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College 1, CA & DS
Introduction to Cultural Anthropolgy and Development Studies
Cultural anthropology
Culture: Differences in behaviour, custom, cognition, belief, values, attitude, art, morals, language.
Anthropology: study of the cultural diversity of the human species.
Uniquely comparative and holistic: study of the whole of the human condition—past,
present, and future; society, language, and culture
Cultures: traditions and customs, transmitted through learning, that form and guide the
beliefs and behaviour of the people exposed to them
Developed as scientific field in USA and UK
Early American anthropologists studying native peoples of North America combined studies
of customs, social life, language, and physical traits in the 19th century
British studies of Africa
Cultural anthropology explores cultural variations through time and space:
Describes, analyses, interprets and explains social and cultural similarities and differences.
o Ethnography: fieldwork in a particular culture; provides an account of that
community, society or culture.
o Ethnology: comparative, cross-cultural study of ethnographic data, society or
To describe, to interpret and, possibly, also to explain the cultural customs and events that
have been observed.
Focus not only on differences, but also on similarities.
Insights in cultural differences and similarities are necessary for guiding social relations
within and between societies.
Development studies
What is Development Studies?
Study of ideas underlying development interventions, models and ideologies
Studies of policies and programmes
Development studies is a broad multi- and interdisciplinary field: also attention to local
organization of livelihoods, socio-political and cultural context and changes
Development studies:
Inter- and multidisciplinary study of global socio-economic changes in a multipolar world
Developed post WWII
Influences by colonialism and modernization thinking
What about globalization?
More and better technological connections
Capital is now mobile
Workforce is now mobile
Globalization of consumption patterns
Increased inequality also in the ‘North’
Focus of development studies:
Very diverse countries with different histories
Different economic trajectories
Growth of middle-income countries, emerging economies (BRICS)
Centres of influence are shifting, but gap rich and poor remains
From ‘classic’ development studies (focus on state policies and interventions) to a focus on global
social transformations:
Shifting configurations of agents, institutions, resources, identities
New opportunities, but also new inequalities
Global social transformations through:
Flows of people and ideas
Changes in production, labour and consumer markets
Position of the state redefined, new actors, changing role of actors
College 2, CA
Culture, Comparison and Context
Enculturation: the process by which a child learns his or her culture
Geertz was the one who argued that we had to go back to the meaning of culture.
Culture is by definition and always an ambiguous concept. And always acquired by man as a
member of society.
Culture is learned through direct instruction and observation
What is unique to mankind, what distinguishes us from primates and other animals, is that we are
able to use symbols to communicate.
Symbols: signs that have no necessary or natural connection with the things for which they
Association between symbols and symbolized is arbitrary and conventional
Meaning of a gesture/symbol/sign can only be understood in a certain context and by a human being
that has learned that culture.
Culture is located in and transmitted through groups
Shared beliefs, values, memories, and expectations link people who grow up in the same
Enculturation unifies people by providing common experiences
Not all members of a society share all aspects of a culture (men and women, young and old). There
are differences within a certain culture as well.
Culture shapes natural feelings and our relation to the environment/nature. It takes our natural
biological urges and teaches us to express them in particular ways.
Anthropological concept of culture is much wider than the common concept of culture, it also
includes the daily stuff that doesn’t even seem worthy to look into.
Culture is also inherently linked to politics
Anthropologists look at culture in a holistic way, because all aspects of culture and society are
Cultures are integrated, patterned systems
If one part changes, other parts change
Core values: key, basic, or central values that integrate a culture
Culture is also an instrument for us to fulfil our needs.
Universal human traits:
Biological: a long period of infant dependency, yearround sexuality, and a complex brain
Psychological: common ways in which humans think, feel, and process information
Socio-cultural kinship relations
Nuclear family
Independent invention
When cultural traits are borrowed, traits modified to fit the adopting culture
CA is not primarily interested in universal cultural characteristics, but in the particularities.
Cultural universals are (usually) biologically based.
Anthropology always works from the particular towards the general, instead of the other way
around like with most other sciences.
Culture is contested, public as well as individual, inherently linked to power relations between
people, made and remade every day, and individual agency is important.
Practice theory: individuals within society have different motives.
Ethnocentrism: tendency to view one’s own culture as superior and to use one’s own standards and
values in judging outsiders.
Cultural relativism: to know another culture requires full understanding of its members’ beliefs and
Difference between cultural relativism as a methodological point of view and as a moral point of
view (ex. FGM, understand first, that doesn’t mean you approve it)
One goal of anthropology is to lose ethnocentrism, but that will never be fully realised (ex. age,
Intellectual property rights (IPR): an indigenous group’s collective knowledge and its applications
Linked to cultural rights: rights vested in religious and ethnic minorities and indigenous
Smith and Doyle made a distinction between globalization as fact and as contested ideology.
Globalisation won’t make us all the same, it only makes people more attached to their distinct
cultural identities. As a result, people have reinvented local customs.
Globalisation does matter though because the global has an influence on the local.
Individuals are not automatically reflections of a culture.
Culture is given meaning in practice, never a core locked up in a box and given from generation to
Not interested in the ideal culture, but in the practice.
College 3, DS
Introduction to and History of Development Studies
What’s in a name?
Name Third World developed after WWII, based on political powers in the world
US and Europe First World, democracies
Soviet Union and communist countries Second World
‘The rest” neutral countries Third World
No longer accurate in 1990’s after break up of Soviet Union and communism, Second World
Also third wave of democratization, so some Third World countries actually became (more)
democratic. And there was widespread economic liberalization.
Name Developing World also criticized
Are they all developing? Moving forward?
Are the other countries developed? Done developing?
Name The South also criticized
Just geographically incorrect, ex Australia
Just any name at all would be difficult because it is difficult to grasp them all together as one group,
because boundaries are blurring and they are also internally differentiated.
History of Development Studies
Development work has focused on various issues, with different emphases during different periods:
Comparative political systems, nation building
Economic policies to foster economic growth
Social aspects of development
With deepening globalization, we also see more diversity, from emerging economies to the least
developed countries
For understanding the history of development studies it is necessary to understand the history of
colonization and of decolonization processes.
There are long-lasting impacts of colonialism, and colonialism also shows the intertwining of
the histories of ‘developed’ and ‘developing’ countries.
We had the idea that we had to enlighten and civilize the Third World, the colonized countries, to
just teach them how to live like we did.
Evolutionary ideas: We were higher on the scale of evolution than they were, they would have to
catch up with us.
Basis for Rostow’s model of the 5 phases:
Traditional stage: agricultural economy, low levels of science and technology, hierarchical
social structure.
Preconditions for take-off: triggered by external impulse, insights of modern science begin
to be translated into agricultural and industrial production, emergence of elite group which
was able and willing to invest wealth.
Take-off: Investment rises to at least 10% of national income, political and social institutions
are reshaped in order to permit the pursuit of growth to take root.
Drive to maturity: developmental consolidation.
Age of mass consumption: further developmental consolidation and advance.
Focus initially mainly on political systems and economic development
Little attention to effects of colonialism on political systems (borders, indirect
rule/assimilated elites) and organization of economy and infrastructure
Studies focused on failure ‘take off stage’
Dependency theory (Wallerstein, Gunder Frank, Arrighi) (1950s-1960s)
World economic system with centres and peripheries
Centres under-develop the peripheries to foster their own economic development
o That happens through debts, expensive imports of manufactured goods, trade
Centres mainly interested in raw materials and cheap labour of peripheries
Structural Adjustment Programmes, SAPs (1980s)
In US and Europe conservative governments (Reagan, Thatcher), started advocating lean
state and privatization of public sector
Ideas about a lean state exported to developing countries through ESAPs
Decentralization of government
Countries had to open up their markets
Fall of the Berlin Wall, Nelson Mandela’s Release
Excitement about ‘third wave of democratization’
Shift from privatization of the state to New Public Management
Focus on partnerships with NGOs, community based organizations and private sector organizations
‘Market-based democracy’ (Merkel) remaining model, few ideological alternatives
Yet attention to growing inequalities around the world, both within and between countries.
Arrighi: New centres are emerging, more and more becoming a multi-polar world.
At the same time realization that poverty eradication in developing countries failed
They discovered that the fates of North and South were linked, so there became renewed
attempts at development and poverty eradication through Millennium Development Goals
New Sustainable Development Goals take the idea of linkages between global North and global South
to a further stage, with emphasis on sustainable development and environmental care.
Rostow’s model (and similar models) only pays attention to internal factors influencing
development, ignores colonial legacies, is evolutionary and Euro-centric.
Dependency models mainly focus on external influences on development, assumes that
relations between centre and periphery are the same across the world (no differentiation in
relations between ‘the West’ and ‘the rest’).
