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The Digestive System Major Functions of the Digestive System • Break down ingested food • Put nutrients into the bloodstream • Remove waste from the body Organs of the Digestive System • • • • • • • Mouth- teeth, salivary glands, tongue Esophagus Stomach Small Intestine Large Intestine Pancreas Liver • Gall bladder Accessory Organs Mouth • Digestion begins here! • Teeth and tongue are used in mechanical digestion- physical breakdown of food • Saliva and enzymes begin chemical digestionchemical breakdown of food Esophagus • Muscular tube that connects mouth to stomach • Moves food downward by peristalsis, or muscular contractions • Epiglottis seals off windpipe during swallowing to prevent choking Stomach- Mechanical and Chemical Digestion • Muscular pouch that expands to hold your food • Hydrochloric acid (HCl) and the enzyme pepsin combine to form gastric juice • A gummy coating of mucus protects the stomach lining from the strong chemicals • Chyme, a thick liquid containing partially digested food, is produced here Small Intestine • Most chemical digestion occurs here! • Inner surface is covered in villi and microvilli, millions of tiny finger-like projections that absorb nutrient molecules from the chyme • The villi create a large surface area so as many nutrients as possible can be a absorbed • Longest portion of the digestive tract Liver • Makes bile to break up fat • Stores nutrients • Breaks down toxins Gallbladder • Temporarily stores bile and releases it into the small intestines Pancreas • Makes digestive enzymes • Makes hormones that regulate sugar levels Large Intestine • No digestion occurs here • Water is absorbed from remaining food • Bacteria feed on material passing through and produce Vitamins (K) vital to our health • Waste material, feces, is prepared for elimination from the body Rectum • Stores feces until they can be expelled through the anus. The End!