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Aim: How did the development of agriculture affect the lives of people in early civilizations and their environment?
The Paleolithic Era was different
from the Neolithic Era.
Neolithic Era = farming, agriculture; ​settled and sedentary
Paleolithic Era = hunters and gatherers; ​nomads
Paleolithic = Old Stone Age, Neolithic Era = New Stone Age
Animal and plant domestication (selective breeding)
Control of fire
Complex societies and civilizations
adapted to and modified their
environment to meet the needs of
their population.
Terrace farming (China)
Irrigation systems, canals, dams -- brought water to farms
Creation of tools (shaduf in Egypt, wheel in Mesopotamia)
Defense and protection
Use of mud bricks in Indus River Valley
Complex societies and civilizations
share common characteristics.
Trade networks
Located near rivers
Social hierarchy (class structures)
Religions (all polytheistic, believed in many gods)
Language and writing systems
Technology and art
Job specialization (different jobs)
Complex societies and civilizations
made unique cultural achievements
and contributions.
Indus River Valley
● Indoor plumbing
● City planning (grids)
● Temple (ziggurat)
● Cuneiform (clay tablets)
● Hammurabi’s Code
● Mummification
● Hieroglyphics (on papyrus)
● pyramids
Shang China
● Terrace farming
● Oracle bones