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Transcript
Quantum Hall effect
R
V1
I
V2
e2
I x = N Vy
h
Vx = 0
Gxy
L
e2
=N
h
n.b. h/e2 = 25 kOhms
Quantization of Hall resistance
is incredibly precise: good to 1
part in 1010 I believe.
WHY??
Robustness
• Why does disorder not mess it up more?
• Answer: this is due to the macroscopic
separation of protected chiral edge states
• Two ingredients:
• Scattering at a single edge does not affect
it
• Scattering between edges is exponentially
suppressed
Single edge
• Scattering at one edge is ineffective because
electrons are chiral: they cannot turn
around!
electron just picks up a phase shift
In equations:
H = ~vqx !
[ [email protected] + V (x)]
(x) = e
i
~v
Rx
0
dx0 V (x0 ) iqx x
e
[email protected]
=✏
✏ = ~vqx
Robustness
• To backscatter, electron must transit across
the sample to the opposite edge. How
does this happen?
• Think about bulk states with disorder
dk
=
dt
high field
k
e ⇥B+F
m
m
k⇡ F⇥B
e
F=
rU (r)
describes center of mass
drift of small cyclotron
orbits - along
equipotentials
Robustness
• Bulk orbits
m
k⇡ F⇥B
e
Note: near edge where force is normal to boundary,
this just gives the edge state
Edge states: smooth potent
!
Robustness!
In real samples, disorder is important, and
•
velocity
equipotential line
splits the degeneracy of the bulk LL states
•
TransitionBUT...it
from N=3
to“back-scatter”
N= 2 edge states
cannot
from one
edge to another - “protected” edge state
In the center of a Hall
plateau, it looks like this
Electrons need to quantum
tunnel from one localized state
to another to cross the sample
and backscatter
Robustness
!
!
Edge states:
potentialpotential
7
Edgesmooth
states: smooth
!
!
!
Edge
states:
smooth
potential
7
Edge states: smooth potential
•
line
velocityand
equipotential
line isvelocity
In realequipotential
samples,
disorder
important,
from
N=3 to N=
2 edge
Transition
from
N=3states
to N= 2 edge states
!
!
splits Transition
the degeneracy
of
the
bulk LL states
!
!
7
!
!
!
• BUT...it cannot “back-scatter” from one
equipotential line
equipotential line
velocity
velocity
edge to another - “protected” edge state
from
N=3states
to N= 2 edge states
Transition fromTransition
N=3 to N=
2 edge
somewhere here an edge state
“peels off” from boundary and
crosses the bulk
Robustness
• Quantum picture
it turns out truly delocalized
states occur only at one
energy...this is NOT obvious
consequently, IQHE “steps” in
Hall conductance are expected
to be infinitely sharp at T=0, for
a large sample
IQHE phases
•
Actually, the states with different integer quantum Hall
conductivity are different phases of matter at T=0: they are sharply
and qualitatively distinguished from one another by σxy
•
This means that to pass from one IQHE state to another
requires a quantum phase transition: this corresponds to the point
at which the edge state delocalizes and “percolates” through the
bulk
•
However, unlike most phases of matter, IQHE states break no
symmetry
•
They are distinguished not by symmetry but by
“topology” (actually the Hall conductivity can be related to
topology...a bit of a long story)
Graphene IQHE
What first experiments saw...
Castro Neto et al.: The electronic properties of graphene
zigzag: N=200, φ/φ0
1
energy / t
0.5
0
-0.5
-1
0
1
2
3
4
energy / t
0.4
0.2
µ
0
-0.2
-0.4
2
3
4
momentum ka
FIG. 21. !Color online"
electrons in graphene
= #0 / 701, for a finite str
panels are zoom-in ima
represents the chemical
Zhang et al, 2005
xy
FIG. 20. !Color online" Quantum Hall effect in graphene as a
function of charge-carrier concentration. The peak at n = 0
shows that in high magnetic fields there appears a Landau level
at zero energy where no states exist in zero field. The field
draws electronic states for this level from both conduction and
valence bands. The dashed lines indicate plateaus in !xy described by Eq. !111". Adapted from Novoselov, Geim, Morozov, et al., 2005.
