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Weathering and Soil
Chapter 2
6th Grade Science
 Standard
 S. 6.2 Topography is reshaped by the
weathering of rock and soil and by the
transportation and deposition of sediment.
 6.2.a Students know different natural energy
and material resources, including air, soil,
rocks, minerals, and know how to classify
them as renewable and non renewable.
 6.2.c Students know the natural origin of
materials used to make common objects
Anticipatory Set
Language of the Discipline
 Mineral
 Sediment
 Crystal
 Metamorphic Rock
 Rock Cycle
 Nonrenewable Resource
 Igneous Rock
 Ore
 Sedimentary Rock
 Smelting
What Is A Mineral? (Input)
 Mineral- a naturally occurring, inorganic solid that forms
on or beneath Earth’s surface. (highlight in note-taking
 Inorganic- means to contain no materials that were once
part of living things
 All minerals have a crystal shape
 Each mineral has a definite chemical composition.
Mineral Characteristics
In order for it to be a mineral it must contain 5 of the
following characterizes:
1. Inorganic Solid
2. Naturally Occurring
3. Forms on or beneath the Earth’s surface
4. Crystal Shape- shaped like cubes
A solid made up of particles that line up in a pattern that
repeats over and over again
5. Definite Chemical Composition - it is made up of certain
elements in definite proportions.
Rocks and the Rock Cycle
 Rock- solid material made up of one or more
minerals or other substances.
 How are different rocks formed?
 Deep inside the Earth and at the surfaces, a process
occurs that slowly change rocks into different forms.
 Geologists classify rocks into 3 major groups:
igneous rock, sedimentary rock, and metamorphic
rock. The rocks in each group form through
different steps in the rock cycle.
Igneous Rock
 Igneous rock- form from molten (magma) material
deep inside the earth. It cools slowly beneath the
Earth’s surface and large crystals form.
 Other igneous rocks form when molten material
erupts onto Earth’s surface.
 Basalt forms when molten material cools and
hardens on the surface. It cools quickly, so the
crystals are smaller.
Sedimentary Rock
 Definition- made from pieces of rocks that have been
broken down by processes involving water and
 Sediment- contains remains of plants and animals
 How it’s formed: Water and wind carry the sediment
and deposit it in layers. These layers build up and
squeeze together by their own weight. Minerals in the
rocks slowly dissolve in water. This sediment slowly
changes in sedimentary rock
Metamorphic Rock
 Rock that is formed when a rock is changed by heat,
pressure or chemical reactions
 Earth’s forces push rocks down to the Earth’s
interior and the deeper it becomes buried, the
greater the pressure on the rock.
 Under heat and pressure, the minerals in a rock can
be changed into other minerals.
 If the heat and pressure are too great, the rock cycle
starts again.
Pathways of the Rock
Cycle (Input)
Checking for
 What is a crystal?
 What is an inorganic mineral?
 What is it the term for the repeating pattern of a
mineral’s particles that form a solid called?
 What rock is formed from magma (molten) material?
 What rock is formed from sediment?
 What rock is formed from temperature and pressure?
Using Minerals and Rocks
 Nonrenewable resource- one that is not replaced in a useful
time frame.
 Minerals are the source of gemstones, metals and other
materials used to make many products.
 Minerals are also used in foods, medicines, fertilizers and
building materials.
 Minerals are also the source of metals such as iron, copper
and silver.
 Metal tools, aluminum foil and steel used to make cars, all
came from minerals.
Uses of Rocks (Input)
 People use rocks for building materials and
industrial processes.
 Granite- used in floors, and kitchen counters
 Limestone- cut easily into blocks or slabs for use in
buildings. It is used in making cement and steel.
 Slate- splits easily into flat pieces. Used for
flooring and roofing
Producing Metals from
Ores (Input)
 Ore- a rock that contains a metal or mineral that can be
mined and sold for a profit.
 Most metals do not occur in pure form
 It is a mineral that is a combination of that metal and other
 Copper comes from ores containing iron, sulfur and copper.
 To produce metal from an ore, the ore must be mined or
removed from the ground. Then the ore must be processed
to extract the metal.
Mining (Input)
 Once they locate the ore, they must decide how to
remove it.
1. Strip mines – earthmovers scrape away soil to expose
the ore.
2. Open-pit mines- miners use giant earthmoving
equipment to dig a huge pit and remove the ore.
3. Shaft mines- Ore occurs in veins so miners build a
shaft mines. They are a network of tunnels that
extend deep in the group.
 Each has an effect on the environment
 Smelting- an ore is mixed with other substances and then melted.
This is not part of the rock cycle. This is something miners do to
extract ore.
 Useful ore separates from the rest of the rock and pure ore is
 Smelting releases gases and particles of metals into the air and
 They can be harmful.
 Smelters have devices called scrubbers located on exhaust vents to
release the harmful substances.
Checking for
 What are gemstones?
 What is smelting?
 What is one way miners remove ore
from the ground?
 What do people use rocks for today?
Guided Practice
Independent Practice
 GP
 NTG Page 35 # 1-7
 IP
 NTG Page 35-36 # 8-17