats of Species of Conservation Concern include wildlife species that are listed as Special Concern or rare, that are declining, or
are featured species. Habitats of Species of Conservation Concern do not include habitats of Endangered or Threatened Species as
identified by the Endangered Species Act 2007. Table 1.3 assists with the identification of SWH for Species of Conservation
Concern.
Table 1.3. Habitats of Species of Conservation Concern considered SWH.
Wildlife
Species
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Ecosite
Marsh Bird
Breeding Habitat
Rationale;
Rich wetlands for
these bird species are
very productive and
rare in Northern
Ontario landscapes.
American Bittern
Sora
Red-necked Grebe
Pied-billed Grebe
Ring-necked Duck
Lesser Scaup
Ruddy Duck
American Coot
Sandhill Crane
Virginia Rail
Trumpeter Swan
Ecosites:
B134-B152
Information Sources
 Contact OMNR, wetland
evaluations are a good source of
information.
 Local naturalist clubs
 NHIC Records.
 Reports and other information
available from CAs.
 Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas ccv.
Special Concern:
Yellow Rail
Black Tern
Open Country Bird
Breeding Habitat
Rationale;
This wildlife habitat
is declining
throughout Ontario
Vesper Sparrow
Le Conte’s Sparrow
Northern Harrier
Savannah Sparrow
Special Concern
Short-eared Owl
Habitat Criteria and Information
Sources
 Nesting occurs in wetlands.
 All wetland habitat is to be
considered as long as there is
shallow water with emergent
aquatic vegetation present cxxiv.
All Field, Meadow
and Sparse Shrub
ecosites
B08-09
B20-21
B29-31
B44-46
Large field/meadow areas (includes
natural and cultural fields and
meadows) >30 ha clx, clxi, clxii, clxiii, clxiv,
clxv, clxvi, clxvii, clxviii, clxix
. Field/meadow
not Class 1 or 2 agricultural lands,
and not being actively used for
farming (i.e. no row cropping or
CONFIRMED SWH
Defining Criteria
Studies confirm:
 Presence of any combination of 5 or
more of the listed species Í.
 Presence of one or more breeding pair
of trumpeter swans is significant.
 Note: any wetland with breeding of 1
or more Black Terns or Yellow Rail
is SWH Í.
 Area of the ELC ecosite is the SWH.
 Breeding surveys should be done in
May-July when these species are
actively nesting in wetland habitats.
 Evaluation methods to follow “Bird
and Bird Habitats: Guidelines for
Wind Power Projects” ccxi
 SWHDSS cxlix Index #35 provides
development effects and mitigation
measures
Field Studies confirm:
 Presence of nesting or breeding of 2
or more of the listed species.Í
 A field with 1 or more breeding
Short-eared Owls is to be considered
SWH.
 The area of SWH is the contiguous
40
Wildlife
Species
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Ecosite
and North America.
B60-62
B77-79
B93-95
B109-111
Habitat Criteria and Information
Sources
intensive hay or livestock pasturing
in the last 5 years) Í.
Field/meadow sites considered
significant should have a history of
longevity, either abandoned fields,
mature hayfields and pasturelands
that are at least 5 years or older.
The Indicator bird species are area
sensitive requiring larger
Field/meadow areas than the
common Field/meadow species.
Information Sources
 Use Agricultural land
classification maps with aerial
photographs to determine the
potential Fields/meadows that
might be candidate sites.
 Ask local birders for location of
Fields/meadows that support
abundant and species rich
populations of area-sensitive
species.
 Reports and other information
available from CAs.
 Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas.
Shrub/Early
Successional Bird
Breeding Habitat
Rationale;
This wildlife habitat
Clay-colored
Sparrow
Field Sparrow
Ruffed Grouse
Eastern Kingbird
All sparse shrub
and shrub ecosites
B09-10
B21-22
B31-32
B46-47
Large natural field areas succeeding
to shrub and thicket habitats>30 ha
in size. Shrub land or early
successional fields, not class 1 or 2
agricultural lands, not being
actively used for farming (i.e. no
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Defining Criteria



