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Unit 7: Water Chapter 11, Section 1: Water Resources Standards: SEV5e The Water Cycle Name ________________________ The ________________________ of water had been on the planet for billions of years. The water you drink today is the same water dinosaurs drank! Water is a _____________ resource that is ______________ through the water cycle. Steps of the water cycle _______________________________ Water evaporates when heated by sun (leaves salts behind) ____________________________- water evaporation from plants _________________________________ As water vapor rises it cools, condenses, and collects on dust particles in the sky (_______________________________) and forms clouds. _________________________________ When clouds get too full of water they drop it as precipitation ________________________________________ Water either Infiltrates the soil- pass slowly through soil to recharge an aquifer Runs off into a nearby lake or stream. How much water is on Earth? How is our usable water distributed? What is surface water? ________% is saltwater in oceans & saltwater lakes. ________% is freshwater ___% frozen in ice caps & glaciers (unusable) ___% groundwater & surface water (usable Surface water Groundwater SURFACE WATER RESOURCES Fresh water _______________________________. Important for _________________ water ____________________ of goods via ships ______________________________ ______________________________ ___________________ for industry What are the types of Surface Water? What is a river system? What is a watershed? What is groundwater? What is the water table? Rivers & streams _______________________________ ____________________________________ Insect larvae, trout, long narrow plants, algae Lakes & ponds __________________________ ____________________________________ Bass, catfish, cattails, leeches Wetlands Covered with water ___________________ ____________ and __________ water flow _________________ pollutants & sediment Provide _______________________________ for water birds, shellfish, fish Streams form in ___________________________ from rainfall or melting snow. As they move downhill they combine with other streams to form rivers. Streams that feed rivers are called _________________. This interconnection of streams to form rivers is the ________________________ Ex: ________________________ creek flows to _____________ Creek to ________________________ Creek to _________________________________ River ____________________________________________. ________________ anywhere in the watershed could end up in that river. We live in the _________________________________ River watershed GROUNDWATER RESOURCES Fresh water stored ____________________________ ____________ fresh water resources are stored here ____________- area underground with rocks & gravel that have spaces where water can accumulate. ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________. In wet regions the water table may reach surface and create a ________________________________. If aquifer is confined by layer of rock may be under pressure and squirt out of ground as ______________________ well In desert regions water table is usually very __________. Ogallala Aquifer What factors affect aquifer recharge rate? How does an aquifer recharge? How do wells impact groundwater sources? One of the ______________________ in the world. Supplies _________ of groundwater used in the U.S. Used mostly for ____________________ crops. Now being used at _________________________ (faster than can be recharged) Water table has dropped _____________ in some places of Ogallala. ___________________ rely on water table of Ogallala where it comes to surface. If water table decreases, wetlands dry out, water birds (sandhill cranes) lose feeding & breeding site. Farmers are trying to limit their use by ______________ ______________________________________________ Porosity Percentage of total volume of a rock that has spaces Water is stored in these _________________ More porous the rock, the more water it can hold. Permeability Ability of rock or soil to allow water to flow through it. ________________- high permeability- lets water flow through quickly. _________________- low permeability- holds water so it flows slowly. __________________________________ are permeable materials that often form aquifers. When it rains, water ________________ through region of soil called _____________________________. Recharge zone is determined by what is on surface of soil above Buildings, parking lots _____________ recharge zone _______________________ can contaminate recharge zone & contaminate aquifer. Can take ___________________________________ of years to recharge __________- hole dug/drilled to reach groundwater Well water is _____________________ by soil before it reaches aquifer- relatively clean. (usually filters are added on the pump that draws the water up) Must reach way below the water table b/c water table changes seasonally. If water is pumped out quickly it will create a _______________________________ that may prevent other wells from reaching water. You should be able to… Describe the distribution of water on Earth. Where is most of the freshwater located? Explain why fresh water is considered a limited resource. Explain why pollution in a watershed poses a potential threat to the river system that flows through it. Describe how water travels through rocks and soil.