Contemporary Development Studies:
o Focusses on different aspects of social transformations (socioeconomic, political,
cultural) but also on a range of different factors influencing this (external and
o More attention to the ‘actors’
o Attention to different models of development – including visions ‘from below’
College 4, CA
History, Theory and Method in Cultural Anthropology
= Describing a culture from the inside out.
Trying to understand the whole culture from the native’s point of view.
Ethnography emerged as a research strategy in societies with greater cultural uniformity and less
social differentiation than modern industrial nations
Participant observation:
o Balance between participating and observing
o Try to become a native, but not really because you want to keep your ‘stranger’s’
point of view to describe things.
Conversation (also lots of small talk)
The genealogical method: using diagrams and symbols to record kin connections
o Prominent building block in nonindustrial societies
o In many nonindustrial societies, kin links are basic to social life
Detailed work with key consultants: expert on a particular aspect of local life
o Individual ethnographer gets to know, in the field, people who teach him or her
about their culture
In-depth interviewing
Ethnographers pay attention to and record the details of daily life
Keep personal diary
Strive to be involved and establish rapport
Ethnographer cannot be totally detached
Life history: a personal portrait of someone’s life in a culture
Reveals how specific people perceive, react to, and contribute to changes that affect their
Many ethnographers include collection of life histories as part of their research strategy
Emic (internally oriented) approach: investigates how members of a society think, categorize the
world, express thoughts, and interpret stimuli.
Etic (externally oriented) approach: emphasizes categories, interpretations, and features that the
anthropologist considers important.
Traditional ethnographic research focused on single community or culture.
Isolated and unique in time and space.
Ethnography is now increasingly multitimed and multisited
Studies focus on people in motion—on or near borders, nomads, migrants, homeless and
displaced peoples, immigrants, and refugees.
Anthropologists must be sensitive to cultural differences and aware of procedures and standards in
host country
Include host country colleagues in planning
Establish collaborative relationships with host
Include host country colleagues in dissemination of research results
Ensure something is “given back” to host country
Code of Ethics of the American Anthropological Association (AAA) recognizes anthropologists have
obligations to their scholarly field, to the wider society, and to the human species, other species, and
the environment.
Informed consent: agreement to take part in research—after having been informed about its nature,
procedures, and possible impacts.
Anthropology is a humanistic science: focused on interpretation and understanding rather than
explanations that are universally valid.
Anthropology is a comparative science: attempt to identify and explain cultural differences and
Compare, contrast, and make generalizations about societies and cultures
Evolutionary perspectives (Morgan and Tylor)
Functionalists (Malinowski and Radcliffe-Brown)
Historical (Boas)
Symbolic and interpretive approaches
Relation between culture and individual
Contemporary marked by specialization
o Cultural anthropologists now head for the field with a specific problem in mind,
rather than with goal of producing a holistic ethnography
o Ethnography no longer restricted to one specific time and place, follows movement
of people
o Eclecticism: no single paradigm but multiple theories!
Tylor (1832–1917): offered definition of culture and proposed it as a topic that could be studied
scientifically. Tylor proposed a unilinear path: animism, polytheism, monotheism, and science
Morgan (1818 –1881): The League of the Iroquois is anthropology’s earliest ethnography
Human society has evolved through savagery, barbarism, and civilization (unilinear
Historical particularism: histories are not comparable; diverse paths can lead to same cultural result
Rejected comparative method of evolutionists
INDEPENDENT INVENTION (evolutionists) versus DIFFUSION (Boasians)
Bronislaw Malinowksi:
Functionalism: an approach focussing on the role of sociocultural practices in social systems.
Customs and institutions are integrated and interrelated
Alfred Radcliff-Brown:
Advocated that social anthropology be synchronic (studying societies as they exist today) rather than
diachronic (studying societies across time).
Structural functionalism (Radcliff-Brown & Evans-Pritchard):
Customs (social practices) function to preserve the social structure
Radcliffe-Brown: social systems are comparable to anatomical and physiological process
Émile Durkheim:
Faits socials/ social facts: the values, cultural norms, and social structures which transcend the
individual and are capable of exercising social control.
Marcel Mauss:
Durkheim’s nephew and collaborator
Total social fact: an activity that has implications throughout society, in the economic, legal, political,
and religious spheres.
Agency: actions that individuals take, both alone and in groups, in forming and transforming cultural
Practice theory: individuals in a society or culture have diverse motives and intentions and different
degrees of power and influence.
College 5, DS
Human Rights and Gender
Human rights and Culture
During Cold War human rights violations by allies were ‘overlooked’.
After the fall of the Berlin Wall, pressure on developing countries to respect human rights increased.
Caused by growth of international human rights organizations.
Different countries put emphasis on different types of rights:
Individual human rights
Collective human rights
In the 1970s: disagreement about what comes first, development or respecting human rights.
Some countries claim that at first collective rights are more important and individual
freedoms must be sacrificed for development.
Also linkages are ambiguous between development, democracy and respecting human rights.
Sometimes evolutionary thinking: logical ‘endpoint’ of development is liberal democracy and free
market. Free trade, trade liberalization comes first, then democracy will follow.
Huntington: When there is no more conflict over economic models (because there will only be liberal
free trade market), culture will become the major fracture line.
Other (Harvey) interpret the many conflicts as a result of growing inequalities in combination
with colonial legacies, and as a result of scarce resources in an increasingly globalizing world.
Clash between cultural relativism and human rights. Large grey area there, respecting cultural
differences or respecting universal human rights.
Should human rights be universal?
Non-western countries signed the declaration in 1948
Numerous post-colonial countries joined after Independence
People around the world have referred to the declaration in their struggles against
autocratic regimes
There should be an emphasis on individual rights
They are based on western ideas of modernity
They hold the belief in a teleological endpoint
Post-modernity and post-development
There was critique on seeing (neo-)liberal democracy as the ‘endpoint’ of development. Economic
growth is not the only route to development, increase in GDP is not an adequate measure of
By post-development theorists, who reject the dominance of the neo-liberal model, they
promote indigenous models for development.
Critique on Post-development theorists:
‘Anything goes’, cultural relativism taken to the extreme
Little attention to differences in power and interpretation of culture WITHIN societies
Little attention to aspirations of the poor
Then post-modernity arose as a critique on modernity and structures
As a reaction to changes in the global economy
No longer a clash between the grand theories of liberalism and socialism, because growing inequality
showed that they both didn’t work.
Post modernity: There’s no absolute truth and the basic structures on which we’ve built our whole
society are just social constructs.
Foucault: the power of discourse is huge, through dominant discourses ideas about how we are to
see the world are transferred, it is a disciplining of the mind.
Critique on Foucault: not enough attention to resistance against dominant discourses
Discourses are really important things underlying our social structures and worldviews.
Through these discourses, certain subjectivities are created: ideas, for example, about what women
are and how they should behave
Critique on post-modernists: power dispersed, attention to how local people construct society, little
attention to structural power relations
Gender and Development
Women in Development theory (WID):
Accept that women are negatively affected by development processes
Solution: they should embed themselves more firmly in the process through education etc.
Focus on work and status instead of focus only on child raising – production vs reproduction
Women and Development theory (WAD):
Attention the important role women have always played in development, and how certain
development strategies negatively affect this
Solution: special focus on initiatives for women
Again: focus on work and status, no attention to reproduction roles
Risk of ‘essentialising’ women, enforcing stereotypes
Gender and Development theory (GAD):
Broader than work and status
Looks at how development processes affect power relations between men and women
Attention to different ideas about gender roles, and the fact that women’s demands in the
west may be irrelevant for women in developing countries
Questioning dominant views of gender and gender roles, looking for local social constructions of
gender and gender roles
Here too does the debate about individual versus collective rights exist.
Islamic feminism is an example of attempts to balance between respect for cultural diversity and
human rights, but also shows that dominant views on gender relations are also critiqued from
WITHIN that society.
There’s need to differentiate within societies, to have respect for minorities and for different
interpretations of culture.
Different models of development reflected in debates about human rights
Universal rights versus local interpretations?
Individual versus collective?
Evolutionary process with logical endpoint, or different ways of seeing development and
human rights, with different goals?
Important to reflect on how we deal with differences and power relations WITHIN societies
College 6, CA
Social organisation, person, and society
Anthropology and sociology share an interest in social relations, organisation, and behaviour.
They often work together now
Natural Human Diversity
Four dimensions of human existence:
Cultural universals
Cultural variation
Genetic universals
Genetic variation
Ways to approach biological differences:
Racial classification: attempt to assign humans to discrete categories (purportedly)
based on common ancestry
Early scholars used phenotypical traits: an organism’s evident traits, its “manifest biology”—
anatomy and physiology
Phenotypic similarities and differences do not necessarily have genetic basis
Impossible to distinguish people in groups on basis of race, as a biological category.
