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Bias and Propaganda Bias and Propaganda Bias and Propaganda Think about the following: 1. What do I know about the author? What is his or her motivation for writing? 2. Who published this piece? Who wants you to read it? 3. What type of propaganda does the author use? 4. What is your opinion? Where can you find more information on this topic? Types of Propaganda 1. Emotional Appeal Authors appeal to readers’ emotions. Don’t use X Brand toys. They can harm your children. 2. Logical Appeal Authors convince with facts and reasoning. 16 out of 20 teenagers at my school prefer energy drinks to soda. That is why I think we should have energy drinks in the vending machines. 3. Ethical Appeal Authors present themselves as credible and trustworthy. After carefully considering both sides of the story, I agree with the congresswoman from Massachusetts. Types of Propaganda (continued) 4. Rhetorical Questions Authors use questions just to make a point. How can you feel safe without a dog guarding your home? 5. Glittering Generalities Authors describe something in glowing terms. No other book can entertain and educate everyone so well. 6. Testimonials “Real” people endorse a product based on their own experience. I am happiest when I have Happy Hal’s orange juice in the morning! Types of Propaganda (continued) 7. Repetition Authors repeat certain words or phrases to convey a certain idea. Dr. Smith is a knowledgeable doctor. He became a doctor to help people. As a doctor, he travels the world to offer medical assistance to those in need. 8. Overstatement Authors exaggerate for effect. It was such a good movie! I must have seen it 1,000 times this summer! 9. Bandwagon “Everybody’s doing it!” Your friends have the latest x232 cell phone. Why don’t you? Guided Practice with Bias and Propaganda Dear Editor, I’m writing because I felt infuriated after reading the article titled, “It’s a Free Country, Not a Smoke-free City” published last Sunday. I quit smoking the day my mother died from lung cancer, and my health and my family’s health has changed dramatically for the better. I won’t stand by while smokers slap the wrists of those of us who care about our health. All public places in this city should be smoke-free precisely because it is a free country. How can I practice my freedom to breathe when a room or the outside air is filled with smoke from selfish fellow citizens? Sincerely, Vehemently Smoke-Free Guided Practice with Bias and Propaganda What do I know about the author? What is his or her motivation for writing? Who published this piece? Who wants you to read it? What type of propaganda does the author use? What is your opinion? Where can you find more information on this topic? Answers to Guided Practice What do I know about the author? What is his or her motivation for writing? The author had a mother who died of lung cancer, and he or she disagrees with smokers who think they have the right to smoke anywhere. The author’s motivation is to present an argument in opposition to that of the previously published article. Who published the piece? Who wants you to read it? The newspaper published the letter. They likely chose to publish this letter out of many others for a particular reason. Perhaps they wanted to offer an alternative view from the one presented in the article, “It’s a Free Country, Not a Smoke-free City.” What types of propaganda does the author use? Testimonial, emotional appeal, ethical appeal, rhetorical question What is your opinion? Where can you find more information on this topic? To form your opinion, you could read the original article, look up statistics about lung cancer and smoking, and try to find out more about the city’s policies. Copyright © 2009 StudyIsland.com All rights reserved.