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Chapter 9.3 Fermentation
Generating energy when oxygen is not available:
Glycolysis produces ATP quickly and without oxygen (is anaerobic).
 Occurs in the cytoplasm
When oxygen is not present glycolysis is followed by a pathway that
produces ATP without oxygen.
Glycolysis + this anaerobic pathway =
Fermentation or Anaerobic Respiration
Two forms of fermentation: alcoholic and lactic acid
Alcoholic fermentation:
 yeasts, microorganisms
 ethyl alcohol (ethanol) and carbon dioxide produced
 pyruvic acid + NADH  alcohol + CO2 + NAD+
 produces alcoholic beverages, causes bread dough to rise
Lactic Acid fermentation:
 Pyruvic acid converts to lactic acid
 No carbon dioxide given off
 Bacteria go through lactic acid fermentation so they are used in the
production of yogurt, cheese, sour cream, pickles, sauerkraut
 Humans go through lactic acid fermentation, too.
o Muscle cells are best adapted to undergoing this process.