People construct races on social grounds
Explanatory approach: Role of natural selection in producing variation in skin color
explains human biological diversity
What’s Nature?
Both an ecosystem and your inner nature.
People have different conceptualizations of nature. The dichotomy of nature vs culture is Western.
Margaret Mead: Cultural Determinism
Human nature blank slate (tabula rasa)
Culture is powerful, it can form and change expressions of biological stages.
Research among young girls in Samoa, criticised by Freeman
The Social Person
Social person: sum of social statuses
Status: social relationship entailing rights and duties
Status may be ascribed or achieved
Some statuses, particularly ascribed ones, can be mutually exclusive
Some statuses are contextual: Situational negotiation of social identity
Known as switching between roles
Role: dynamic behaviour associated with status
Frontstage vs. Backstage
Impression Management
How do people nowadays strike a balance between the increasing number of social positions?
Rites of Passage
Rites of passage: customs associated with transition from one stage of life to another
Separation: people get separated of the rest of society, out of their normal role in that society.
Liminality: in-between phase of passage rite.
Involves a temporary suspension and reversal of social distinctions.
Reintegration: people turn back to society to take on their new role in that society.
Social and cultural change
Rise of the internet, now both online virtual communities and actual communities.
Both are real
Privatization of social relations
Debate about structure and agency
Pierre Bourdieu: Theory of Practice
Anthony Giddens: Theory of Structuration
Unconscious ‘cognition’, that is understanding through thought, experience, and the
Limitation of language as methodological vehicle to access knowledge
Knowledge is unevenly distributed
Male/female, higher/lower classes, geographically
Habitus: system of embodied dispositions
College 7, CA
Kinship, Descent, Marriage and Gender
Sex and Gender
Sexual dimorphism: marked differences in male and female biology besides the primary and
secondary sexual features
Sex is biological, gender is cultural
Margaret Mead was the first to draw attention to male/female relationships (=GENDER)
Coming of Age in Samoa & Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies
Also starting feminism in US
First wave 1850-1940: Suffrage, voting right
Second wave 1965-1980: Equal pay, respected for their capabilities
Third wave 1995- …: Patriarchy
Gender roles: tasks and activities that a culture assigns to the sexes
Gender stereotypes: oversimplified, strongly held ideas of characteristics of men and women
Gender stratification: Unequal distribution of rewards between men and women, reflecting different
positions in a social hierarchy.
The subsistence contributions of men and women are roughly equal cross-culturally
Gender stratification relatively low when men and women make equal contributions to
subsistence. (example: foragers, not much gender stratification there)
Biological differences influence the abilities of men and women and therefore are important in
defining gender roles. Pregnancy and lactation keep women from being primary hunters in foraging
societies, while greater size, strength, and mobility of men lead to exclusive service in roles of
hunters and warriors for them.
Always take the domestic-public dichotomy into account when you look into gender roles (ex.
women in Islamic countries are not necessarily oppressed because they are restricted in public, they
can be the boss at home)
Differentiation of roles of men and women is related to the economic situation.
Ex: Lots of elderly people now, we need workforce to pay the pensions, so women start
working, so the way we think of women and gender roles starts changing.
Kinship and descent
Family of orientation: family in which one is born and grows up.
Family of procreation: formed when one marries and has children.
Descent group: a permanent social unit whose members say they have ancestors in common.
Descent group more important than family, because the descent group will keep existing forever,
members change because people are born and die, but the group endures forever.
Unilineal descent: Use one line only in descent rules
Matrilineal descent: you automatically join mother’s descent group
Patrilineal descent: you automatically join father’s descent group
(Am)bilineal descent: Use (one of) both lines (choose).
Lineage: unilineal descent group based on demonstrated descent.
Everybody knows each other
Clan: descent group that claims common descent from an apical ancestor but cannot demonstrate it.
Way more people, not everybody knows each other
Patrilocality: married couple lives with the husband’s family (patrilineal descent)
Matrilocality: married couple lives with the wife’s family (matrilineal descent)
Neolocality: married couple may live hundreds of miles away from both parents
Ambilineal descent = cognatic descent
You choose to which descent group you want to belong, but you have to achieve it by
showing up and showing your interest.
Fluid, people can change their descent-group membership or belong to two or more groups
at the same time.
People may have conflicting obligations to family and descent group, mainly a big problem with
matrilineal descent groups.
Genealogical kin types: relates to actual genealogical relationship (father’s brother) as opposed to
kin term (uncle)
Kin terms reflect social construction of kinship in a given culture
Bilateral kinship calculation: people tend to perceive kin links through males and females as being
similar or equal
Kinship terminologies:
1.Lineal kinship terminology (Nuclear family, neolocality): four parental kin terms (M, F, FB-MB, and
Lineal relative: ego’s direct descendant
Collateral relatives: relative outside ego’s direct line (B, Z, FB, MZ)
Affinals: relatives by marriage
2.Bifurcate merging kinship terminology (Unilineal descent group, unilocality): splits mother’s side
from father’s side, but also merges same-sex siblings of each parent
Mother’s sister is also mother and father’s brother is also father
Associated with unilineal descent and unilocal residence
3.Generational kinship terminology (ambilineal descent group, ambilocality): uses the same term
for parents and their siblings, but lumping is more complete; M=MZ=FZ and F=FB=MB
Mother’s sister AND father’s sister are also mother, father’s brother AND mother’s brother
are also father
Does not distinguish between mother’s and father’s sides
Typical of ambilineal societies
4.Bifurcate collateral terminology (Varies, everything is possible): separate terms are used for each
of six kin types of the parental generation; M, F, MB, MZ, FB, and FZ
Not as common as other types
Many societies that use it are in North Africa and the Middle East
Difficult to define
Establishes legal parentage of children
Gives spouses rights
Genitor: biological father of a child
Pater: socially recognized father of a child
Mater: socially recognized mother of a child
A way to forge alliances to other groups, to make strangers into friends
Exogamy more common than endogamy
Lévi-Strauss argues that the prohibition of incest is universal and that it also is what distinguishes us
from apes and other animals. Even though definition of incest may change from society to society.
Common practice to marry cross cousins.
Parallel cousins: children of two brothers or two sisters
Cross-cousins: children of a brother and a sister
Parallel cousins always belong to your own moiety, cross cousins always belong to the other moiety.
Children belong to father’s moiety in patrilineal moiety organization and to mother’s moiety
in matrilineal moiety organization.
Endogamy more common than we may think. Marrying in your own social class is also endogamy,
sharpening contrast between rich and poor.
India’s caste system also example of strong endogamy.
Five major Varna’s or castes
Occupational specialization often sets off one caste from another
Royal endogamy also quite common, brothers and sisters were sometimes allowed to marry each
other, or otherwise cousins would marry.
Manifest function: reason given for a custom by its natives
Latent function: effects custom has that are not explicitly recognized by the natives
Leach argued that the rights allocated by marriage include:
Establishing legal parentage
Giving a monopoly in sexuality of the other
Giving rights to the labour of the other
Giving rights over the other’s property
Establishing a joint fund of property
Establishing a socially significant ‘relationship of affinity’
Gifts at marriage:
Bridewealth or bride price: substantial marital gift from husband and his kin to the wife and
her kin
Dowry: marital exchange in which wife’s group provides substantial gifts to husband’s family
Plural marriage: being married to more than two spouses simultaneously (polygamy)
Polygyny: a man has more than one wife; the more common form
Polyandry: a woman has more than one husband; rare
Polyandry ensures there will be at least one man at home to accomplish male activities
within a gender-based division of labour.
Sororate: husband may marry the wife’s sister if the wife dies
Levirate: right to marry husband’s brother if husband dies
Cross-culturally, high divorce rates correlated with a secure female economic position.
College 8, DS
The Politics of Development
Political Economy of Development
The new discipline of development economics emerged after decolonization.
Economic infrastructure and distribution of assets heavily influenced by colonialism.
Global political economy: the role played by states, business and international organizations in the
generation of wealth and its distribution on a global scale.
Neo-Gramscian school: focuses on the power of ideas and knowledge in the generation of wealth
and its distribution.
Both refer to models which see development as economic growth.
