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Industrialism Begins
Agricultural Revolution
• Shift away from small farms and old farming
techniques to big farms and more modern
• 1701-Seed drill (instead of scattering seeds)
• Crop rotation
– Different crops in a field each year (need to
replace nutrients
• Breeding
– Only breed best cattle/sheep
Industrial Revolution
• Increased output of machine-made goods that
began in England
• Aka-shift from making things by hand to
making a lot by machine
Industrialization starts in England
• Industrialization
– Process of developing machine production of
• Why England?
– Water power and coal to power new machines
– Iron ore to construct machines, tools, buildings
– Rivers for transportation
– Harbors for trade
– Good banking system
– Good economy
– Land, labor and capital (factors of production)
• Make more money if you can speed up
spinning and weaving
– John Kay-made shuttle sped back and forth
on wheels
– James Hargreaves-Spinning Jenny worked
eight threads at a time
– Richard Arkwright-water frame, used steam
to power machines
• Eli Whitney (US)
– Cotton gin-speeds up the amount of cotton that
can be cleaned (1810)
• Samuel Crompton
– combines jenny and water frame = spinning mule
(stronger & finer thread)
• Edmund Cartwright
– power loom speeds up weaving (1787)
• Steam Engine
– James Watt from Scotland makes a efficient steam
engine. He joins with Matthew Boulton to build
better steam engines.
– Steam engines can power boats!
• Means faster transportation of people and goods!
• John McAdam
– Scottish, works to make roads that are covered
with a smooth layer of crushed rock (HELLOMODERNIZATION!)
• No sinking in the mud!
• New roads called turnpikes
– Have to pay tolls ($$) at a turnpike to travel on that road.
• Steam-Driven Locomotives
– 1804, Richard Trevithick wins money because of
his steam-driven train (wins bet)
• Steam engines need coal to heat up H2O for energy to
move the train
• Liverpool-Manchester Railroad
– Finished in 1829
– Tran, the Rocket, hauled 13 ton load at 24mph
(pretty fast for back then!)
– Officially opened in 1830 to the public
• It’s a hit!
Railways-What do they do?
• Provides cheap transportation
• Creates new jobs
• Boosts agricultural and fishing industries
– Then can transport goods faster so they’re
• Commuting to work!
– Can live farther from your workplace…