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Representative Organisms
• Transport and Excretion: carry out diffusion to get
nutrients into the cell and waste out of the cell
– Once inside the cell, nutrients are moved about by the
movement of cytoplasm, called cyclosis.
– Sometimes excreted through anal pore
• Respiration: diffusion through cell membrane
• Regulation: diffusion
• Nutrition: Some absorb nutrients through cell
membrane; pseudopods surround food and
create a food vacuole; cilia sweep food into gullet
Protists cont…
• Synthesis: enzymes to digest food
• Reproduction: asexual reproduction;
conjugation- sharing of genetic material
• Growth and Development: unicellular
organisms grow larger in size
Annelid Worms
• Transport: circulatory system is a closed system,
meaning the blood, which carries oxygen and
carbon dioxide in addition to nutrients, is inside
the vessels at all times
• Excretion: digestive waste through anus; cellular
waste through nephridia- excretory organs that
filter fluid
• Respiration: Aquatic annelids often breathe
through gills; Land-dwelling annelids, such as
earthworms, take in oxygen and give off carbon
dioxide through their moist skin.
Annelids continued…
• Regulation- nephridia through coelum
• Nutrition- filter feeders or through single
digestive tract
• Synthesis- creates and secretes a mucus to keep
the worm’s skin moist
• Reproduction: Most annelids reproduce sexually;
hermaphrodites; clitellum- bad of thickened
segments secretes mucus that creates cocoon
around fertilized eggs
• Growth and Development- multi-cellular; young
worms hatch and grow larger
• Transport: open circulatory system, meaning the blood
flows into the tissue and comes into direct contact with all
the cells
– grasshopper’s blood only carries nutrients
• Excretion: Malpighian tubules are saclike organs that
extract wastes from the blood and then add them to feces,
or digestive wastes, that move through the gut
• Respiration: Air enters and leaves the tracheal tubes
through spiracles
• Regulation: waxy covering on exoskeleton to prevent body
• Nutrition: various mouthparts depending on source of food
• Synthesis: produce saliva containing digestive enzymes
that help break down food; pheromones- chemical
signals used for communication
• Reproduction: Terrestrial arthropods have internal
fertilization; Aquatic arthropods may have internal or
external fertilization
• Growth and Development: involve metamorphosis,
which is a process of changing shape and form. Insects
undergo either incomplete metamorphosis or
complete metamorphosis; grow larger by molting
(shedding exoskeleton)
• Transport: double loop circulatory system
– Loop 1- oxygen poor blood to lungs and skin; oxygen rich
blood returns back to heart
– Loop 2- oxygen rich blood to rest of body; oxygen poor
blood returns back to heart
• Excretion: cloaca- muscular cavity through which
digestive wastes, urine, and eggs or sperm leave body
• Respiration: larval amphibians breathe through the
skin as well as gills; lungs replace gills in the adult stage
• Regulation: kidneys filter wastes; regulate temperature
through evaporative cooling and behavioral techniques
Amphibians continued
• Nutrition: tadpoles-filter feeders; adultsmouth  esophagus  stomach  small
intestine  large intestine  cloaca
• Synthesis:Most adult amphibians have skin
glands that ooze an unpleasant-tasting and
poisonous substance, or toxin.
• Reproduction: in most species of amphibians,
the female lays eggs in water, then the male
fertilizes them externally
Growth and development
• Transport: closed system with two loops- one
going to lungs and the other going to the rest of
the body
• Excretion: highly developed kidneys to filter
wastes; anus-opening for removal of digestive
• Respiration: lungs; diaphragm- powerful muscle
to lower chest cavity to increase volume
• Regulation: homeostasis; kidneys
Mammals cont…
• Nutrition: teeth and digestive tract have changed
as feeding trends have changed; enzymes in
stomach break down food; lining is designed to
absorb nutrients
• Synthesis: Endocrine glands regulate body
activities by releasing chemicals called hormones
that affect other organs and tissues
• Reproduction: internal fertilization; The male
deposits sperm inside the reproductive tract of
the female, where fertilization occurs
• Growth and Development: specific to the