Recapitulation of these models:
Evolutionary models (incl. Rostow’s 5-stages model):
All countries follow similar model, some are ‘behind’ in terms of stages
Relies on state planning and investment to get to the ‘take off stage’
Some but not much attention to welfare
Dependency theories:
Based on (neo-Marxist) analysis of how capital is accumulated
Centre deliberately under-develops the periphery (resource extraction, trade barriers,
expensive imports, cheap labour, debts)
Requires either a revolution or a strong state to protect economies and workers in the
periphery from the centre
Strong focus on inequalities between countries (and some attention to inequalities within
(Neo-)liberal model:
Lean state – main function to facilitate free market
Liberalization of capital movements
Free trade to facilitate cost-effective distribution of resources
Almost no attention to welfare – poor to benefit through trickle-down effect
Development from harsh version (liberalization-privatisation) to softer version: service
delivery through public-private partnerships (neo-liberal)
End of WW II till end of 1970s: focus on the role of the state in planning and investing (countries
encouraged to borrow money, which later resulted in the debt crisis)
1980s to late1990s: focus on cutting back on state spending, privatization, free market
Late 1990s: softer version of neo-liberalism: PPPs
Since then partial revival of the idea that state involvement may be important
Early recommendations focused on the state:
Strong focus on industrialization instead of agriculture
State needs to coordinate investments
Markets could not ensure coordination because of high start-up costs in ‘late-comer’
Focus on import-substituting industrialization to improve terms of trade
1980s period of harsh reforms
Enforced through Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs)
Washington Consensus – shared views of the IMF, World Bank, US government policy
community, investment bankers etc.
1990 it became clear that SAPs failed to foster development
Inequalities became only starker
Publication of the 1990 World Development Report, but it took a while before policies
New strategies to deal with poverty in developing countries:
1) Promotion of labour-intensive growth through economic openness and investment in
2) Provision of better services to poor people including health care and education
o Through PPPS – private sector includes NGOs here
2001 conference marked the end of a period of inactivity
Polarization between developing countries occurs in the late 1970s to early 1980s:
Oil rich countries
NICs and later BRICS
Most other countries experienced stagnation or low growth
Trend continued in the 2000’s
Development per region
East Asia and Pacific:
Vietnam developed despite going against Washington Consensus
China did the same: managed to engage TNCs on its own terms
South Asia:
India did conform more to Washington Consensus and economy improved
South Korea used it huge share of development aid to develop its own industry
Middle East and North Africa:
Differences oil rich and no oil – countries
Oil wealth helped countries to maintain autocracies
When oil prices dropped governments compelled to introduce SAPs: social unrest
Sub-Saharan Africa:
Annual growth rates cannot keep up with population growth
Overall quality of life indicators poor
Results SAPs disappointing
From the 1990s donors demanded good governance – more democratic
Post 9/11: security main concern, democracy as illusion
From 2000s some countries did experience high growth rates: South Africa, Rwanda
Effects financial crisis 2008 had delayed effect on these emerging economies
Latin America and the Caribbean:
Marginal economic global position (same as Sub Saharan Africa)
SAPs did not result in improving position, they only increased inequalities
Liberalisation and privatisation benefitted foreign capital and local elites, but not the poor
Problems for the poor with access to services
Unrest resulted in local revival of socialism with a focus on the role of the state in
development: Chavez (Venezuela), Morales (Bolivia)
Economic development difficult to steer and predict, standard, universal recipes do not work
Since 2000s slow move away from idea that development = economic growth
Some more attention to bottom-up models
But many aspects of policy recommendation are still conforming to (softer) neo-liberal forms
Anti-globalists and World Social Forum formulate alternatives.
Politics of Development
First wave of democratization: late 19th, early 20th century in Europe and North America
Second wave of democratization: after WW II (Italy, West-Germany, Japan)
Third wave of democratization: started in 1974 with the demise of dictatorships in Spain,
Portugal and Greece
Democratization generally in 4 stages – but these are complimentary and may overlap:
Political liberalization
Collapse of authoritarian regime
Democratic transition
Democratic consolidation
To reach stage 4, you need the following internal factors:
Strong domestic civil society
Political society (domestic) needs to be involved
o Autonomous democratically organized parties
o Moderate polarization of parties
o Institutionalization of party system
Social capital: civil society and political society need a sufficient store of social connections in
society, trust from society in government
o Bonded solidarity: sense of common nationhood and cultural identity
o Enforced trust: controls the mutual assistance supplied and demanded
Background factors:
Many post-colonial states are ‘weak’, and have little sovereignty
Yet, weak states may be strongly repressive towards citizens (but weak in service delivery),
and difficult to influence
Since the end of the Cold War donor countries emphasize importance of good governance
and democracy - that became the condition for aid
Idea that without democratization economic liberalization would not achieve beneficial
Debates about conditionality of aid:
Aid conditionality only worked in 38% of the cases
Standard democratic template may not fit all
Conditional democratization failed when they threatened donor’s strategic or commercial
Post-9/11 focus on security and stability: democracy was an illusion, security main concern
Donor conditionality and support hardly ever survives past the first stages – hardly ever
continued until stage 4 of democratization process
Influence of donors was not the only transnational influence:
Emergence of Transnational Civil Society
Facilitated by global communications revolution
Can amplify and publicize local civil society demands
Can also help to counter global hegemony (e.g. Neoliberal development model)
Positive links between democracy and economic factors:
Sustained economic benefits combined with reasonably equitable distribution of benefits
A comprehensive, institutionalized, state-directed system of social welfare
Goes against (neo-)liberal model!
College 9, DS
Development and the Natural Environment
There’s the need to find a balance between economic growth, social welfare and environmental
Many developing countries are accusing the West of hypocrisy:
Seen as an attempt to block developing countries from ‘catching up’
While the West doesn’t want environmentally harmful policies, it still urges developing
countries to open their economies to foreign investments and increase exports of
agricultural products and wood.
Earth summit 1992: Agenda 21 was made; a compromise between West and ‘the rest’
Four main environmental problems for developing countries:
Climate change
Desertification and deforestation
Skewed land use patterns which deepen poverty
Economic development policies with little concern of the environment
Climate change
Climate change will hit the poor the hardest.
They often live in marginal areas, floodplains, areas already subject to variability in terms of
rainfall, where nobody else wants to live.
Problems with access to land, water, means higher health care costs (for everybody)
The poor are often nomads or tribes, difficult for the state to help them
Agricultural systems are changing
Both economical and moral issues with climate change
Moral: Often linked to religion, humankind has to take care of earth, responsibility for
environment to next generation.
Economic: Should economy grow? Who can grow? How to divide costs and benefits?
Market-based solution: Carbon off-setting trough trading emission rights.
Desertification and deforestation
Two competing explanations for these two issues:
1. Traditional small-scale agriculture and pastoralism to blame
o No smart, modern techniques, just exploiting the land
2. Modern capitalist agriculture production to blame
o Large-scale too harmful
No evidence of 1st explanation, provided that there is sufficient land available
Large-scale enterprises can force small-scale producers of the land, limiting their access to land
resulting in resorting to harmful practices to survive.
So: look beyond the local, effects are visible at multiple scales.
Rainforest destroyed for various reasons:
Agriculture and pastoralism
Sale of timber
What the dominant factor is depends on the region and context
Effects are always visible at multiple scales
Skewed land use patterns
Negative environmental effects worsened by development patterns and programmes that limit
access of the poor to land.
44% of the poor live on marginal lands, often as a result of displacement
By large-scale land acquisitions – land grabbing
World Bank believes this is positive, offers potential for local development through higher levels of
production and job creation.
But impact of losing land is huge, on whole community. Land offers more security than a job which
you can lose, because then you have nothing left.
Economic development policies and the environment
Combination of factors of policies cause environmental degradation – direct link to SAPs difficult.
Several aspects of market reforms believed to cause harm:
Need for more foreign exchange may result in overexploitation of natural resources.
Pressure to reduce state expenditure results in weak environmental legislation and
Loss of jobs in public sector combined with little social security results in more
people living of the land.
Companies exploit weak legislation
ENGOs in developing countries
Sometimes they are involved in ‘green grabbing’, otherwise local users fight against environmental
degradation to protect their livelihoods.
More difficult if there’s no functioning democracy.
Broader interests than just environmental, sometimes also economical or cultural, especially if there
are international ENGOs involved.
Businesses often do not care about the environment but sometimes they do.
But even then, they usually find a way to apply market mechanisms to it (green tourism)
Results for local communities in developing countries mixed:
Sometimes they do benefit from nature tourism and expanding market for fair trade
In other cases, companies gain access to their natural resources at their expense
World Summit for Sustainable Development fosters a neo-liberal model of sustainable development
Critiques from:
Eco-feminism: nature is ‘feminine’, exploited by patriarchy and global capitalism, lack of
attention to impacts environmental degradation on women.
Sustainability Watch, slightly different angle: concerns for sustainability are overruled by
emphasis on security, but also critiques dominant economic model that favours TNCs’ access
and control over resources, need for a stronger (international) regulatory framework.
College 10, CA
Political Anthropology
Political Anthropology
Power: ability to exercise one’s will over others
authority is formal, socially approved use of power
Four types/levels of political organization in relation to economy:
Band: small kin-based group among foragers
Tribe: economy based on non-intensive food production
Chiefdom: intermediate form between tribe and state
o Differential access: favoured access to resources by superordinates over
o Superordinate: upper, elite group in stratified society; privileged access to wealth,
power, and valued resources
o Subordinate: lower, underprivileged group in stratified society; limited by privileged
State: formal governmental structure and socioeconomic stratification
Foragers live and are organised in bands, but always trade with food producers and are also
dependent on the state in which they live.
