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The New Republic
How did the United States build a
government, expand its territory,
and conduct foreign policy in its
early years?
Government and Party Politics
Chapter 6, Section 1
How did debate over the role of
government lead to the formation of
political parties?
Government and Party Politics
Building the Federal Government
Main Idea: The new government started out with enormous problems,
including a large national debt, a small military, Spain’s efforts to keep
trade closed along the Mississippi River, and British forts still maintained
along the Great Lakes. Important tasks for the new republic included
electing a president, and setting up the judiciary and Cabinet.
Hamilton’s Plans Stir Debate
Main Idea: As a Federalist, Hamilton believed that a strong centralized
government was necessary to preserve the Union. However, as he
developed plans for paying off the new nation’s great debts, his plans
received fierce and vocation opposition from Antifederalists.
Opposing Hamilton
Main Idea: Opposition to Hamilton’s plans grew steadily in the South,
where the states’ income from agriculture enabled them to pay their share
of the country’s debts.
A Two-Party System Emerges
Government and Party Politics (continued…)
Witness History: The First Inaugural
Note Taking: Reading Skill: Summarize
Chart: Hamilton’s Plan for Restructuring Debt
Color Transparencies: The First President
Political Cartoons: The Whiskey Rebellion
Infographic: Political Parties Grow
History Interactive: Political Parties Grow
Progress Monitoring Transparency
Reading Skill: Summarize
Problems Faced by the New
• Huge war debt from the
Revolutionary War
• No permanent capital
• No federal officers
beyond Washington,
John Adams, and the
newly elected Congress
First Inauguration
• The oath of office was administered in New
York City
• George Washington repeated the oath of
office of President
• Inauguration: official swearing-in ceremony
• Cabinet: leaders of the executive
departments of the federal government
President Washington
• Administration: staff in the executive branch
• Precedent: something done or said that
becomes an example, rule, or tradition
• Established a tone of dignity; Washington
believed that parties and pomp were
necessary to command the respect of the
• Elected to second term in 1792
• Tradition of being elected for only two terms
• President:
George Washington
• Vice President:
John Adams
The First President
Setting Up the Judiciary
• Constitution called for Supreme Court and
smaller ones
• Left details of organization to Congress
• Judiciary Act of 1789 – system of courts
• Thirteen federal district courts
• John Jay was first Chief Justice of the U.S.
Government Affairs
• Foreign affairs: relations with foreign
countries; the Secretary of State heads the
State Department and coordinated U.S.
involvement with foreign countries
• Domestic affairs: Issues relating to a
country’s internal affairs
• Cabinet: officials selected by the President
to head the major departments of the
executive branch and to advise the President
• Attorney General: Edmund Randolph
• Secretary of War: Henry Knox
• Secretary of State: Thomas Jefferson
• Secretary of the Treasury: Alexander
Thomas Jefferson
• Planter, lawyer, and
diplomat; had served
several years as
ambassador to France
• Writer, inventor, and
• Founded the University
of Virginia
Alexander Hamilton
• Brilliant man
• Private secretary to
General Washington
• Believed that
governmental power
could accomplish great
Hamilton and Jefferson Debate
Hamilton and Jefferson in Conflict
• Hamilton: strong central government led by wealthy,
• Jefferson: strong state, local government; people’s
• Hamilton has Northern support; Jefferson has
Southern, Western
Hamilton’s Economic Plan
• U.S. owes millions to foreign countries, private
• Plan—pay foreign debt, issue new bonds, assume
states’ debt
• Some Southern states have paid debts, against
taxes to pay for North
Hamilton’s Program
• Supported strong
national power
• Little faith in the people
• Felt that government
needed to direct the
development of the
American economy
• Hamilton’s Plan: take
on Revolutionary War
debts of states
• Wanted to charter a
Bank of the U.S.
