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Foundations of American
Foreign Policy
Unit 1 Notes
“To Begin the World Over Again”
•
Colonies tired of being dragged into
European Affairs
•
Which they believed was an old broken
system
•
•
•
War and Peace decided by Monarchs and
their courts
Changing of alliances to suit foreign policy
goals
Sustain Balance of Power
Seven Years War
•
•
•
(Sometimes called the “War that Made
America”)
Originated in colonies between
Americans and French
Britain won decisively but hurt themselves
financially
•
•
Britain cut off settlements west of
Appalachian Mountain range
•
•
Americans envisioned themselves as equals to
Britain due to fighting along British
enforced trade restrictions and taxed Americans for
their defense
Created revolutionary sentiment among
colonies
Foreign Aid
•
First Continental Congress met to
determine how to deal with Britain’s
actions
2nd Continental Congress met in 1775 to
find foreign aid for Independence
•
•
Declaration of Independence designed to bring
colonies into a Union and to prove to Europeans
that the colonies were committed to fight
•
•
In order to get European aid
Americans hated European politics but did
it very well
Commercial Interests
•
•
•
Americans wanted mainly commercial
relations with Europeans
Greatly supported Adam Smith’s Wealth of
Nations (1776)
•
•
Capitalism and Free Trade
Americans despised mercantilism
An economic doctrine that flourished in
Europe from the sixteenth to the eighteenth
centuries. Mercantilists held that a nation's
wealth consisted primarily in the amount of
gold and silver in its treasury. Accordingly,
mercantilist governments imposed extensive
restrictions on their economies to ensure a
surplus of exports over imports
Commercial Interests (Con’t)
•
They believed free trade (Laissez
Faire Economics) would make a
better world
•
•
More peaceful because as one countries
thrives, in theory others thrive
Independence would allow colonies to
have greater free trade
Additional U.S. Foundational Beliefs
•
City On a Hill
•
Since founding of Massachusetts Bay Colony,
belief that Americans were a “beacon to the
world”
•
•
•
Believed a new civilization based on “consent not
coercion”
Through free trade and “enlighten” diplomacy,
they would create a new world order
Fundamental Belief
•
That American must avoid any commitments
that would entangle in future European wars
French Support for the War
•
Benjamin Franklin sent to gain and
maintain French support
•
•
Many hated Franklin’s “Frenchness”
A master showman, publicist and
propagandist who got loan after loan from
France
•
•
Good at “Spin”
France was nervous about helping U.S.
because:
•
•
Did not want an open war with Britain
Afraid America would back stab them for
control of French West Indies
French Support for the War (Con’t)
•
By 1778 France wanted a perpetual
alliance
•
•
Ready to fight Britain and American
victories reassured France
Agreed not to end war without each
other’s consent
•
•
Guaranteed American boundaries and
established “Most-Favored-Nation” trade
French saw U.S. as another small
European nation to manipulate
Other Nations
•
The French were also able to get
Spanish support for the war
•
•
For guarantee to help Spain get the
strait of Gibraltar
Russia’s Catherine the Great formed
a group of nation’s to protect
shipping
•
•
Help maintain supplies to the U.S.
Created a virtual world war
Indians
•
Viewed U.S. as their greatest threat
to their existence
•
•
Britain was their best hope of survival
from U.S.
Fought with British help against the
U.S.
Articles of Confederation
•
•
Established in March of 1781
Marked a major accomplishment
•
•
•
Proved imperfect for waging war and
negotiating peace
Designed to secure foreign support
Weakness
•
Could not levy taxes or regulate
commerce
•
virtually useless
Beginning of the End
• U.S. and French victories at Yorktown
allowed British government to begin
negotiations
• U.S. demanded independence
• France did not want a fully independent U.S.
• Britain insisted on an “Irish Solution”
• Ultimately Prime Minister Shelburne gave them
independence, land and rights to the Mississippi
• Hoped it would help U.S. to trade with Britain
• France was not involved in peace negotiations
Beginning of the End (Con’t)
•
The U.S. shrewdly played
Europeans against one another for
political gains
•
•
Mainly success due to luck
Despite U.S. negotiating peace deal
with Britain, France continued to
support U.S.
Post Revolution
•
Unity in the U.S. was not easily attained
•
•
•
Congressional attendance was lacking
North wanted to draw closer to Britain and
South wanted to draw closer to France
Europeans sought to keep U.S. weak
•
Trade restrictions and lack of commerce among
colonies drove U.S. into a depression
•
Spain closed ports to U.S. and did not allow travel on
Mississippi
Post Revolution (Con’t)
•
Troubles
•
•
Indians mad at land grab and continued
to fight U.S.