They lack formal law but they have other forms of conflict resolution through social control
Tribes: typically have horticultural or pastoral economy and are organized by village life and/or
descent-group membership.
Lack socioeconomic stratification and formal government
Regulatory officials are village heads, “big men” (Melanesia), descent-group leaders, village
councils, and pantribal associations
o Pantribal sodalities: groups that extend across several tribes, spanning several
Age, gender, and personal traits determine how much respect people receive
Chiefdom: Transitional form of socio-political organization, between tribes and states
Chiefs have role in chiefly redistribution
Unlike states, social relations in chiefdoms are based on kinship, marriage, descent, age,
generation, and gender
State: Carneiro: State is “an autonomous political unit encompassing many communities within its
territory, having a centralized government with the power to collect taxes, draft men for
work or war, and decree and enforce laws”
States are characterized by much clearer class divisions, social statuses, than chiefdoms
States have administrative subdivisions to control people (provinces)
States have law, court and judges
States redistributes wealth as well, through taxes
Unlike bands and tribes, chiefdoms and states are permanent
Three dimensions of social stratification:
Wealth: all a person’s material assets; the basis of his or her economic status
Power: the ability to control others; the basis of political status
Prestige: esteem, respect, or approval; the basis of social status
Social control: “Those fields of the social system (beliefs, practices, and institutions) that are most
actively involved in the maintenance of any norms and regulation of any conflict.” (Kottak, 2002)
Formal: police, state, laws
Informal: family, friends, media
Hegemony: subordinates accept the naturalness of domination; they have internalized it.
If they haven’t internalized it, they can resist it
Public transcript: open public interaction between superordinates and subordinates
Hidden transcript: critique of power that goes on offstage, where the power holders can’t see it
In small-scale societies, “informal” control through fear, stigma, shame, and gossip
Shame can be powerful social sanction
College 11, CA
Economic Anthropology
Economic Anthropology
The advent of food production fuelled major changes in human life
Adaptive strategy: means of making a living; productive system
Cohen: typology of societies
Foragers rely on natural resources in order to sustain a living
Foraging has survived mainly, but not only, in environments that posed major obstacles to
food production.
Original affluent society
When talking about contemporary hunters and gatherers we should not compare them to the ones
of thousands of years ago.
Typically, they are mobile and flexible, often organized in bands
Foraging has been the main adaptive strategy for all humans for 99% of world history. This changed
after the invention of elementary means to grow crops. This lead to a growth of the population.
Three adaptive strategies based on food production are seen in nonindustrial societies:
Horticulture: cultivation that makes intensive use of none of the factors of production: land,
labor, capital, and machinery
o Slash and burn & Shifting cultivation. Land has to lie fallow to renew
o Crucial distinction between horti- and agriculture.
Agriculture: Not necessary to have the land fallow. This is more labour intensive, use of
irrigation systems, more sophisticated. Uses land intensively and continually.
o Agricultural societies grow increasingly specialized
Cultivation continuum: intermediate economies that combine horticultural and agricultural
o Horticulture always uses a fallow period; agriculture does not
Pastoralists: focus on domesticated, herd animals. They are never completely independent,
usually trade their meat with horti- or agriculturalists
o Nomadism: they travel around
o Transhumance: part of the society moves with the herd to other areas
Foragers have a different relation to their land then other societies. Anyone after foragers is in a
dominant relationship to the environment. Foragers relied on the resources of the environment and
Neolithic revolution: people began to grow more food than needed to sustain a living, they became
Economy: system for the production, distribution, and consumption of resources
Mode of production: way of organizing production, “set of social relations through which labour is
deployed to wrest energy from nature using tools, skills, organization, and knowledge” (Wolf, 1982)
Modes of production is a Marxist term for analyses of capitalist society. Made up of relations
of production and production forces.
Mode of subsistence is food production irrespective of property relations
Modes of subsistence is an overall term that includes all perspectives from foraging to
Means of production include land, labour, technology and capital
Fundamental distinction between post- and nonindustrial: non is always organized around kinship
structures and organization. The economy was organized along kinship lines, embedded in social and
political types of organization.
Industrial revolution took place. The main production force is land, but labour, technology and
capital became more important in industrial societies.
During this revolution, alienation took place. People who sold their labour as a production force to
the owners of the production forces, they became alienated from what they produced.
Economic anthropology is distinguished from economics: economics is based on the assumption that
all individuals act rationally and that their goal is to maximize profit.
Economic anthropologists look differently; they always analyse in a cross cultural perspective. We
examine relationship between economy and culture.
How are production, distribution, and consumption organized in different societies?
What motivates people in different cultures to produce, distribute or exchange, and
Alternative ends
People in various societies put their scarce resources toward building
Subsistence fund: to reproduce yourself everyday
Replacement fund: to maintain technology you use
Social fund: to establish societies
Ceremonial fund: to fulfil ritual obligations
(Rent fund): peasants have to save to pay their landlords
Polanyi: three principles orienting exchanges: market principle, redistribution, reciprocity
Society usually dominated by one
Dominant principle of exchange is the one that allocates means of production
Market principle: buying, selling, and valuation are based on supply and demand
Bargaining is characteristic
Redistribution: flow of goods into a centre, then back out
Characteristic of chiefdoms
Reciprocity: exchange between social equals, usually related. Occurs in 3 different types;
Reciprocity continuum: running from generalized reciprocity (closely related/deferred
return) to negative reciprocity (strangers/immediate return)
o Generalized reciprocity: occurs in most families. You borrow something and you
don’t have to return it immediately.
o Balanced reciprocity: When you see it as a debt,
o Negative reciprocity: Mythological, belonging to their natives and therefore people
think it’s theirs instead of their neighbours, like stealing, hostile.
Potlatch: Traditional exchange between tribes of north pacific coast. Giving wealth away. You give
something to another tribe is you have enough, is expected back when the others have enough.
Market principles can coexist, almost always they do.
Guest lecture, CA/DS
Guest speaker – homelessness
- Crenshaw, Essed, Yanow, Van der Haar and Nimako.
- Homelessness is race, class and gender related.
- 80% is male, 60% is ‘non-Western allochtonen’, 73% low-educated.
- Homelessness also has the characteristics of a social construct. Even if you are
couch surfing, you’re actually homeless, but you don’t consider yourself so.
- Early 1900’s: Christian duty. Late 40s and 50s: development aid. 60s:
empowerment and social work connected to social work. 70s increase in migration,
foreigners’ policies, minority policies, allochtonen. 80s first anti-racist wave. Late
90s: critique of social democratic welfare state. (1) Social work was seen as
cuddling the homeless. (2) It costs too much money. 2007: Wet Maatschappelijke
Ondersteuning. - decentralization welfare structures. - Increased responsibility of
the ‘active citizen’. - shift from welfare services as a right and means for
emancipation, to self-sufficiency as an obligation. Shift from universalism to
- Process:
- 1. Go to Work and Income Services in Amsterdam.
- 2. Ask voor financial aid and a screening.
- 3. Fill in 7-day form.
- 4. First Screening: 10 minutes.
- 5. Regional Ties, OGGZ, Self-sufficiency —> accepted or rejected
- 6. If rejected: no access to emergency shelter.
- 7. If accepted: access to short term emergency shelter, 9 months waiting list for
long term shelter.
- 8. Start process of rehabilitation.
- The idea of psychosocial problems and psychiatric disorders is implemented in the
idea of sheltering homeless people. If you don’t have mental problems, you
shouldn’t need help. The idea of who is vulnerable is framed in medical ideas. The
response of a homeless person, who is emotional, to the system is also
- Society is a whole, homeless individuals are either outside or at the margins, but
never a product or participants.
- Men of color make up 60% of homeless individuals. Migrants make up 12% of
Dutch populations.
- You should be colorblind to unsee that and treat them all equally
- The problem with colorblindness is that you also don’t see racism and structural
College 12, DS
Development and Religion
Religion and Globalization
Two important issues related to religion and development:
Changes related to globalization, that have impact on religious identity and conflicts
Renewed attention to religion globally, also in reconciliation and peace building
Religion pertains to models of social and individual behaviour which help believers to organize their
everyday lives.
Three principles:
Disenchantment thesis: spread of technological developments and participation and integration in
the global market would result in more secularization.
In reality, religion is still an important factor in daily lives in Northern Europe and the U.S.
Globalisation destabilizes existing value systems  Then there’s concern with government policies
and programmes  That results in confusion and fear  Return to religious traditions.