• Southern states would support the debt plan,
if northern states would support the plan to
locate the capital in the South
• Hamilton’s strategy:
- Creditors owed money by the government
did not want government to collapse
- Creditors were concerned with the future of
the U.S. so they would get paid
• Set up a budget payment plan: sell
government bonds
Hamilton’s Plan for Restructuring Debt
Hamilton’s Opponents
• Washington sided with
• Thomas Jefferson
resigned from the
Cabinet in 1793.
• Believed that Hamilton
was betraying the spirit
of the Revolution
• Had more faith in the
Interpretation of Constitution
• Strict construction –
government should not
do anything unless
specified in the
• Loose construction –
government could do
anything that was not
forbidden in the
Payment Plan
• Tariff enacted in
1789 to tax imported
goods to raise
• 1791, congress
placed a tax on
• Fund set up to pay
creditors slowly,
with interest
Whiskey Rebellion
• Corn made into whiskey
• Used as a kind of
• Rebels closed courts
and attacked tax
• 1794, army of 12,000
men put down the
rebellion in
Pennsylvania to
demonstrate the power
of the government
Analyzing Political Cartoons: The Whiskey Rebellion
Political Parties Grow
Democratic Republicans
• Stood for a more democratic republic
• Along with Federalists, they became the first
political parties: a group of people who seek
to win elections and hold public office in
order to control government policy and
Progress Monitoring Transparency
The Struggle Over Foreign
Chapter 6 Section 2
How did foreign policy challenges
affect political debate and shape
American government?
The Struggle Over Foreign Policy
Conflict in the Ohio Valley
Main Idea: From the forts they maintained along the Great Lakes, the
British supplied the Miami Indians and their allies with arms and
ammunition. The British hoped to limit American settlement in the
Northwest Territory. This led to violent conflict.
American Relations With Europe
Main Idea: While the British were helping Native Americans take a stand
against the
United States, Americans became embroiled in the first major foreign
policy event of its short history: the French Revolution.
The Parties Debate Foreign Policy
Main Idea: The Federalists and Antifederalists conflicted over many issues
concerning government power. A crisis in France briefly united the nation,
but the Alien and Sedition Acts and the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
soon revealed the party divisions once again.
The Election of 1800
The Struggle Over Foreign Policy (continued…)
Witness History: A Great Orator Speaks
Note Taking: Reading Skill: Identify Supporting Details
Color Transparencies: The XYZ Affair
Political Cartoons: Fighting Over the Sedition Act
Map: Presidential Election of 1800
Progress Monitoring Transparency
Reading Skill: Identify Supporting Details
Analyzing Political Cartoons: Fighting Over the Sedition Act
French Revolution
• 1789 French people
overthrew King Louis
• During the Reign of
Terror, thousands of
people were executed,
including King Louis
XVI and Queen Marie
• Federalists opposed the
French Revolution,
while Jefferson and his
supporters thought of it
as an extension of the
American Revolution
• War broke out between
Great Britain and
• America neutral
Jay’s Treaty
• Washington sided with
Britain in war because
of British navy
• Britain agreed to leave
the forts in Northwest
• Expanded trade, but did
not solve ship problem
of stopping American
ships to search for
British subjects
• Lost support of many
Washington’s Legacy
• Washington was
famous for his
honesty, dignity, an
• He was very popular
in his first four
• Problems clouded
his second term
• Many distrusted the
• Many disliked
economic plans
• Jefferson resigned
in 1793
• Divisions in the
Capital City
• First government was in New York City
• Capital moved to Philadelphia in 1790
• Residence Act of 1790: 10-square-mile
stretch of land on Virginia-Maryland border
• District of Columbia
• Benjamin Banneker: surveyor
• Pierre-Charles L’Enfant developed the city
plan with broad streets, the White House for
the President’s residence, and the Capitol
building for Congress; moved in 1800
U.S. Response to Events in Europe
Reactions to the French Revolution
• Federalists pro-British; Democratic-Republicans
• Washington declares neutrality, will not support
either side
• Edmond Genêt, French diplomat, violates
diplomatic protocol
Treaty with Spain
• Spain negotiates with Thomas Pinckney, U.S.
minister to Britain
• Pinckney’s Treaty of 1795, or Treaty of San
Lorenzo, signed:
- Spain gives up claims to western U.S.
