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Chapter 9
Including previously released
Bonus Material!
Chapter 9 Focus Questions
(Be able to elucidate)
• Where did the new nation find economic
opportunities in the world market?
• How did Jefferson’s presidency calm the political
differences of the 1790s?
• What values were embodied in republican
• What unresolved issues between the United
States and Britain led to the War of 1812?
• What were the causes of Indian resistance and
how did the War of 1812 resolve them?
• How did the Missouri Compromise reveal the
dangers of expansion?
The People Divide
• By the mid-1790s, opposition groups had formed a coalition called
the Jeffersonian Republicans
• The administration’s supporters were known as Federalists
• Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton caused the first
disagreement when he submitted to Congress the first of several
major policy statements in January 1790
– Ardent proponent of U.S. economic development
– Competitive self-interest was the surest guide to behavior
– Hamilton’s politics were profoundly conservative
Still More….
• Consideration of these recommendations was delayed by a debate
over slavery started by a Quaker call for the end of the slave trade
and improvement of the condition of slavery
• Southerners warned that any congressional claims to authority in the matter
would lead to civil war and defended the slave trade as rescuing blacks from
• Northerners agreed that Congress had no authority in the issue
Some felt that the Northern position was an attempt to ensure Southern support
of Hamilton’s proposals
• Those states who had paid their debts, such as Pennsylvania and
Virginia, were opposed to federal assumption of them
Critics said it would strengthen the federal government at the expense of the
states since money people would look to them for a return on investment and
it would spur federal use of taxation powers
• Congress supported Hamilton’s measures in part because
southerners swapped support for a federal capitol in the south
on the Potomac
So…. We have the National Bank!
• The second phase of Hamilton’s program was a national bank capable of
handling the government’s financial affairs and pooling private investment
Washington, following Hamilton’s arguments regarding the “implied powers” of the
Constitution over Jefferson’s strict reading of it, signed the bill
So…. Hamilton keeps proposing
December 1790, Hamilton proposed a series of
excise taxes, including one on the manufacture of
distilled liquor
Signaled government desire to use taxing power to
increase revenue
Whiskey Tax became law in March 1791
“The power to tax and spend is the
power to govern”
• The Whiskey Tax
– March 1791
– Significance of the law?
– Consequence of the rebellion? (Sin Tax) think Stamp Act
– livelihood depended on the transport of surplus grain in the form of distilled
alcohol, which was easier to ship
– Sensed control of local affairs slipping away as backcountry was increasingly
absorbed into the market economy and system of politics dominated by more
populous, commercialized areas to the east– Washington calls out the troops. Heard rumors of Spanish emissaries.
French Revolution
• France’s revolution began in 1789 as an effort
to reform the injustices of a weakened
monarchy and soon exploded into a radical
rebellion with the beheading of Louis XVI in
• For more than a decade the revolution
dominated the stage in European politics
– Divided Americans deeply. Why?
• By mid-1790s, American merchants were earning handsome
profits from neutral trade with both England and France
– American shipbuilding was booming
– In 1800, American ships carried 92 percent of all commerce between U.S.
and Europe
• England and France wanted American goods but also wanted to
prevent goods from reaching the other
– Stopped American ships and confiscated their cargoes.
– Royal Navy also practiced impressment
– French Treaty of 1778 seemed to obligate U.S. to side with France
Jay’s Treaty
• Contains British promises to withdraw from western posts
• Gains U.S. access to Caribbean ports
• Says treaty stops up a “breach” with England
• Critics: no compensation for lost slaves, British not evacuating posts quick
enough, impressment still happening and Caribbean is still blocked.
Viewed as a
Hamilton is
John Adams
• With Washington out of the picture, the presidential election
of 1796 narrowed to Thomas Jefferson or John Adams, two
very different men who had a great deal of shared
experiences in the Revolution and the creation of the
– Adams was a committed Federalist who believed in a vigorous national
government, was appalled by the French Revolution and feared
“excessive democracy”
– Jefferson, while supporting the Constitution, was alarmed by
Hamilton’s financial program, viewed France’s revolution as a logical
extension of America’s struggle for freedom, and hoped to expand
democracy at home
• Adams won the election by only three votes, with Jefferson to
serve as his Vice President!!!
