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Lecture Notes – Chapter 9
9.1 The Interior of the Earth
The Earth’s interior _______________________________________
Earth Layer
Continental Drift: In the early 1900’s German scientist, _____________ theorized
that a “supercontinent” _______________ existed ______________ years ago.
Wegener’s Continents Fern Fossils
Rejecting the Hypothesis
Why? _______________________________________________________
9.2 Plate Tectonics
Wegener’s theory ____________ the mid-_______’s, when structures on the
________________________ of a mechanism for the _________ of continents.
Convection Current: Movement of ______________ (a fluid) caused by changes in
___________________ or temperature.
Draw a convection current 
Earth’s Major Roles
Plate tectonics theory: the uppermost __________ & overlying ______, = strong,
_________ layer: the ______________________.
Lithosphere: The _____ outer shell of Earth, consisting of the ____ and the rigid
upper ________. The lithosphere is made up of large pieces called _______plates
Asthenosphere: The zone of the ________________ the lithosphere that
consists of _______________________. It is believed that the asthenosphere
_____________________________, thus causing the tectonic plates to move.
Draw a picture of the
Convection Currents
found in the Earth 
How many major plates are there? ____ Which one do you live on?___________
Types of Plate Boundaries
Divergent boundaries (also called __________ centers) - two plates move ______.
_______________ boundaries - two plates ___________________.
_____________ fault boundaries - two plates ________________ each other
(_______ the production or ____________ of the lithosphere).
Draw a picture below of each of the boundaries. Include arrows that show
movement of plates relative to each other.
9.3 Actions at Plate Boundaries
Divergent Boundaries
Oceanic ridges - continuous _________ zones on _________________ basins.
Rift valleys - ________________ structures
Seafloor spreading ___________________ (crust) lithosphere.
What is being formed in East Africa due to a rift?
Convergent Boundaries
A ____________________ zone - one ______________________________
into the ______________ beneath a second plate.
Convergent Zone
Can produce what?
Transform Fault Boundaries - plates ________________________ without
destroying the lithosphere.
Transform _________ - Most join two segments _______________________.
Which plate is subducting into the North American plate? ___________________
9.4 Testing Plate Tectonics:
Today we know that the ______________ floor is ______________
Scientists have ___________ on the ocean floor and they now ____
that ____________ lies along the _____________________ and
_____________ crust extends ________from this plate boundary.
Scientists have ____________________ with alternating
______________________ extending from the mid-ocean ridge.
Evidence for Plate Tectonics
Ocean ____________________ on the _____________of seafloor
sediment __________________ hypothesis predictions.
____________ oceanic crust is at ridge crest, and the
Evidence for Plate Tectonics  ___________ ____________ - concentration
of heat in mantle capable of producing ___________________ to Earth’s surface
Hot spot evidence ____________________________ the Earth’s surface.
Draw and describe the hot spot beneath the Hawaiian islands:
9.5 Mechanisms of Plate Motion
____________ occurring __________________ is the basic driving _________
for plate ________________.
_____________ flow - motion of matter resulting from _____________
Draw a convection current
(use arrows, hot/cold and high/low density 
Causes of Plate Motion
Slab-pull - _______________ oceanic crust ________ into mantle and
________________ the trailing lithosphere along..
Ridge-push causes oceanic lithosphere to slide down the sides of the oceanic
ridge _________________________________
Mantle Convection
masses of ________________________ material that ____________
toward the ________, (leads to __________________).
_________________________________ within Earth causes thermal
_________________ in the mantle that ultimately ________________.