Pirates raided U.S. commerce ships
•
•
U.S. did not have a navy at this time
Spain
•
John Jay negotiated with Spain, however
unsuccessfully
All for Not?
•
The crisis of 1786 exposed
weaknesses
•
Foreign policy and commerce drove the
country to a new Constitution
•
•
Daniel Shays revolt reinforced that idea
Constitution Debates
•
•
Treaty approval by Senate 2/3
Debate over who should control military
All for Not? (Con’t)
•
Federalist versus Anti-Federalist
•
Federalist
•
•
Anti-Federalist
•
•
Claimed Articles of Confederation weakness
would destroy the U.S.
Downplayed weaknesses and stress danger
of strong central government
Ultimately the Constitution was
passed giving the national
government enough power to deal
with foreign and commercial policies
“None Who Can Make Us Afraid”
•
European War
•
•
1792 Europe delved into a war between
France and Britain
U.S. depended on Europe for trade
•
•
Hoped to remain neutral and exploit
European War
Europeans wanted to exploit U.S.
U.S. Infancy
•
Still a loose union with strong antimilitarist urgings
Washington created a cabinet to help make
decisions
•
•
Commerce was their most important objective
•
•
•
Their belief was that wealth equals power
Began thinking in terms of an empire
Desperately did not want any war
•
Yet constantly provoked by the bully actions of
European powers
Indian War in the West
•
•
Conflict between Indian and U.S. cultures
Initially Washington sought peace with
Indians through Diplomacy
•
Tried to use Assimilation and Deculturalization
•
•
Generally signed agreements with Indians and then
overtook their lands
The administration negotiated with Indians in
a high-handed manner
•
Washington sent troops to present-day Ohio/Indiana
to “Strike terror” in the Indians
•
U.S. troops defeated and U.S. prestige damaged
Washington’s Cabinet
•
President hated partisanship and political
parties
•
•
Yet cabinet contained individuals who greatly
believed themselves correct, still each on a
different path
Jefferson
•
Represented South and West
•
•
Agriculture and commerce based for national wealth
Greatly distrusted Northeast and money groups
•
Believed greater in individual rights
Washington’s Cabinet (Con’t)
•
Hamilton
•
•
Believed order more important than
liberty
Power should reside with those who had
the largest stake in society
•
•
attached self to the financial elite
Secretary of Treasury
Washington’s Cabinet (Con’t)
•
Both wanted a strong nation
•
Hamilton
•
wanted a strong government and stable
economy
•
•
•
Mostly based on industry
Depended on trade with England
Jefferson and Madison
•
Envisioned predominately agricultural society
•
•
Depended on Free Trade
Especially with France
Madison
Hamilton
Jefferson
First Major Debate
•
Started with Hamilton’s move to
centralized federal power to create a
national bank
•
Extended to Dispute between Britain and
Spain over Nootka Sound
•
Hamilton’s pragmatic view prevailed
European War Continues
•
Great Powers view U.S. as a useful
pawn
U.S. saw opportunities to exploit to
their own benefits
•
•
U.S. tied to treaty with France and tied
to Britain through economic system
•
•
Yet wanted to remain neutral
Washington set out an impartial
neutrality
Defining Neutrality
• Genet Affair created a partisan
atmosphere in U.S.
• Setting the tone for Republican v.
Federalist parties
• Washington sent John Jay to negotiate
a settlement with Britain
• U.S. had been trading with both Britain
and France “Non-Contraband” goods
• Britain seized ships bound for France
Defining Neutrality (Con’t)
•
Washington sent John Jay to negotiate a
settlement with Britain (Con’t)
•
Jay Treaty
•
•
British troops would leave Northeast U.S.
Most-Favored-Nation basis Trade
•
•
Allowed to trade with India as well
Many people of that time were upset by
treaty
•
However, American greatly benefited in the long
term from the treaty
•
Expectations v. Reality
New Success
•
After much debate the Jay Treaty was
passed
Trading as a neutral helped bring an
economic boom to the U.S.