ELC ecosite field areas.
Conduct field investigations of the
most likely areas in spring and early
summer when birds are singing and
defending their territories.
Evaluation methods to follow “Bird
and Bird Habitats: Guidelines for
Wind Power Projects” ccxi
SWHDSS cxlix Index #32 provides
development effects and mitigation
measures
Field Studies confirm:
 Presence of nesting or breeding of 2
or more of species listed Í.
 The area of the SWH is the
contiguous ELC ecosite area.
41
Wildlife
Species
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Ecosite
is declining
throughout Ontario
and North America.
B62-63
B79-80
B95-96
B111-112
B134-135
Habitat Criteria and Information
Sources
row-cropping, haying or live-stock
pasturing in the last 5 years) Í.
Larger shrub thicket habitats (>30
ha) are most likely to support and
sustain a diversity of these species
clxxiii
.
Shrub and thicket habitat sites
considered significant should have
a history of longevity, either
abandoned fields or pasturelands.
Special Concern and All Special
Concern and Rare
Rare Wildlife
(S1-S3, SH) plant
Species
and animal species.
Lists of these
Rationale:
These species are
species are tracked
quite rare or have
by the Natural
All plant and
animal element
occurrences (EO).
Older element
occurrences were
recorded prior to
Information Sources
 Use agricultural land
classification maps and recent
aerial photographs to determine
the amount of potential shrub
and thicket habitats.
 Ask local birders for location of
shrub and thicket habitats that
support abundant and species
rich populations of areasensitive species.
 Reports and other information
available from CAs.
 Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas.
When an element occurrence is
identified within a 1 or 10 km grid
for a Special Concern or rare
species; linking candidate habitat on
the site to ELC Ecosites ccxx needs to
be completed.
Information Sources
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Defining Criteria



Conduct field investigations of the
most likely areas in spring and early
summer when birds are singing and
defending their territories
Evaluation methods to follow “Bird
and Bird Habitats: Guidelines for
Wind Power Projects” ccxi
SWHDSS cxlix Index #33 provides
development effects and mitigation
measures.
Studies Confirm:
 Assessment/inventory of the site for
the identified special concern or rare
species needs to be completed during
the time of year when the species is
present or easily identifiable.
 Habitat form and function needs to be
42
Wildlife
Species
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Ecosite
experienced
significant population
declines in Ontario.
Heritage
Information Centre.
Habitat Criteria and Information
Sources
GPS being
 Natural Heritage Information
available, therefore
Centre will have the Special
location
Concern and Provincially Rare
information may
(S1-S3, SH) species lists and
lack accuracy
element occurrences for these
species.
 NHIC Website: Biodiversity
Explorer
https://www.biodiversityexpl
orer.mnr.gov.on.ca/nhicWEB
/mainSubmit.do
 Expert advice should be sought
as many of the rare spp. have
little information available
about their requirements.
Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Defining Criteria


assessed from the assessment of
vegetation types and an area of
significant habitat that protects the
rare or special concern species
identified.
The area of the habitat to the finest
ELC scale that protects the habitat
form and function is the SWH; this
must be delineated through detailed
field studies.
SWHDSS cxlix Index #37 provides
development effects and mitigation
measures.
43
DRAFT February 2012
Eco-Region 3E
1.4 Animal Movement Corridors
Animal Movement Corridors are elongated areas used by wildlife to move from one habitat to another. They are important to ensure
genetic diversity in populations, to allow seasonal migration of animals (e.g. deer moving from summer to winter range) and to allow
animals to move throughout their home range from feeding areas to cover areas. Animal movement corridors function at different
scales often related to the size and home range of the animal. For example, short, narrow areas of natural habitat may function as a
corridor between amphibian breeding areas and their summer range, while wider, longer corridors are needed to allow deer to travel
from their winter habitat to their summer habitat.
Identifying the most important corridors that provide connectivity across the landscape is challenging because of a lack of specific
information on animal movements. There is also some uncertainty about the optimum width and mortality risks of corridors.
Furthermore, a corridor may be beneficial for some species but detrimental to others. For example, narrow linear corridors may
allow increased access for racoons, cats, and other predators. Also, narrow corridors dominated by edge habitat may encourage
invasion by weedy generalist plants and opportunistic species of birds and mammals. Corridors often consist of naturally vegetated
areas that run through more open or developed landscapes. However, sparsely vegetated areas can also function as corridors. For
example, many species move freely through agricultural land to reach natural areas. Despite the difficulty of identifying exact
movement corridors for all species, these landscape features are important to the long-term viability of certain wildlife populations.
Animal Movement Corridors should only be identified as SWH where:
A Confirmed or Candidate SWH has been identified by OMNR or the planning authority based on documented evidence of a habitat
identified within these Criterion Schedules or the Significant Wildlife Habitat Technical Guide. The identified wildlife habitats within
Table 1.4.1 will have distinct passageways or rely on well defined natural features for movements between habitats required by the
species to complete its life cycle.
Table 1.4.1. Animal Movement Corridors
Habitat
SPECIES
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Eco-sites
Amphibian
Movement
Corridors
Rationale;
Movement corridors
for amphibians
moving from their
Eastern Newt
Blue-spotted
Salamander
Spotted Salamander
Gray Treefrog
Wood Frog
Spring Peeper
Boreal Chorus Frog
Corridors may be
found in all ecosites
associated with water.
 Corridors will be
determined based
on identifying the
significant
breeding habitat
CONFIRMED SWH
Habitat Criteria and Information
Sources
Movement corridors between

breeding habitat and summer habitat
clxxiv, clxxv, clxxvi, clxxvii, clxxviii, clxxix, clxxx,
clxxxi
.
Movement corridors must be
determined when Amphibian
breeding habitat is confirmed as