- Florida-U.S. boundary set at 31st parallel
- Mississippi River open to U.S. traffic
Washington’s Farewell
• “[A system of political
parties] agitates the
Community with illfounded jealousies and
false alarms, kindles
the animosity of one
part against another,
[and] foments [stirs up]
occasional riot and
insurrection.” 1796
Election of 1796
• Washington set a
precedent of serving
two terms
• John Adams ran
against Thomas
• Adams elected with
Jefferson his Vice
President (from
different political
Progress Monitoring Transparency
John Adams
 Second President
 Lacked the prestige of
 Rise of political parties
 Threat of war from
abroad with the French
over Jay’s Treaty
 French began seizing
American ships in
French harbors
XYZ Affair
 French were seizing
American ships
 X, Y, and Z were French
agents sent by
Tallyrand to demand a
bribe from America to
see him
 Americans returned
 Undeclared war with
The XYZ Affair
Adams Provokes Criticism
First Party-Based Elections
• 1796, Federalist John Adams elected president
- Jefferson, a Democratic-Republican, is
• Result of sectionalism, placing regional interests
above nation
Adams Tries to Avoid War
• French see Jay’s Treaty as violation of alliance;
seize U.S. ships
• XYZ Affair—French officials demand bribe to see
foreign minister
• Congress creates navy department; Washington
called to lead army
• Undeclared naval war rages between France,
U.S. for two years
Alien Act
 President gained the
right to imprison or
deport citizens of other
countries residing in
the U.S.
Sedition Act
• Persons who wrote,
published, or said
anything “of a false,
scandalous, and
malicious” nature
against the American
government or its
officials could be jailed
or fined
Virginia and Kentucky
 Jefferson, Madison, and
others felt the Sedition
Act violated free speech
 Legislatures of two
states came up with
“null and void” idea
 Stated that states had
the right to judge
whether federal laws
agreed with the
 Principle that a state
could declare a federal
law “null and void” in a
 Principle unresolved
Prosser’s Rebellion
 Gabriel Prosser, a
blacksmith, in
Richmond, Virginia, led
a rebellion. It failed and
twenty of them were
Election of 1800
 Personal attacks
 Jefferson versus
 Jefferson did not gain a
majority so decided in
the House of
Transfer of Power
 Peaceful
 Americans must be
willing to disagree
Presidential Election of 1800
The Age of Jefferson
Chapter 6 Section 3
What were the successes and failures of
the Jefferson administrations?
The Age of Jefferson
Pursuing Republican Principles
Main Idea: Jefferson and his administration set out to do things quite
differently from their Federalist predecessors. Jefferson cut taxes but
succeeded at cutting the national debt by streamlining government
bureaucracy. Federal revenue also surged due to growth in foreign trade
and sale of federal lands.
John Marshall’s Supreme Court
Main Idea: John Marshall, a Federalist, became the Chief Justice of the
United States in 1801. His four-part legacy and his participation in over
1,000 court decisions made a tremendous impact on the nation’s history.
The Nation Expands
Main Idea: Jefferson insisted that farm ownership was essential to the
freedom of white Americans. Yet, without expansion there would not be
enough farms for the rapidly growing population. As a result, Jefferson
set his sights on expanding the U.S. to the Pacific.
