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Transcript
Cardiovascular Disease: Knowing the Risk
Factors, Symptoms, and Prevention
Arvi Grover M.D.
Director of Cardiovascular Research,
Director of Heart Health Program,
KMH Cardiology
Today’s presentation
• The Heart Truth……………..
• What are heart disease and stroke?
• What are the warning signs?
• What are the risk factors?
• How can you reduce your risks?
• How to talk to your doctor?
2
Simple Stats
,
• 9 out of 10 Canadians over the age of 20 have at
least one of the following risk factors:
• smoking,
• physical inactivity during leisure time,
• less than recommended daily consumption of vegetables
and fruit,
• stress,
• overweight or obesity,
• high blood pressure,
• or diabetes.
• 2 in 5 have three or more of these risk factors
• Addressing these risk factors will reduce the risk
not only of CVD, but also of many other chronic
diseases that share the same risk factors.
AHA Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2010 Update. Circulation 2010;121:e41-e215.
What is heart disease?
• Damage to the heart
• Most common type is coronary artery
disease
- angina caused by reduced blood supply and
oxygen to the heart
- heart attack caused by reduction or stoppage
of blood supply/oxygen
4
Do you know the warning signs of a
heart attack?
5
Heart Attack Symptoms - MEN
Chest pain
Discomfort in other areas of
the upper body
•
•
•
One or both arms
Back, neck or jaw
Stomach
Shortness of breath
Other signs
•
•
•
•
Cold sweat
Nausea
Lightheadedness
Fatigue
Heart Attack Symptoms - WOMEN
As with men, chest pain or
discomfort
More likely- other
symptoms:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Shortness of breath
Nausea/vomiting
Back or jaw pain
Not feeling right
Fatigue
Palpitations
Musculoskeletal complaints
Hot flashes
Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors








History of CAD/PAD

Male Sex

History of TIA/CVA

Smoking
Hypertension(high blood

pressure)
Diabetes Mellitus
Dyslipidemia (high

cholesterol)
– Low HDL < 1.0
– Elevated LDL / TG
Family History - event in
first degree relative > 55
male, > 65 female
Chronic Kidney Disease
Obesity
Lack of regular physical
activity
Diet poor in fruits,
vegetables, and fiber
Age > 45 male, > 55
female
Risk Factors that Can’t Be Changed
♥
♥
♥
♥
♥
Age
Gender: Male
Heredity – Family History
Race
Previous CAD, PVD or
CVA
Exercise is a Medicine
Physicians should prescribe it, Patients should take it!
• Instead of an allergy, exercise may
be the long sought vaccine to
prevent chronic disease and extend
life
Are we reaching a point where NOT prescribing physical
activity should be consider patient neglect?
Do You Really Think We have a Chance
Without Exercise?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Obesity
Coronary artery disease
Diabetes
Hypertension
Cancer
Depression and anxiety
Arthritis
Osteoporosis
Etc, etc, etc…
NO!
Patients
Physicians
Physical Activity and Reduced Mortality
(Lancet, Vol 378, Issue 9798, Pages 1244-1253, October 2011)
• Those who exercised for at least 90 min /
week or 15 min/day had a 14% reduction in
mortality
• Further extra 15 min/day reduced mortality
even more by 4% and reduced cancer risk
by another 1%
• Inactive individuals had a 14% increased
mortality risk
Cardiovascular Diet
Cardiovascular Care
 Smoking cessation
– Cessation-class, medications,
counseling
 Physical activity
– Goal 30 - 60 minutes daily
– Risk assessment prior to initiation
 Diet
– DASH diet, Mediterranean diet, fiber,
omega-3 fatty acids
– <7% total calories from saturated fats
Cardiac Screening – Heart Health Program
• Know your personal and family
history
• Appropriate screening for your
level of risk
• Program consists of aprox. 6
visits over 1 year
• Testing to determine current
status
• Multi-disciplinary approach to
increase your education on
proper lifestyle, including diet
and exercise
• Take charge of your health
Prevention Begins with You




Take one step at a time
Replace unhealthy habits with healthier ones
Eat for a healthy heart
Start walking—try 10 minutes and add time
gradually
to reach 2 hours and 30 minutes each week
How to Keep Going
 View changes as a new lifestyle, not quick
fixes
 Set realistic goals
 Buddy up
 Don’t worry about slipping up—get back on
track
 Reward your successes
 Be your own advocate—ask questions and
seek information
The Heart Truth®
It’s up to you to protect your heart
health—start today!
Heart Health Program
• Speak to your doctor to see if you could
benefit from enrollment
• No cost to patients
• Services include regular
Cardiology/Dietician assessment
• 6 visits over 14 months
• Multiple locations across GTA and
Southeastern Ontario