Optimistic view: dealing with globalization requires cooperation and development of appropriate
institutions: faith-based organization can build bridges
Pessimistic view: downsides of globalization result in conflicts and resurgence of fundamentalism
Governments of Arab Muslim countries claim divine sanction, but this is increasingly questioned by
an increasingly educated population
North Africa, Syria: leaders try/tried to combine modernization of political systems (not necessarily
democratic) with some attention to substructure rooted in Islam
Religion and conflicts
There are tensions between forces that lead to integration in globalization and resistance to it.
Some faith-based organisations react positively to diversity, others emphasize differences and
confront non-believers in attempts to preserve particular values against ‘erosion’ by globalization.
All major world religions show both examples of tolerant groups and fundamentalist movements.
Religion may play a role in conflicts, but the context is determining factor! (for example colonial
Religion and Development Models
Max Weber linked the emergence of capitalism to the protestant ethic:
Break with tradition (Catholicism)
Devotion to hard work and rational conduct
Work became a spiritual vocation and wealth a sign from God
This contrasts with key tenants of Islam:
Obligatory charity is one of the 5 pillars of Islam
Economic justice is important
Interest is forbidden to prevent accumulation of capital
However, ‘mainstream’ Islam is supportive of markets, technological development and material
World religions offer possibilities of uniting people across borders, but also across different classes
and generations.
Religious leaders have certain social and cultural power, and charisma.
This way they can play a big role in conflict resolution.
Many peoples have a strong believe in the existence and presence of ancestral spirits.
Rain and fertility of territories are then controlled by these royal ancestors They only provide what’s
needed if people – including present-day leaders – respect moral and social regulations.
College 13, CA
Religion, Ritual and Language
Religion and ritual
Religion is difficult to define
Wallace: belief and ritual concerned with supernatural beings, powers, and forces.
Reese: bodies of people who gather together regularly to worship.
Religion can’t be seen or examined in empirical way, all about people’s experience.
Durkheim: religious effervescence (people getting excited)
o communitas: intense feeling of social solidarity
Cultural universal, but functions differently in every society
Expressions of religion
Tylor: religion evolved through stages:
Animism: belief in spiritual beings
Polytheism: belief in multiple gods
Monotheism: belief in a single, all-powerful deity
“Religion declines as science offers better explanations for things”
Mana: sacred impersonal force existing in the universe
Melanesian mana similar to good luck
Polynesian mana attached to political offices
o Chiefs had much mana
Magic and religion
Magic: supernatural techniques intended to accomplish specific aims
May be imitative (as with voodoo dolls) or contagious (accomplished through contact)
Exists in cultures with diverse religious beliefs
Religion and magic don’t just explain things and help people accomplish goals, they serve emotional
and cognitive needs.
Also difficult to define
Ritual: formal, stylized, repetitive behaviour that people conduct in order to achieve a certain goal.
Rituals are social acts that convey information about participants and their culture.
Mainly interested in meaning of rituals, can vary per person.
Loads of different rituals, important are:
Rites of passage: customs associated with transition from one stage of life to another.
Liminality: in-between phase of passage rite.
Form that religion can take, expression of religion.
Reflect people’s view of the cosmos, their place in society and the universe.
Totem: Animal, plant, or geographic feature associated with specific social group, to which that
totem is sacred or symbolically important.
Members of each totemic group believed themselves to be descendants of their totem
o Uses nature as a model for society
Cosmology: system, often religious, for imagining and understanding the universe
o Totemic principles continue to demarcate groups
Relation between totems reflects relations between social groups.
Religiosity is changing
All societies have religious figures:
Shamans: part-time magic-religious practitioner
Totemic ceremonies of Native Australians temporarily brought together foragers
Productive economies can support fulltime religious specialists
Wallace: describes religions of such stratified societies as “ecclesiastical” (pertaining to an
established church and its hierarchy of officials)
Max Weber linked spread of capitalism to values central to the Protestant faith:
Future oriented
Capitalism required that traditional attitudes of Catholic peasants be replaced by values
benefitting an industrial economy
Religion helps for social cohesion and problem-solving, but is also used to bring about changes:
Revitalization movements: social movements that occur in times of change.
Syncretisms: Cultural, especially religious, mixes, emerging when two or more cultural traditions
come into contact
Cargo cults: syncretic revitalization movements arising in colonial situations that attempt to achieve
success magically by mimicking European behaviour and symbols.
Lesser people in the West are giving religious preference, but that doesn’t mean that people are less
We are finding other ways to deal with or express our religiosity.
Secular rites do exist; they can become sacred for some people.
We can’t just say what is more religious and what is less religious
Strict separation between recreation and religion is ethnocentric and really false.
Antimodernism: rejecting modern in favour of what is perceived as earlier, purer, and better way of
Fundamentalism: advocating strict fidelity to a religion’s presumed founding principles
Asserts an identity separate from that of the larger religious group
Seeks to rescue religion from absorption into the modern
Language and cognition
Interested in linguistic diversity
Relation between language and social categories
Linguistic diversity
Regional diversity
Generational differences
Gender differences
Social diversity, class-dependant
Cultural diversity
Language is reflection of culture, of world-view
Language is primary needs of communication
Language: Arbitrary relation between sound and object
Allows humans to:
Conjure up elaborate images
Discuss the past and the future
Share experiences with others
Benefit from their experiences
Kinesics: study of communication through body movements, stances, gestures, and facial
Are always culturally related
They can communicate social differences
Structure of language
Phonology: study of speech sounds
Morphology: forms in which sounds combine to form morphemes
Lexicon: dictionary containing all morphemes and their meanings
Syntax: arrangement and order of words in phrases and sentences (grammar)
Speech sounds:
Phoneme: a sound contrast that makes a difference or differentiates meaning
Phonetics: the study of human speech sounds in general
Phonemics: studies only the significant sound contrasts of a given language
Chomsky: human brain contains limited set of rules for organizing language, universal structure for al
Completely out-dated
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis: grammatical categories of different languages lead their speakers to think
about thinks in particular ways.
Speakers of particular languages use sets of terms to organize their experiences and
Focal vocabulary: specialized sets of terms and distinctions that are important to certain groups
Example: Inuit with words for snow
Semantics: language’s meaning system
Ethnosemantics: study of lexical categories and contrasts
Investigates relationships between social and linguistic variation, or language in its social context.
Linguistic change does not occur in a vacuum but in society
Style shifts: varying speech in different contexts
Diglossia: regular style shifts between “high” and “low” variants of same language
Gender speech contrasts: Men and women have differences in phonology, grammar, and vocabulary
as well as in body stances and movements that accompany speech.
Honorifics: terms of respect; used to honour the recipients
We rank certain speech patterns as better or worse, because we recognize their use by groups that
we also rank.
Labov: pronunciation clearly associated with prestige
Bourdieu: linguistic practices are symbolic capital that properly trained people convert into
economic and social capital
Historical linguistics: examines long-term variation of speech by studying protolanguages and
daughter languages.
Historical linguistics a bit less important than sociolinguistics.
Protolanguage: original language from which daughter languages descend
Daughter languages: languages that descend from same parent language that have been
changing separately for hundreds or even thousands of years
Subgroups: languages within a taxonomy of related languages that are most closely related
Linguistics diversity is disappearing fast because the last speakers of that language are dying, with
that cultural diversity is disappearing too.
Vet komt van phat door Amerikaanse rapper: pretty hot and tempting
Intro Caos 7-10 – Guest Lecture
Edwin de Jong
Paradox: Crisis but extravagant funeral ceremonies?
South Sulawesi, Tana Toraja
Special houses central to society
The political field in Tana Toraja embraces the traditional village as well as contemporary urban life
and includes both ritual performance and regency-level development strategy.
In a region where the colonial era spanned merely four decades, where indigenous religion continues
to be predominant, and where the prestige and authority of the nobility endure to the present,
traditional religious rituals and status relationships colour all aspects of contemporary society.
Lots of Tana Torajan people migrated, work in the cities to send money to their family back in the
Tana Torajan village. Those migrants form part of society.
Order and status: the more pigs and buffalos you give and receive at funeral ceremonies, the more
important you are. They save up to buy lots of pigs and buffalos to be slaughtered at a funeral
ceremony. Slaughtering and meat division can cause you shame or honour.
College 14, DS
Globalization is not a new phenomenon:
Colonialism & imperialism
Silk route
Spread of capitalism since 16th century
In developing countries, Western state forms were often introduced during the colonial period. After
independence, those state forms continued.
