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The Steam Engine James Watt – Improved Newcomen’s steam engine Early drawing of Newcomen’s steam engine Introduction • The steam engine drastically changed the world of business and trade. • The steam engine geographically altered our world. Newcomen’s Steam Engine • Invented originally by Thomas Newcomen in 1712 • Powered water pumps to drain water from flooded areas of mines in England • Newcomen had no technical training in the area Technical drawing of Newcomen’s engine used to drain mineshafts Watt’s Steam Engine • “In 1763 James Watt was sent a Newcomen steam engine to repair. While putting it back into working order, Watt discovered how he could make the engine more efficient. Watt worked on the idea for several months and eventually produced a steam engine that cooled the used steam in a condenser separate from the main cylinder.” (James Watt) • Over 500 of Watt’s improved machines were being used in textile factories and mineshafts around England by the year 1800 Working model of a steam engine in use Steam Engine and Economics • • • The steam engine powered the Industrial Revolution “The most important of the changes that brought about the Industrial Revolution were (1) the invention of machines to do the work of hand tools; (2) the use of steam, and later of other kinds of power, in place of the muscles of human beings and of animals; and (3) the adoption of the factory system.” (Industrial Revolution) These 3 changes increased the amount of work being done in factories and bettered the economics of the time period A factory where James Watt developed the steam engine Steam Engine and Economics • “Like other engines, the steam engine needed fuel to burn. England had large deposits of coal to fuel the new steam engines, making it possible for people to use more machines and to build larger factories.” (Industrial Revolution) • This increase of factories attracted people to the cities where factories were located • Many workers were hired who could do simple tasks in a factory that used machines. Many factories employed men, women AND children often for long hours. • Many people were willing to work in these conditions because their quality of life was getting better • “Living standards rose from 1820 onwards after 70 years of stagnation. This rise accelerated between 1870 and 1900, when real wages, consumption and life expectancy all rose sharply.” (The workshop of a new society) Lime Street in Liverpool, England in 1877 at height of Industrial Revolution Steam Engine and Economics • Economic Problems Luddites breaking machinery in protest – Many people opposed new technology like the steam engine and the factory system – These people were called Luddites and they were afraid of losing their jobs to these new machines – “Factories disrupted family life. Women and children could easily operate the new steam-driven machines. They were paid lower wages than men, so the textile factories ceased to employ men.” (Carlson) Steam Engine and Geography • The steam engine is applied to the world of transportation (Steam Locomotives and Steamboats) which instantly allows the world to be more accessible for people and goods Railroads and Steamships (Visual) Steam Engine and Geography • Railroads open up countries to travel and business, for example: – “The completion in 1905 of the Canadian Pacific Railway opened up the country's western prairie provinces to international trade.” (transportation revolution ) – “The United States was a large country with relatively few roads or canals, so Americans enthusiastically adopted the railroad. By 1870, the United States had 53,000 miles of railroads.” (transportation revolution ) – “Railroads helped to open up areas like the Great Plains of the United States and Canada, the pampas (plains) of Argentina, and parts of northern Mexico for agricultural development. By the late 19th century, those regions were producing grains and livestock for export. In other regions, railroads encouraged mining industries.” (transportation revolution ) • These examples show that the steam engine (applied to a mode of land transportation like the locomotive) was the source of what many call the opening of continents around the world • Also, railroads moved people from one location to another affecting where people were located on the Earth. – “Railroads moved people. As they helped to bring immigrants from their homes to the ports in their country of origin, railroads played a key role in immigration to the Western Hemisphere. In fact, the earliest wave of immigrants to North America came from England, Ireland, and Germany—countries that had good rail transportation. As railroads spread to eastern and southern Europe, more and more immigrants arrived from countries like Italy and Russia. Once immigrants had arrived, railroads then helped to move them into the interior of their new country. For example, early immigrants to the United States tended to stay along the East Coast. Later, railroads took them to the central and western parts of the country.” (transportation revolution ) Steam Engine and Geography • Steamships open up the world by way of the ocean and rivers: – Robert Fulton invents the steamboat in 1807 – Connects river ports among the major rivers in the Eastern United States in the 1800s – Steam liners that cross the ocean come later in the 1800s and drastically cuts time between continents, especially North America and Europe – “For example, travel time from Liverpool to Cape Town, South Africa fell from three months to three weeks.” (transportation revolution) – The Suez Canal (a canal built in Egypt and cut into the land) was made in 1869 to accommodate steam engine liners traveling from Europe to Asia Steam Locomotive and Steam Ship A replica of the first steam locomotive Robert Fulton’s steamboat the Clermont Conclusion • The steam engine was an invention that was applied to a myriad of other ideas (Trains, Steamboats, Factories, Mining, etc…). • The steam engine was a positive change for the business world. It helped to further the factory system and get more middle class people working than ever before. • The steam engine also opened up the world to people from every continent. The locomotive and the steamship were used to transport both people and goods and make the world a smaller place. Bibliography • Carlson, W. Bernard, Ed.. 15: The Changing Face of Work. Oxford University Press, 2005. eLibrary. Web. 07 Jan. 2013. • "Industrial Revolution." Compton's by Britannica, v 6.0. 2009. eLibrary. Web. 07 Jan. 2013. • "Industrial Revolution." Earth Explorer. 1995. eLibrary. Web. 07 Jan. 2013. • James Watt: Brief Profile. eLibrary. Web. 07 Jan. 2013. • "Railroads and Steamships (Visual)." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 7 Jan. 2013. • "transportation revolution." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 7 Jan. 2013. • "The workshop of a new society: 1670-1850." Economist. 31 Dec. 1999 eLibrary. Web. 07 Jan. 2013.