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Measuring association: The correlation and its square â¢ The correlation is a standardized slope that does not depend on units â¢ Correlation r relates to slope b of prediction equation by r = b(sx/sy) â¢ -1 â¤ r â¤ +1, with r having same sign as b and r = 1 or -1 when all sample points fall exactly on prediction line, so r describes strength of linear association â¢ The larger the absolute value, the stronger the association â¢ Correlation implies that predictions regress toward the mean