Washington sent troops back to
Ohio/Indiana region and beat Indians
•
•
•
•
Restored American prestige
Spain signed the Pickney Treaty in 1795
•
Recognized boundaries and access to
Mississippi
•
Major desire for southern and western Americans
Consequences of Jay Treaty
•
France retaliated at what they saw as
a violation of 1778 treaty
•
•
Threatened war
Seized U.S. ships in Caribbean
•
•
Help push U.S. to begin developed of a Navy
France hoped to sway U.S. election
away from Federalist
•
Federalist John Adams still won
•
Jefferson (Republican) became Vice President
Washington Farewell Speech
•
Warned against “Permanent
Alliances”
Warned against factionalism (Political
Parties)
•
•
•
Stressed American Exceptionalism
However not an isolationist
•
Greatly depended on European trade
President John Adams
•
•
Started building navy
XYZ Affair
•
U.S. delegation told by French agents
that a bribe would help get things done
•
•
U.S. anger rose due to XYZ affair
•
•
U.S. delegates left without an agreement
John Adams prepared a war message
U.S. and France had an undeclared Naval
War
•
U.S. ships eventually won
President John Adams (Con’t)
•
French Negotiations
•
•
In late 1800’s, Napoleon wanted U.S. on
good side
Convention of 1800
•
•
•
•
Restored diplomatic relations with U.S.
Terminated 1778 alliance
Inadvertent acknowledgement of Jay Treaty
Great victory for U.S. independence and
foreign policy goals
Purified as By Fire
•
Thomas Jefferson
•
•
He was a practical idealist who had big
ambitions for the U.S.
Believed in taking the high moral ground
•
•
•
Yet bent them to achieve his goals
War foremost enemy to liberty according to
Jefferson
Republican Ideology
•
Commercial and land expansion priorities
Exploiting Europe
•
Jefferson scaled back army and navy
•
•
Wanted to rely on militias
Continued most of the foreign policies
of his predecessors
•
However less likely to give in on
negotiations
Tripolitan War
•
Hated appeasement and wanted to
meet force with forces against pirates
in the Mediterranean Sea
•
•
Tried to replace Tripoli Government
Peace Treaty in 1805
•
•
Significance is it stimulated U.S. selfpride
Gave Americans renewed sense of
mission and destiny
Infiltrate to Control
•
Commercial and agricultural
penetration helped U.S. to acquire
significant influence in Louisiana
•
•
Same method used in Florida, Texas,
California, and Hawaii
Settlers claimed allegiance to U.S.
Napoleon’s New Scheme
•
Wanted to restore French grandeur in
North America
Secret treaty with Spain to control
Louisiana
•
•
France not suppose to sell to a 3rd party
country
Louisiana Crisis
•
U.S. fearful of French control of New
Orleans
•
Jefferson used diplomacy with threat of
war
•
•
Setup Lewis and Clark to determine military
installments in Louisiana Area
Napoleon ends up selling Louisiana
for $15 Million (1803)
•
•
Needed cash for war against Britain
Could not defend it well without SantoDominque or Florida
Louisiana Crisis (Con’t)
•
Reinforces with Republican ideas of
diplomacy
Jefferson then moved to get Florida
from Spain
•
•
•
Could not bully Spain as easily
Ultimately Monroe gets Florida
Trade Problems
•
When European war broke out again in
late 1803, U.S. caught in between
U.S. had demanded that they had the
right to trade with both countries due to
it’s “Neutrality rights”
•
•
Britain began seizing U.S. trade ships bound
for France
•
•
British Sailors began to become American Citizens
in order to make more money
American demands could not be met by
British to end standoff of trade ship seizures
Trade Problems (Con’t)
•
Jefferson created an embargo to get
Britain to meet his demands
•
Failed on two counts:
•
•
Initially did not hurt Britain’s economy
“Free” Americans were angry on National
Government restrictions
•
Losing Popularity and Jefferson began to lose his
ideals of little government restriction
Trade Problems (Con’t)
•
Madison became President in 1809
•
Maintained very ill-advised Diplomacy
•
•
Ultimately helping push U.S. into War of
1812
Finally Madison declared war on Britain
in 1812
•
Madison lacked the leadership and decisionmaking skills to navigate U.S. away from war
War of 1812
•
U.S. sought to conquer poorly defended
Canada in order to wipe Britain from North
America
•
•
However U.S. army was not ready for war
Overall U.S. poorly trained and maintained
•
•
•
•
Almost bankrupt the government by 1814
White House burned down during war
Battle of Baltimore, U.S. militia defended the
city while Francis Scott Key wrote our national
anthem
One of the most unpopular wars until
Vietnam
Treaty of Genet
•
•
Fixed northern boundary of the U.S.