That led to:
Relative economic impoverishment and weakness
Problems with creating stable, workable political systems
Difficulties in creating nation states resulting from ‘arbitrary’ boundaries and divide and rule
After the end of the cold war:
Intensity of world-wide economic interactions increased
Absorption of communist block
Transnational companies (TNCs) increased in numbers and influence
Multinational companies: headquarters in ‘motherland’ with subsidiaries elsewhere  replaced by
transnational companies which are more difficult to locate
Four forms of globalization:
Technological – Economic - Political – Cultural
Technological Globalization:
‘Worldwide’ connectivity
Facilitative and enabling condition, not in itself sufficient
Technology is neutral, can be used for positive and for negative ends
Leapfrogging: from no phone to cell phone (skipping a step)
But connectivity is still uneven
Economic Globalization:
Different from internationalization:
Role of the state: movement of goods and services across borders to some degree beyond
state control, with internationalization state plays bigger role
Closer economic integration, movement of capital, labour, goods and services across borders,
growing international competition, greater economic efficiency
Transformation of production systems and labour markets, undermines organized labour
States compete to attract investments by adapting tax, environmental and labour legislation
Reduces possibilities for states to pursue national economic policies
Washington Consensus: global free market best way to spread economic benefits to those who were
denied those benefits by heavy-handed states
Others – including Stiglitz – see it as Westernization of the economy, an ideology with detrimental
effects on development, SDGs developed to correct some of the negative effects
Political Globalization:
State-led process
Advocacy of democratization in the developing world
Standard template that is also based on the idea that democracy and economic liberalization go hand
in hand
Democratization can be stimulated and influenced through international attempts, but domestic
factors are more important
Good democracy or superficial, dependent on domestic factors
Recently concerns for security supersede concerns about democratization and development
Cultural Globalization:
Strongly associated with ‘Americanization’ or Westernization
In reality: global dissemination of identical consumer goods and life-styles
Reaction: focus on local identities, glocalization, slow food
Globalization and Development
Territories, boundaries and states become less important
State control over movement of capital, goods and services across borders diminished
Labour opportunities are moved across borders, but movement of labour not always facilitated
Globalists refer to facilitation of societal, political, economic and cultural advancements
Negative impacts need and can be addressed through transnational civil society
Anti- or alter globalists see globalization as westernization, leading to a greater concentration of
wealth and power
West develops at the cost of the rest
Institute for Environment and Development conference analysed causes of continuing/increased
problems with undernourishment:
1. Growing power TNCs
a. Small number of TNCs acquired control over the world’s food system
b. Difficult for small farmers to compete, have to accept falling prices
2. Diminishing land and water resources
a. Uncontrolled appetite for industrially produced livestock, fed on grains
b. Effects of post 1960s green revolution: large tracts of land no longer suitable for
production (caused by pesticides, salination)
3. Climate change and deforestation
a. Poor people are hit the hardest
4. Impacts of the free market and neo-liberal policies
a. Free market and neo-liberal policies has encouraged increased scale of production,
thereby eliminating small-scale food producers
Difference between World System Theory and Dependency Theory: Dependency Theory focused on
the role of the state, World System Theory assumes that role of the state has diminished, more
power to other actors, including TNCs
Critique: Neglect of the cultural dimension
College 15, CA
Diversity, Change, Ethnicity and Nationalism
Complexity and change
People used to think that change of culture meant loss. And still do.
Result of old, out-dated concept of culture:
Bounded, small-scale entity
Underlying system of shared meanings
Identical, homogenous individuals
Strict boundaries impossible because there’s always exchange between cultures.
New concept of culture:
Culture is an active process of meaning making, characterized by multivocality, plurality
and difference.
Culture and power are interconnected
Cultural sites not bounded, global linkages
Cultural discourses are historically specific and never coherent
Huge distinction between cultural ideology and practice
Paradox of globalization:
First fear of homogenization or even McDonaldization
Actually: Increasing cultural diversity
Local response: cultural renaissance
Indigenization of modernity
Old conceptualization of change: Tradition  Modernity
Unilineal, only in one direction
Society as bounded organism.
Traditions are lost and replaced by modernity.
This dichotomy based on ideas of many influential writers. Usually before and after the arrival of
‘white men’. Tradition always seen as negative.
Book Invention of Tradition important for our thinking about tradition.
Negative in the past
Positive in era of globalization
Change is complex
Always possible in multiple directions
Traditions have acquired more meanings; negative and positive
Culture and traditions can’t only be lost, it can also change
Change is always complex, multidimensional and multilineal
Ethnic groups and ethnicity
Ethnicity: Identification with, and feeling part of, an ethnic group and exclusion from certain other
groups because of this affiliation.
Fredrik Barth: Ethnicity is about relations rather than content or culture.
Ethnicity only becomes important in relation to other people.
Ethnic group: Group whose members share certain beliefs, values, habits, customs, and norms
because of their common background.
Ethnicity usually used in relation to minorities who are under threat.
Ethnic feelings and their associated behaviour vary in intensity within ethnic groups and countries
and over time.
Cultural differences may be associated with class, region, religions and ethnicity.
Ethnic identity or status can be ascribed or achieved
Some statuses, particularly ascribed ones, can be mutually exclusive
Some statuses are contextual
Intersectionality: intersections of different aspects of your life, like being both woman and black.
Race is a cultural category rather than a biological reality
Only cultural constructions of race are possible
Race is a recent human invention
Race and racism are embedded in institutions and everyday life
Difficult to draw a clear line between ethnicity and race
Races are ethnic groups assumed to have biological basis – which is not true
Intrinsic racism: belief that perceived racial difference is sufficient reason to value one person less
than another
In U.S. society race is acquired at birth
Rule of descent: Assigns social identity on the basis of ancestry
Hypodescent: Automatically places children of mixed marriages in the group of their minority
Divides U.S. society in groups with unequal access to wealth, education, healthcare etc.
In Brazil racial identity more flexible, more of an achieved status:
Many more racial types in Brazil, over 500 once reported
Racial classification pays attention to phenotype
System is changing in the context of international identity politics and rights movements
Ethnicity and nationality
Nation: Society sharing a common language, religion, history, territory, ancestry, and kinship
State: A stratified society with formal, central government
Nation-state: Autonomous political entity; a country
Most Nation-states are not ethnically homogenous
Substantial regional variation in countries’ ethnic structures
Not so much in Europe, quite homogeneous
Really visible in Africa, heterogeneous
Nationalities: Ethnic groups that have, once had, or want their own country
Imagined communities Needed to create a country (Anderson, 1983)
Language and print played crucial role in various European national consciousnesses
Colonialism: long-term foreign domination of a territory and its people
Ways of interaction between ethnic groups
Assimilation: When a minority adopts the patterns and norms of the host culture
Incorporates the dominant culture to the point where the minority no longer exists as a
separate cultural unit.
Plural society: Society with economically interdependent ethnic groups
Interact only economically.
Barth: Ethnic boundaries most stable and enduring when groups occupy different
ecological niches.
o Shifted focus from specific cultural practices and values to relations between
ethnic groups.
Multiculturalism: A view of cultural diversity as valuable and worth maintaining.
Multiculturalism seeks ways for people to understand and interact with a respect for
their differences.
Changing demographics: growth in number and size of ethnic groups
Roots of ethnic conflict
Differences or similarities? (Narcissism of minor differences)
Causes of conflict and violence:
Sense of injustice due to resource distribution
Economic or political competition
Reaction to discrimination, prejudice; expressions of devalued identity
Samuel Huntington: Shift from political and economic conflicts to ethnic and cultural conflicts.
(Clash of Civilizations)
Stereotypes: fixed ideas about what the members of a group are like
Prejudice: the devaluing of a group because of its assumed behaviour, values, capabilities, or
Basically a stereotype as a devaluing judgement
Discrimination: policies and practices that harm a group and its members
De jure: by law
De facto: in practice but not legally sanctioned
Genocide: deliberate elimination of a group
Ethnocide: destruction of cultures of certain ethnic groups
Forced assimilation: dominant group forces an ethnic group to adopt the dominant culture
Ethnic expulsion: removing groups who are culturally different from a country
Cultural colonialism: internal domination by one group and its culture or ideology over others
College 16, DS
Development in the 21 st Century: New Issues and Approaches
To understand development outcomes, we need to take into account:
A range of internal and external factors
The context of deepening globalization
An increased international concern for ‘good governance’
To summarize evolution of development models:
Post WWII: modernization theory, strong emphasis on the role of the state.
Dependency theory: reaction to this, with attention to legacy of colonial period, unequal
power relations; inspired by Marxism. Strong focus on the state which needs to counter
capitalist domination and protect the national economy.
Neo-liberal model: lean state, state to facilitate market, strong emphasis on the role of the
private sector in service delivery.
Conclusions on development outcomes both negative and positive:
Negative since power structures and economic arrangements still biased against developing
countries, conflicts and inequalities are still rife.
Positive since there have been development successes, standard of living of many people in
the South has improved.
Basic assumption dominating theory and practice for a long time: development is poverty reduction
1950s, 1960s: Emergence of independent countries in Africa, realization that development is
more complex.