• Adam’s first trial as president
– French interference with American shipping in the
• Delegation was dispatched to Paris
– French administrators (termed X, Y, Z) demanded
bribes loans to see Talleyrand – Foreign Minister
– Adams reported the “XYZ Affair” to Congress
– Federalist congressmen - insult to American honor
• Secretary of State Pickering urged a declaration of
– More conflict: Quasi-War
• encounters between American and French ships on
the high seas
This sparks the…
Alien & Sedition Acts
• May 1798: Congress called for a naval force capable
of defending the American coast against French
– July: repealed the treaty of 1778 which promised
military support in case of attack by British forces
indefinitely into the future
• called for the formation of 10,000 man army
– Jeffersonians (“Republicans”) worried the army would be
used against them
– Adams worried about Hamilton placed in charge of the
• issued few officer commissions thereby preventing the army’s
A & S Acts (cont)
• Congress sought to curb the flow of aliens into the
– The Naturalization Act 1798?
• raised residency requirement for citizenship from 5 to 14 years
– The Alien Act?
• authorized the president to expel aliens whom he judged
– The Alien Enemies Act?
• empowered the president in time of war to arrest, imprison or
banish the subjects of any hostile nation without specifying
charges against them or providing opportunity for appeal
ASA Cont.
• The Sedition Act?
– punishable by fine and imprisonment to conspire in
opposition to the government
– aid insurrections, etc
– write, print, utter or publish statements that brought
the government Congress or the President into
– investigations were launched that were intended to
force foreigners to register with the government
– Large numbers of foreigners left the country
A Moment of Silence Please
• 1799
• Taps
The “Revolution” of 1800
• The Federalists were in disarray
– Plotted Adams defeat when he announced effort to
be re-elected
• Jefferson and Aaron Burr each had 75 votes and Adams
had only 65
– The election was thrown into the House of
Representatives where Jefferson was elected 10
states to 4 states on the 36th ballot
– Twelfth amendment provided for separate ballots for
president and vice president
• Federalists split their vote, otherwise might have won
Republican Agrarianism
• Thomas Jefferson emerged as a strong
president with strong party backing.
• Jefferson’s ideal was an agrarian republic
of roughly equal yeoman farmers.
America’s abundant land allowed Jefferson
to envision a nation of small family farms.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Tall, ungainly, and diffident in manner, Thomas Jefferson was nonetheless a man
of genius: an architect, naturalist, philosopher and politician. His political
philosophy, republican agrarianism, is illustrated by this symbol of the Philadelphia
Society for Promoting Agriculture, in which the farmer exemplifies Jefferson’s
hopes for America. As he said, “those who labor in the earth are the chosen
people of God.”
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Jefferson’s Government
• Jefferson’s promise to reduce the size
of the federal government.
• The unfinished state of the nation’s
capital reflected the emphasis on local
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
An Independent Judiciary
• While removing Federalist officeholders,
Jefferson provoked a landmark Supreme
Court decision.
• Marbury v. Madison did not restore
William Marbury to his post, but it
established the principle of judicial
review and an independent judiciary.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Opportunity: The Louisiana Purchase
• Map: Louisiana Purchase
• The conflict between France and Britain threatened
American security.
• Napoleon’s acquisition of the Louisiana Territory
threatened American access to the Mississippi River.
• Jefferson attempted to buy New Orleans, but
accepted the French offer to buy the entire territory.
• The Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the United
States, fulfilling Jefferson’s desire for continued
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
MAP 9.2 Louisiana Purchase The Louisiana Purchase of 1803, the largest peaceful acquisition
of territory in U.S. history, more than doubled the size of the nation. The Lewis and Clark
expedition (1804–06) was the first to survey and document the natural and human richness of
the area. The American sense of expansiveness and continental destiny owes more to the
extraordinary opportunity provided
the Louisiana
than to other factors.
© 2009
Incorporating Louisiana
• The immediate issue was how to
incorporate the French and Spanish
inhabitants of the Louisiana territory.
• The solution was to maintain aspects of
French institutions in Louisiana.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Texas and the Struggle for Mexican
• Acquisition of Louisiana put the United
States in conflict with Spain.
• America now shared a vague boundary
with Mexico’s Texas.
• Several populist revolts fueled a strong
independence movement in Mexico.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.