Novoselov et al, 2005
e2
=
⇥ (±2, ±6, ±10, · · · )
h
holding for a graphene stripe with a zigzag !z = 1" and
armchair !z = −1" edges oriented along the x direction.
Fourier transforming along the x direction gives
H=−t
#
$ei"!#/#0"n$!1+z"/2%a!† !k,n"b!!k,n"
*'!k"+ = # $%!k,n
n,!
Equations !114" and !
that the zigzag ribbo
from n = 0 to n = N −
edges are obtained fr
E$,k%!k,0" = − teik
Relativistic vs NR LLs
• We expect σxy to
change by ±e2/h for
each filled Landau level
• Each Landau level is
4-fold degenerate
• 2 (spin) * 2 (K,K’)
Consistent with
observations, but zero
is not fixed
E
0
Fermi level is “in
the middle” of 0th
LL in undoped
graphene
Relativistic vs NR LLs
• Guess: when EF=0,
E
10
6
there are equal
numbers of holes and
electrons: σxy =0
2
0
Then we get the
observed sequence
-2
-6
-10
Fermi level is “in
the middle” of 0th
LL in undoped
graphene
tron edge states in graphene in the Quantum Hall effect regime can carry both c
We show that spin splitting of the zeroth Landau level gives rise to counterpropagat
pposite spin polarization. These chiral spin modes lead to a rich variety of spin curr
ding on the spin flip rate. A method to control the latter locally is proposed. W
n spin splitting enhanced by exchange, and obtain a spin gap of a few hundred Ke
Edge state picture
2
(a)
1
1
0
0
−1
−1
−2
−3
−4
2
Energy E/ε0
3
Energy E/ε0
Wewith
willlow
notcarrier
workdensity
this out
system
and
here,
but one
can show
recently
realized
in two-dimensional
varying the
a gate
thatcarrier
levelsdensity
at thewith
edge
range of interesting states, in particubend as shown here
quantum Hall effect [2, 3] (QHE). In
ll-known integer QHE in silicon MOSin graphene
occurs at half-integer
mulThe downward
bending
generacy
due the
to spin
and naturally
orbit. This
of half
levels
half-integer QHE. The unusually large
explains the observed
ng makes QHE in graphene observable
quantization,
100 K
and higher. and why the
filled
valence
statesQHE.
do In
the spin
effects
in graphene
eman splitting
transport in to
graphene
not contribute
σxy is
nusual set of edge states which we shall
ge states. These states are reminiscent
−2
0
Distance y0/ lB
−2
−4
FIG. 1: (a) Graphene energy spect
the splitting of n != 0 levels shown is due
boundary
obtained
from Dirac model
to lifting of the
spin/valley degeneracy,
which we have not talked about.
condition, Eq.(5), lifts the K, K ′ dege
This leads to additional integer states at
numbers
of edge modes lead to the hal
higher fields.
split graphene edge states: the blue
the spin up (spin down) states. Th
Topological Insulators
•
So the IQHE states are examples of what we
now call “Topological Insulators”: states which
are distinguished by “protected” edge states
•
Until very recently, it was thought that this
physics was restricted to high magnetic fields
and 2 dimensions
•
But it turns out there are other TIs...even in
zero field and in both 2d and 3d!
Topological insulators
•
General understanding: insulators can have gaps that are
“non-trivial”: electron wavefunctions of filled bands are
“wound differently” than those of ordinary insulators
“unwinding” of
wavefunctions requires
gapless edge states
Topological insulators
•
2005: Kane+Mele “Quantum spin Hall effect”: 2d
materials with SOC can show protected edge states in
zero magnetic field
•
2007: QSHE - now called 2d “Z2” topological insulator
- found experimentally in HgTe/CdTe quantum wells
•
2007: Z2 topological insulators predicted in 3d
materials
•
2008: First experiments on Bi1-xSbx start wave of 3d
TIs
Since then there has been explosive growth
QSHE
To preser ve timereversal symmetry, there
*must* be counterpropagating edge states,
and no net spin
(magnetization)
• Edge states!
“topological invariant” of
QSHE is Z2, unlike for IQHE
where the invariant is the
Hall conductance (in units
of e2/h), which is an
integer.
L,⇓
R⇑
2d topology is “all or
nothing”
You can see this by looking
at the edge states
like IQHE but with counter-propagating edge states for
opposite spin