Jefferson’s Foreign Troubles
The Age of Jefferson (continued…)
Witness History: A Jefferson Calls for Free Speech
Note Taking: Reading Skill: Identify Main Ideas
Note Taking: Reading Skill: Recognize Sequence
Color Transparencies: The Marshall Court
Geography Interactive: U.S. Territory, 1803
Chart: U.S. Population, 1790-1810
Map: The Reexport Trade in Action
Progress Monitoring Transparency
Reducing Government
• Jefferson reversed much of what the
Federalists had done, such as presidential
style; addressed as “Mr. President”
• Reduced taxes
• Cut the bureaucracy – the departments and
workers that make up the federal government
• Slashed the size of the army to 3,000 men
• Let stand the Bank of the United States since
charter would expire in 1811
Rivals to Jefferson
• Aaron Burr: Vice
• Alexander Hamilton,
now a lawyer in New
• Burr killed Hamilton in a
duel in 1804, ending his
political future
Judiciary Acts
• Judiciary Act of 1789: created a national
court system with three circuit courts and
thirteen district courts, headed by the
Supreme Court
• Stated that the Supreme Court would settle
differences between state and federal laws
Judiciary Acts
• Judiciary Act of 1801: decreased the number
of Supreme Court justices and increased the
number of federal judges. Adams filled the
new posts to have more Federalists judges;
• Known as midnight judges
• Angered Jefferson who felt that he should
appoint new judges from his political party
John Marshall
• Federalist leader
• Became Chief Justice in
1801 and held post for
34 years
• Established principle of
constitutional law –
judicial review
• Insisted federal laws
were superior to state
Marbury v. Madison
• Adams appointed Marbury as justice of the
peace for the District of Columbia
• Secretary of State Madison never delivered
the papers
• Marbury sued Madison
• Chief Justice Marshall ruled against Marbury;
declared part of the Judiciary Act of 1789
• Established the power of judicial review
Judicial Review
• Enables federal courts to review state laws
and court decisions
• Can decide if laws passed by Congress are
Reading Skill: Recognize Sequence
The Marshall Court
U.S. Population, 1790-1810
Louisiana Purchase
• Northwest Ordinance of 1787: established a
process by which territories could become
• Land Act of 1800: Americans able to buy land
in small parcels and on credit
• Napoleon, the French ruler, took over much
of the Spanish land in the West and charged
large sums of money from American traders
to use the Mississippi River and New Orleans
Louisiana Purchase
• France controlled New Orleans
• Napoleon failed to stop a rebellion in Haiti
• Jefferson sent James Monroe to Paris to buy
New Orleans for $10 million, but he bought
all French land for $15 million
• Jefferson overcame doubts about
constitutionality of buying land and signed
• Doubled the size of the U.S.
Lewis and Clark Expedition
• Meriwether Lewis and William Clark explored
the Louisiana Purchase in 1804 to make
contact with Native Americans and to gather
information about the region’s natural
• Sacajawea and husband were interpreters
Zebulon Pike
• Traveled as far west
as the Rockies and
then south into
territory between
1806 and 1807
• Pike’s Peak
Foreign Policy
• Jay’s Treaty expired in 1805
• Great Britain and France at war again
• Harassing American ships; British
kidnapping American sailors
• Leopard incident – British ship, the Leopard,
attacked the U.S.S. Chesapeake, inflicting 21
casualties in search of deserters from the
British navy
Barbary War
• Barbary States of North Africa used piracy
for profit
• U.S. had paid prote4ction money to the
Barbary States
• Price increased, so Jefferson blockaded the
port of Tripoli
• Peace in 1805
Reexport Trade
• War between Britain and France with British
capturing French merchant ships
• Americans brought cargoes from French
islands to American ports, and then shipped
them to France
• British began to confiscate American
merchant ships for trading with the French
• British began to impress American sailors
The Reexport Trade in Action
Embargo of 1807
• Outlawed almost all trade with foreign
• Little effect on British or French trade
• Americans smuggled goods to Europe in
defiance of the embargo (a restriction of
• Jefferson used navy and federal agents to
enforce the law
• Ruined Jefferson’s second term
Reading Skill: Identify Main Ideas
Election of 1808
• James Madison was
elected president
• Jefferson retired to his
Progress Monitoring Transparency
The War of 1812
Chapter 6 Section 4
Why did the United States go to war
with Britain, and what was the
outcome of that war?
The War of 1812
Gearing Up for War
Main Idea: Democratic Republicans felt humiliated by the failure of the
1807 embargo against Britain. With persistent British abuses on the
oceans, and stepped-up Native American resistance in the West,
Americans increasingly blamed the British for their problems.