1970s: basic needs approach, role of the state important; failed because of Cold War and
elites refused to transfer resources (only helping allies, stopped when war stopped).
1980s, 1990s: rolling back the state, focus on efficiency and the market (Washington
Consensus), growth of NGO’s and role of private sector increases.
Early 2000s: desire for more people-centred development, but no consensus on how to
achieve that. Role of the state:
o No agreement on whether development requires democracies - though popular
pressure can help.
o Development policies require shifts in resource allocation, and hence are always
o Emerging economies show that states are important, but need to work in tandem
with society (private sector and civil society).
BRICS example of successes without standard consensus to achieve it.
Recently, concept of human development has become important – see SDG’s: focus on human wellbeing beyond economic growth, ensuring and enlarging human choices, greater equalities of
opportunities and empowerment.
Political aspects focus on security and stability
Economic focus on increased prosperity
Social focus on literacy, education, social relations and ‘quality of life’ (difficult to measure)
Moral focus on moral awareness and willingness and capacity to act according to social and
cultural knowledge of what is judged to be right
Psychological focus on mental health, self-esteem, social relations and happiness
Haynes: Human well-being no longer an optional add-on but an integral part of development.
But effects of Washington Consensus linger on in development policies.
Failed and weak states
Many failed and weak states are stumbling block to improve human well-being. They suffer from
collapse of institutions of law and order and failing service delivery. Often it is the result of prolonged
Failed states affected by 3 factors:
End of the Cold War
Heritage of colonial regimes
Modernization processes
Characterized by several factors:
Geographical and territorial: internal conflicts, but often spill-over across borders
Political: collapse of law and order and structures supporting these - repression can still be
Functional: absence of bodies representing the state (inter)nationally, failure of service
War on terror has focused attention on new failed states as safe havens for terrorists.
Bias in attention – there support for less/non-democratic states that are allies in this war, this way
strengthening polarization.
Civil wars nowadays last longer and involve greater number of people (see Sudan).
People focused on daily survival, no attention to long-term development and state building.
Haynes supports resource dependency theory concerning weak and failed states:
Attributes increased conflicts to growing populations – especially in poor countries
Conflicts over natural resources and economic opportunities
Links weak/failed states with increased immigration pressures
Weak and failed states also provide opportunities for illegal activities (drugs trade, blood
Failed and weak states in sub-Saharan Africa
‘Sticky-ness’ due to Cold War – there was support for undemocratic allies
End of Cold War: growth of pro-democracy movements, but also outbreak of ethnic, religious
and social tensions
Grievances rooted in poverty and inequality
Struggle over natural resources
At the time of writing the book renewed attempts to tackle the problem:
Peace keeping missions
Reform of now African Union, and introduction of NEPAD (New Partnership on African
Growth in transnational civil society, supported by communication revolution (example: not
on our watch)
These organizations (should) focus on supporting domestic pressure and international pressure.
Sometimes also focus on conflict resources like blood diamonds.
The future:
Approaches to development and development outcomes are polarized.
In theorizing about development there is tension between radical and reformist interpretations of
what needs to change.
Concern that there is not enough attention for actual experiences and developments upon which
theories should be founded.
Also concerns that so-called reform of neo-liberal policies towards human development policies are
mere window-dressing.
Successes and failures in (sustainable) development and democratization are to be explained by a
mix of factors and actors depending on the context.
Problem is that policy-makers often look for context-independent solutions.
Question: is development studies a discipline, set of disciplines, or a field/theme at the heart of all
social sciences?
College 17, CA
Postcolonialism, Globalization and Public Anthropology
The world system
The world system and relations among countries within it have been shaped by capitalist world
Capitalist world economy: World system committed to production for sale or exchange with
the object of maximizing profits
o Capital: wealth invested with the intent of producing profit
World system theory: discernible social system, based on wealth and power differentials, that
extends beyond countries
Wallerstein: countries can occupy 3 different positions in the world system
Core, semi-periphery and periphery
Emergence of world system paralleled emergence of capitalism
People worldwide entered Europe’s sphere of influence
Rural people started producing for the market instead of only for their own needs
European things and systems had a big influence on the countries where Europeans got their sugar
or coffee or workers from, and that was an important factor in the emergence of the world system.
Industrial Revolution: historic transformation (in Europe, after 1750) of traditional into modern
societies through industrialization of their economies
Began in England, not in France
Britain’s population began to increase dramatically with industrialization
Demographic explosion fuelled consumption and fostered innovation
Drew on advantages in natural resources
The nation’s cultural values and religion contributed to its industrialization
Industrial stratification
Initially, industrialization (in England) raised overall standard of living
Later, factory owners began to recruit cheaper workers from poorest populations and social ills
worsened with the growth of industrial cities
Marx and Weber focused on stratification systems associated with industrialization
Marx saw socioeconomic stratification as a sharp division between two opposed classes
o Bourgeoisie: owned the means of production
o Proletariat: people who had to sell their labour to survive
o Proletarianization: the separation of workers from the means of production
Class consciousness: recognition of collective interests and a personal identification with one’s
economic group
Important according to Marx
Modern stratification
Lenski: argued that social equality tends to increase in advanced industrial societies
Proliferation of middle-class occupations creates opportunities for social mobility
Differences in income and wealth that set off richest from poorest are widening
Great Recession since 2008 increased inequality
Weber: faulted Karl Marx for an overly simple and exclusively economic view
Wealth, power, and prestige are separate components of social ranking and tend to be
Social identities based on ethnicity, religion, race, nationality, and other attributes can take
priority over class
Imperialism: policy of extending rule of one nation or empire over others
Colonialism: political, social, economic, and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a
foreign power over an extended period of time
Whole countries, along with social groups and divisions within them, were colonial inventions.
Hundreds of ethnic groups and 'tribes' in Africa are colonial constructions.
Postcolonial studies: study of interactions between European nations and colonized societies
Former colonies can be divided into:
o Settler countries: large numbers of colonists and sparser native populations
o Nonsettler postcolonies: large native populations and a small number of Europeans
o Mixed postcolonies: sizable native and European populations
The world system today
Spread of industrialization continues:
Nations shifted positions within world system
Mass production gave rise to a culture of consumption
Industrialization entailed a shift from renewable resources to the use of fossil fuels
Globalization as fact: spread and connectedness of production, distribution, consumption,
communication, and technologies across the world.
Globalization also a contested ideology and policy
A clash of cultures may occur when development threatens indigenous peoples and their
Spread of environmentalism may expose different notions about the 'rights' and value of plants and
animals versus humans
Effective conservation strategies pay attention to needs and wishes of local people
Since at least 1920, anthropologists investigated changes that arise from contacts between industrial
and nonindustrial societies
Acculturation: changes in cultural patterns of either or both groups
Westernization: accumulative influence of Western expansion on indigenous peoples and
their cultures
Different degrees of destruction, domination, resistance, survival, adaptation, and modification of
indigenous cultures may follow interethnic contact
Bodley: 'shock phase' often follows an initial encounter
Cultural imperialism: spread or advance of one culture at the expense of others
Some see modern technology as erasing cultural differences
Others see modern technology as providing an opportunity for social groups (local cultures)
to express themselves
People constantly make and remake culture in context of globalization
Assign their own meanings to information, images, products
'Indigenization of modernity': modifying to fit in the local culture
Appadurai: views today’s world as 'translocal interactive system' that is 'strikingly new'
Scale of human movement expanded dramatically
Most migrants maintain ties with native land
Diaspora: offspring of an area who have spread to many lands
Deterritorialization of identity
Postmodernity: describes our time and situation, with today’s world in flux
Postmodernity describes world in which traditional standards, contrasts, groups, boundaries,
and identities are opening up, reaching out, and breaking down
o New kinds of political and ethnic units emerged along with globalization
Postmodern: period of a blurring and breakdown of established canons, categories, distinctions, and
Essentialism: process of viewing identity as established, real, and frozen
Identity is fluid and multiple
Identities are seen as:
Potentially plural
Emerging through a specific process
Ways of being someone in particular times and places
Anthropology has crucial role in promoting more humanistic vision of social change
Respects value of cultural diversity
Existence of anthropology contributes to the continuing need to understand social and
cultural similarities and differences
Work to keep anthropology, the study of humankind, the most humanistic of all the sciences
Public Anthropology
Modern anthropology usually seen as helping profession
Highly qualified to suggest, plan, and implement policies affecting people, especially with
regard to cultural diversity and inequality
o Identifying needs for change that local people perceive
o Working with those people to design culturally appropriate and socially sensitive
o Protecting local people from harmful policies
Speak up for disenfranchised
Focus on Cultural Diversity in home society
Focus on policy problems:
Integration issues
Identity of young people
Anthropologists may acquire unique perspective on organizational conditions and problems
Ethnography and observation
Focus on cultural diversity
Cross-cultural expertise