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Earth and Space Science Chapter 18 Exam 1. What is the visible surface of the Sun called? a) Photosphere b) Atmosphere c) Stratosphere d) Glowing sphere 2. The apparent path that the Sun traces annually along the celestial sphere is known as the ______________. a) parabolic b) elliptic c) ecliptic d) eclipse 3. The angular measurement in hours, minutes, and seconds from the celestial prime meridian eastward is called _______________. a) sundial b) protractor c) declination d) right ascension 4. A star of magnitude 1 appears _______________ times brighter than a star of magnitude 2. a) 5.21 b) 3.14 c) 10 d) 2.51 5. The stars of highest photospheric temperature are those of spectral class _______________. a) O b) M c) K d) C 6. The greater the mass of a star, the _______________ it moves through its life cycle. a) faster b) slower c) Neither of these; mass has no effect on the life cycle of a star. 7. The remaining core of a planetary nebula is called a _______________. a) white dwarf b) neutron star c) black hole d) red giant 8. An incredibly dense star so massive that light cannot escape from its surface is called a _______________. a) red giant b) black hole c) white dwarf d) pulsar 9. The Sun's energy is generated from the fusion of a) uranium to form lead, Pb. b) helium nuclei to form carbon nuclei. c) hydrogen nuclei to form helium nuclei. d) carbon nuclei to form magnesium nuclei. 10. Astronomers measure stellar distances in three different units. The smallest of these is a) the light-year. b) the absolute magnitude. c) the astronomical unit. d) the parsec. 11. The apparent motion of an object when it is viewed from two different positions against a fixed background is called a) Hubble's effect. b) parallax. c) paradox. d) Brighton's effect. 12. The color of a star reveals its a) apparent brightness. b) component elements. c) density. d) surface temperature. 13. Stars lying above the main sequence that are relatively cool but very bright are called a) red giants. b) white dwarfs. c) brown dwarfs. d) pulsars. 14. How many constellations encompass the complete celestial sphere? a) 88 b) 360 c) 180 d) 100 15. Stars in the process of forming are called a) giant planets. b) brown dwarfs. c) red supergiants. d) protostars. 16. A faint white dwarf that temporarily increases in brightness as a consequence of nuclear explosions on its surface is termed a) a nova. b) a Type II supernova. c) a bright nebula. d) a red giant. 17. Which of the following is not a name used in the classification of galaxies? a) Irregular b) Regular c) Spiral d) Elliptical 18. What astronomer established the present system for classifying galaxies? a) Henrietta Leavitt b) Harlow Shapley c) Edwin Hubble d) Hipparchus 19. The most distant objects yet detected in the universe are a) quasars. b) pulsars. c) superclusters. d) globular clusters. 20. Most cosmologists favor the Big Bang theory over other cosmological theories because of a) a 3-to-1 ratio of hydrogen to helium in stars and interstellar matter. b) cosmological redshifts. c) the cosmic microwave background. d) all of the above.