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Transcript
TOP 5 CANCERS FOR MEN
OVER 50
DR SAI RAJENDRA
MS MCPS FAIS
CONSULTANT SURGICAL ONCOLOGIST
BASAVATARAKAM INDO AMERICAN CANCER HOSPITAL
LIFE STYLE DISEASES & HEALTH
• 1900 – 1940 : pneumonia / influenza , TB ,
diarrhea / enteritis – 60% infectious diseases.
Heart – 4th ,& cancer 8th ,leading cause of
death.
• 1940 – 1990 : heart disease, cancer & 60 %
degenerative diseases ( diabetes, cirrhosis,
kidney failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary
diseases )
Lifestyle diseases at present times
• Hypertension
• Diabetes
• Heart attack
• Stroke – cerebaro vascular accidents
• Cancer
Obesity – malnutrition- diet related problems
TOP 5 CANCERS
•
•
•
•
•
PROSTATE CANCER
LUNG CANCER
COLON AND RECTUM CANCER
BLADDER CANCER
MELANOMA / HEAD & NECK CANCER
PROSTATE CANCER
RISK FACTORS
• Age : > 50 yrs most cases over age 68
• Family history: grandfather, father or brother
have had prostate cancer
• Race : african american more likely than white
mates
• High fat diet
• Obesity
Prostate cancer screening
• PSA : prostate specific antigen, test should be
given annually beginning at age 50
• DRE : digital rectal examination, test should be
given annually beginning at age 50 for men of
average risk, age 45 or younger for men a high
risk
• TRUS : trans rectal ultrasound
• FNA : fine needle aspiration
LUNG CANCER
RISK FACTORS
• SMOKING : secondhand smoke can increase
the risk of lung cancer
• GENETICS : certain gene mutations & family
history of lung cancer
• EXPOSURE to asbestos
LUNG CANCER WARNING SYMPTOMS
• Cough that does not go away
• Chest pain, often made worse by deep breathing,
coughing or laughing
• Hoarseness
• Weight loss & loss of appetite
• Bloody or rust colored sputum (spit)
• Shortness of breath
• Infections such as bronchitis & pneuomonitis that
keep coming back
• Wheezing
LUNG CANCER SCREENING
LUNG IS DIFFICULT TO DETECT BECAUSE MOST
SYMPTOMS DO NOT APPEAR UNTIL LATE
STAGE. SCREENING ( CHEST X-RAYS , CT
SCANS & MRI ) MAY BE USED FOR HIGH RISK
INDIVIDUALS TO DETECT ABNORMAL AREAS
IN LUNG .
SPUTUM CYTOLOGY , BRONCHOSCOPY AND
BIOPSY
Colorectal
cancer
COLON & RECTUM CANCER
( COLORECTAL )
RISK FACTORS
• Age : 90 % of cases occur in people over 50
• Genetic mutations
• Family history : grandfather, father or brother had
colorectal cancer
• Previous colorectal cancer : if you’ve had cancer
removed already, you are at a highier risk to get a
new one
• Inflamatory bowel disease : chron’s disease or
ulcerative colitis for several years, highier risk to get
colorectal cancer
RISK FOCTORS COLORECTA CANCER cont.
• Certain lifestyle factors appear to raise the
risk of colorectal cancer :
• Drinking more than 2 alcoholic drinks per day
• Obesity
• Smoking
• Diabetes
• A high fat diet, with mostly red meat
Signs & Symptoms
• Change in bowel habits
• Blood in Stool
– Bright red
– Very dark red
– Black/Tarry Stool
• Diarrhea
• Constipation
• Does your bowel feel like it
emptied completely?
• General abdominal
discomfort
–
–
–
–
Gas pains
Bloating
Fullness
Cramps
• Weight loss w/ no
explained reason
• Constant tiredness
• Vomiting (coffee grounds)
COLORECTAL CANCERS SCREENING
Beginning at age 50, men who are at average risk
for developing cancer should have one of the
following :
• Fecal occult blood : test to be done once a year
• Double contrast barium enema : once every 5
years , instead of fecal occult blood
• Colonoscopy : every 10 years, now we have a
option of CT virtual colonoscopy
• Flexible sigmoidscopy : once every 5 years
Results
• Negative = no
abnormalities are
found
• Positive =
abnormalities found,
such as polyps.
• If positive you may be
scheduled for further
testing.
How can I prevent
colorectal cancer ?
• Early screening
• Eating like hunter-gatherer
cut back on red meat
• Getting off the couch
30 minutes of activity 5
days a week
• Quit smoking
• Limit drinking
BLADDER CANCER
RISK FACTORS
• Smoking
• Gender : three times more common in men
• Occupation : working in dye, rubber, leather
print or paint industry
• Exposure to arsenic in drinking water
• Chronic bladder conditions ( stone or
infection)
BLADDER CANCER SCREENING
Screening is done only in people with nigh risk
and those who have previously had urinary
bladder cancer. It is often diagnosed by
examining cells in urine under a microscope
or urine cytology, and by inspecting the
bladder with a cystoscopy ( a slender tube
fitted with a lens & light that is inserted into
the bladder through the urethra ie. Urine
passage )
MELANOMA
RISK FACTORS
• Prior melanoma
• Family history of melanoma
• Large number of moles
• Sun sensitivity : people with fair skin & who
are sensitive to sun
• Excessive exposure to sun
• Diseases that suppress the immune system
MELNOMA SCREENING
• Regular head to toe examinations : follow the
ABCs. Look for Asymmetry, Border
irregularity, Color ( uneven pigmentation )
and a diameter greater than 6 mm. if you
notice any changes or suspicious moles, call
your doctor.
• If you are considered high risk, consider
having an annual clinical examination by a
dermatologist
Oral cancer
• Tobacco – smoking , chewing , paste , tooth
powder , snuff.
• Alcohol – when added to tobacco the risk is 6
times more
• Men more common then women
• HPV virus
• Sharp tooth , ill fitting denture , bad oral
hygiene
Oral cavity examination needs good
illumination & finger to palpate
RED FORMULA
• Reduce : risk
• Recognize : symptoms
• Respond : see your doctor
Health screening – Men – age 40-64
•
•
•
•
•
Screen for diseases
Assess risk for future medical problems
Help develop a healthy lifestyle
Update vaccinations
Maintain a relationship with a doctor in case
of a illness
Check for TEN potential problems
• 1. Hypertension – every 2 years till 40 , then
once a year.
• 2. Blood sugar
• 3. Cholesterol – after 34 every 5 years
• 4. Colon cancer screening
• 5. Dental examination
Check for ten potential problems
• 6. Eye exam – every 2 years
• 7. Immunization – flu vaccine every year &
hepatitis B
• 8. Osteoporosis – age 50 – 70
• 9.Prostate cancer screening
• 10. Preventive health visit every 2 yrs until 50
then once a year : check height & weight ,
screen for alcohol & tobacco use , screen for
depression
DID YOU KNOW ?
People who maintain a healthy life style,
including exercising regularly, eating right,
having an active social network and avoid
smoking, can outlive their peers by an
average of 5.4 years
BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL
EAT HEALTHY
EXERCISE
DID YOU KNOW ?
PEOPLE LIVING IN WALKABLE
NEIGHBOURHOODS TEND TO BE MORE
PHYSICALLY ACTIVE AND HAVE A
COSIDERABLY LOWER RISK OF
DIADETES THAN THOSE LIVING IN THE
LEAST WALKABLE COMMUNITIES.
DIABETES CARE
Thank you
Q&A