Allowed expansion into Northwest
territory
•
•
Showed U.S. durability
•
•
Many Indian tribes crushed by Andrew
Jackson
Neutrals rights never resolved
Battle of New Orleans reaffirmed
superiority of American doctrine
Leave the Rest to Us
•
Americans became more assertive
after the War of 1812
•
They challenged European commercial
system
•
•
•
Sought to break down trade barriers
Sought to take control of North America
Absence of a major war helped
America to begin flourishing post-War
of 1812
•
Royal Navy continued to protect the
western hemisphere
Fresh Revolutions
•
After the Napoleonic Wars, many Latin
American countries began revolutions
against their European counterparts
•
U.S. citizens were somewhat sympathetic to
Latin American Revolutions
•
•
However, generally more excited about
opportunities for a lucrative trade
U.S. generally remained neutral during the
revolutions in order to not provoke the
European nations
•
Which was still the foundation of commerce
through trade
Change in Perspective
•
•
•
•
•
Though Americans prided themselves on
independence from Europeans, they
depended on European trade
Generally U.S. produced more agricultural
than it needed
Secretary of State Henry Clay (Under
Quincy Adams) called for an “American
System”
Develop domestic manufactures and expand
home market (Original Federalist Ideal)
Do through:
•
•
•
Protective Tariffs
National Bank
Federally Financed internal improvements
John Quincy Adams
•
Considered by many to be one of the
best Secretary of States in U.S.
history
•
•
Profoundly religious man, who saw
U.S. as the instrument of God’s will
•
•
Secretary of State under President
Monroe
Later called Manifest Destiny
Envisioned a U.S. from the Atlantic to
the Pacific
Monroe and Adams
•
Set commercial expansion as a paramount
goal and employed numerous unrepublican
measures to achieve it
•
•
More U.S. missions abroad
Protecting U.S. interest Abroad
•
•
Especially commercial opportunities
Use of Reciprocity
•
Conditional Clause in Most-Favored-Nation trade that
requires compensation for perceived unequal trade
•
•
Benefits U.S. over other countries
Able to secure a reciprocity deal with Britain
Monroe and Adams (Con’t)
•
Considered trade with Latin America
a great opportunity to achieve great
wealth and markets
•
Achieve little but set the precedent for
how U.S. would view Latin American
trade
•
NAFTA
Monroe and Adams (Con’t)
•
Able to secure Florida and Pacific
Northwest from Spain through
negotiations
•
Partially by the intrusion of Andrew
Jackson into Florida
•
•
Helped push Spain to negotiate
•
•
•
Monroe did not apologize nor give direct
consent to Jackson
Transcontinental Treaty of 1819
Help gain share of East Asian Commerce
Able to pass protective tariffs in 1828
Monroe Doctrine
• Initially developed by Secretary of State
John Quincy Adams
• December 2, 1823
• Distinguished between the political systems of
the Old World and the New and affirmed that
the two should not impinge on each other
• Two Hemispheres: East and West
• North America was no longer available for
colonization by Europeans
• U.S. would stay out of “internal affairs” in Europe
• Any attempt to colonize in North America
would be met with U.S. force
Monroe Doctrine (Con’t)
•
Most Europeans countries held to
the doctrine
•
•
Except Britain but U.S. did nothing in
retaliation to British actions
Truly, the U.S. could not back the
doctrine if pushed
Manifest Destiny
•
Continual belief by U.S. authorities that the
U.S. had a “Divine Favor” and a special
role in the world
•
•
“City On A Hill”
Must spread ideals to uncivilized, ignorant
world
•
“God has selected us to expand and
democratize”
•
•
Developed in 1840’s
We will Carry by Example
•
American Exceptionalism
Latin American Republicanism
•
Adams and Clay sought to encourage
republicanism in Latin America
•
•
•
To reshape them according to the North
American republican principles and institutions
However many times they interfered more than
encouraged
Sought to teach Latin American
governments the U.S. system of
government and the “manifold blessings”
enjoyed by the people under it
Andrew Jackson
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Elected President in 1828
Bring fear to many other nations
Met sparingly with cabinet and had 8
secretary of states throughout his term
Saw foreign policy as essential to
domestic well-being and gave it high
priority
Commanded respect for the U.S.
Sought to breakdown trade barriers and
open new markets
Willingly negotiated with other nations
Able to establish trade with South-East Asian
nations
Gun-Boat Diplomacy
•
Upgraded the navy and used it to defend
the nation’s commercial interests and
uphold it’s honor
•
•
•
•
Showed contempt for “lesser” peoples
Determination to command respect as a great
power
Military force could be used to alter behavior of
others
Viewed as Unconstitutional by some during
that time
•
However a precedent still used today
Gun-Boat Diplomacy (Con’t)
•
His policy put the U.S. very much in
the mainstream of Western
imperialism
•
Reinforcing idea of exceptionalism
Final Battle for Jackson
•
Sought Texas, however negotiations
with Mexico failed
•
•
Texans declared independence, but U.S.
reluctant to annex into Union
Help provoked a war with Mexico that
in turn would round off U.S.
continental expansion and inflame
internal divisions that would lead to
Civil War