Defining Criteria
Field Studies must be
conducted at the time of
year when species are
expected to be migrating or
entering breeding sites
(April-July).
Corridors should consist of
native vegetation, roadless
44
Habitat
SPECIES
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Eco-sites
terrestrial habitat to
breeding habitat can
be extremely
important for local
populations.
Wood Frog
Northern Leopard
Frog
Green Frog
Mink Frog
American Toad
Four-toed
Salamander
for these species in
Table 1.2.2
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Habitat Criteria and Information
Sources
SWH from Table 1.2.2 (Amphibian
Breeding Habitat –Wetland) of
this Schedule Í.
Information Sources
 OMNR District Office.
 NHIC.
 EIS reports and other studies
prepared by CAs
 Naturalist Clubs.
Defining Criteria


Cervid Movement
Corridors
Rationale:
Corridors important
for all species to be
able to access
seasonally important
life-cycle habitats or
to access new habitat
for dispersing
individuals by
minimizing their
Moose
Corridors may be
found in all treed
ecosites.
Movement corridor must be
determined when Moose Aquatic
Feeding Area and Mineral Lick
Habitat are confirmed from Table
1.2.2 of this schedule. Í


Corridors typically follow riparian
areas, woodlots, areas of physical
geography (ravines, or ridges).
Corridors will be multi-functional
i.e. these will function for any
smaller mammal species as well.

area, no gaps such as fields,
waterways or bodies, and
undeveloped areas are most
significant cxlix
Corridors should be at least
200m wide cxlix with gaps
<20mcxlix and if following
riparian area with at least
15m of vegetation on both
sides of waterway cxlix.
Shorter corridors are more
significant than longer
corridors; however
amphibians must be able to
get to and from their
summer and breeding
habitat cxlix.
SWHDSS cxlix Index #40
provides development
effects and mitigation
measures
Studies must be conducted
at the time of year when
moose are moving to
mineral licks or aquatic
feeding areas (May – July).
Studies should include a
description of surrounding
forest matrix for
determination of
significance.
Corridors that lead moose to
MAFAs and mineral licks
should remain intact.
45
Habitat
SPECIES
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Eco-sites
vulnerability while
travelling.
Furbearer
Movement
Corridor
Rationale:
Intact forest
corridors are critical
for movements
within territories for
hunting, breeding,
and maintenance of
populations.
For habitat related to
denning sites, a
corridor to and from
the denning site must
be maintained as this
habitat is extremely
important for local
populations and is
rarely identified.
Mink
Marten
Fisher
Otter
Canada Lynx
All treed Ecosites
adjacent to or within
shoreline habitats.
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Habitat Criteria and Information
Sources
Information Sources

 OMNR District Office.
 NHIC.
 EIS reports and other studies

prepared by CAs.
 Naturalist Clubs.
Mink and Otter den sites are
typically found within a riparian
area of a lake, river, stream or
wetland. The den site will
potentially have a movement
corridor associated with it.
Den sites of other furbearer species
may be more associated with social,
hunting, breeding or other
behaviours.
Defining Criteria
SWHDSS cxlix Index #39
provides development
effects and mitigation
measures.
Corridors with greater
canopy coverage width
having fewer gaps are more
significant.
Studies to confirm:
 Studies must be conducted
at the time of year (March
to June) when mink or
otter are using the denning
sites. Studies can be based
on observation or from
track and scat surveys.
 SWHDSS cxlix Index #31
provides development
effects and mitigation
measures.
All den sites identified using Table
1.2.2 of this schedule under the
habitat of Denning Sites for Mink,
Otter, Marten Fisher and Eastern
Wolf are to be considered for an
animal movement corridor.
Information Sources
 Local naturalists and landowners
may know some locations.
 OMNR values information
(NRVIS) may list known
locations
46
Habitat
SPECIES
DRAFT February 2012
CANDIDATE SWH
ELC Eco-sites
Habitat Criteria and Information
Sources
 OMNR Ecologist or Biologist
may be aware of locations.
 Topographical Maps together
with aerial photographs will help
locate potential sites.
 Local trappers may know the
location of prime denning sites
and movement corridors.
Eco-Region 3E
CONFIRMED SWH
Defining Criteria
47