War Breaks Out
Main Idea: President Madison urged Congress to declare war on Britain
in June of 1812. Disunited, unprepared, and with only a small army and
navy, the United States went to war once again with the world’s greatest
War’s Aftermath and Effects
Main Idea: After the War of 1812 and Jackson’s victory in New Orleans,
Americans experienced a surge of nationalism and a new confidence in
the strength of their republic. By weathering a difficult war, the nation
seemed certain to endure. Also, westward expansion contributed to a
union that was bigger and stronger than ever.
The War of 1812 (continued…)
Geography Interactive: Major Battles of the War of 1812
Color Transparencies: The War of 1812
Analyze: Cause and Effect: The War of 1812
Progress Monitoring Transparency
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
• No state northwest of the Ohio River could
be a slave state
• Missouri not covered by this law
• Northern congressmen worried that if
Missouri was admitted as a slave state, the
balance of power would tip toward the South
War in the Old Northwest
• American Revolution
weakened Iroquois and
• Miami, Delaware, Shawnee,
and other Native American
groups grouped to fight
• Miamitown 1790 – Little
Turtle and Blue Jacket
defeat army
• Expedition led by Arthur St.
Clair defeated
Battles-Army Victories
• Legion of the U.S. led by
General Wayne win at the
Battle of Fallen Timbers in
• Native American groups
forced to accept Treaty of
• Miami, Delaware, Shawnee,
and other groups lost
southern two thirds of Ohio
• Ohio River no longer a
permanent boundary
between their land and
Native American Reaction
1. Accept white culture
2. Blending Indian and American cultures
3. Returning to Indian religious traditions
4. Taking military actions
Accepting White Culture
• Little Turtle-leader of
the Miami people
• Adopted some
American customs
• Tried to live peacefully
with settlers
Blending Cultures
• Handsome Lake - a
Seneca called for a
rebirth of Seneca
culture that would
blend customs of both
Native Americans and
• Urged his people to
abandon war and focus
on rituals
Returning to Traditions
• Tenskwatawa (the
Prophet) called for a
rejection of European
ways and a return to
• Established
Prophetstown in
Indiana; had warlike
Military Action
• Tecumseh believed that
Native Americans must
unite the Native
American groups to
fight the Americans;
brother of Tenskwatawa
• Battle of Tippecanoe –
William Henry Harrison
was attacked by
Prophetstown burned
• Tecumseh dies in Canada during the War of
1812 at the Battle of the Thames
• Tecumseh does not accomplish goal of
uniting Native Americans
• Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa showed
defiance and earned respect for their people
and culture
Reading Skill: Recognize Sequence
Should the United States Declare War on Britain?
Reasons for War
• Americans believed the British were
encouraging the Native Americans to attack
• War Hawks (Clay and Calhoun) wanted
Britain out of North America
• British interference with shippingimpressment: the act of forcing people into
military service
Land War
• Tried to defeat British in Canada; defeated by
the British in summer of 1812; Americans
were poorly equipped and led
• Battle of the Thames, 1813, Americans
defeated British and Native Americans,
including Tecumseh
Naval War
• American vessels outnumbered 20 to 1
• Perry defeated British fleet on Lake Erie,
protecting northern border
• British blockaded coast
• British bombarded Fort McHenry
• Francis Scott Key watched and wrote the
Star-spangled banner
Washington, D.C.
• 1814, British ended war
with Napoleon
• British seized
Washington and burned
the White House and
the Capital
• President Madison fled
War Ends
• The Hartford Convention 1814: New England
considered leaving the Union; called for
constitutional amendments to increase New
England’s political power
• Treaty of Ghent
-Representatives met in Belgium
-All old boundaries between the U.S. and
Britain were restored
The War of 1812
Battle of New Orleans
• Two weeks after treaty
• General Andrew
Jackson defeated the
• Battle unified country
and made Jackson a
Cause and Effect: The War of 1812