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Unit 7: Water
Chapter 11, Section 1: Water Resources
Standards: SEV5e
The Water Cycle
Name ________________________
 The ________________________ of water had been on
the planet for billions of years.
 The water you drink today is the same water dinosaurs
 Water is a _____________ resource that is
______________ through the water cycle.
Steps of the water cycle
 _______________________________
 Water evaporates when heated by sun (leaves
salts behind)
 ____________________________- water
evaporation from plants
 _________________________________
 As water vapor rises it cools, condenses, and
collects on dust particles in the sky
(_______________________________) and
forms clouds.
 _________________________________
 When clouds get too full of water they drop it as
 ________________________________________
 Water either
 Infiltrates the soil- pass slowly through
soil to recharge an aquifer
 Runs off into a nearby lake or stream.
How much water is on Earth?
How is our usable water distributed?
What is surface water?
 ________% is saltwater in oceans & saltwater lakes.
 ________% is freshwater
 ___% frozen in ice caps & glaciers (unusable)
 ___% groundwater & surface water (usable
 Surface water
 Groundwater
 Fresh water _______________________________.
 Important for
 _________________ water
 ____________________ of goods via ships
 ______________________________
 ______________________________
 ___________________ for industry
What are the types of Surface Water?
What is a river system?
What is a watershed?
What is groundwater?
What is the water table?
 Rivers & streams
 _______________________________
 ____________________________________
 Insect larvae, trout, long narrow plants, algae
 Lakes & ponds
 __________________________
 ____________________________________
 Bass, catfish, cattails, leeches
 Wetlands
 Covered with water ___________________
 ____________ and __________ water flow
 _________________ pollutants & sediment
 Provide _______________________________
for water birds, shellfish, fish
 Streams form in ___________________________ from
rainfall or melting snow.
 As they move downhill they combine with other streams
to form rivers.
 Streams that feed rivers are called _________________.
 This interconnection of streams to form rivers is the
 Ex: ________________________ creek flows to
_____________ Creek to ________________________
Creek to _________________________________ River
 ____________________________________________.
 ________________ anywhere in the watershed could
end up in that river.
 We live in the _________________________________
River watershed
 Fresh water stored ____________________________
 ____________ fresh water resources are stored here
 ____________- area underground with rocks & gravel
that have spaces where water can accumulate.
 ____________________________________________
 In wet regions the water table may reach surface and
create a ________________________________.
 If aquifer is confined by layer of rock may be under
pressure and squirt out of ground as
______________________ well
 In desert regions water table is usually very __________.
Ogallala Aquifer
What factors affect aquifer recharge rate?
How does an aquifer recharge?
How do wells impact groundwater sources?
One of the ______________________ in the world.
Supplies _________ of groundwater used in the U.S.
Used mostly for ____________________ crops.
Now being used at _________________________
(faster than can be recharged)
Water table has dropped _____________ in some places
of Ogallala.
___________________ rely on water table of Ogallala
where it comes to surface.
If water table decreases, wetlands dry out, water birds
(sandhill cranes) lose feeding & breeding site.
Farmers are trying to limit their use by ______________
 Percentage of total volume of a rock that has
 Water is stored in these _________________
 More porous the rock, the more water it can
 Ability of rock or soil to allow water to flow
through it.
 ________________- high permeability- lets
water flow through quickly.
 _________________- low permeability- holds
water so it flows slowly.
 __________________________________ are
permeable materials that often form aquifers.
When it rains, water ________________ through region
of soil called _____________________________.
Recharge zone is determined by what is on surface of
soil above
 Buildings, parking lots _____________ recharge
 _______________________ can contaminate
recharge zone & contaminate aquifer.
Can take ___________________________________ of
years to recharge
 __________- hole dug/drilled to reach groundwater
 Well water is _____________________ by soil before it
reaches aquifer- relatively clean. (usually filters are
added on the pump that draws the water up)
 Must reach way below the water table b/c water table
changes seasonally.
 If water is pumped out quickly it will create a
_______________________________ that may prevent
other wells from reaching water.
You should be able to…
 Describe the distribution of water on Earth. Where is
most of the freshwater located?
 Explain why fresh water is considered a limited resource.
 Explain why pollution in a watershed poses a potential
threat to the river system that flows through it.
 Describe how water travels through rocks and soil.