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Human Anatomy
Basic Structure
Anatomical Terms
• Anatomy: study of the body structure and form
• Physiology: study of the processes of living organisms, or why and
how they work
• Pathology: study of the nature and cause of disease
• Embryology: study of the origin and development of the organism
• Histology: study of tissues
• Cytology: study of cells
• Homeostasis: ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions
• Protoplasm: basic substance of all life; includes carbon, oxygen,
hydrogen, sulfur, nitrogen, and phosphorus
Hierarchy of Structural Organization
Atoms .. Cells ..
Tissues .. Organs .. Organ system ..
Structural unit, building block (trillions of cells in body)
B. Carry on functions of life
1. Take in food and oxygen: ingestion, respiration, digestion
2. Produce heat and energy: metabolism
3. Move and adapt to their environment: motility, transport
4. Eliminate wastes: excretion
5. Perform special functions: secretion
6. Reproduce to create new identical cells: reproduction
1. Nucleus: “brain” of cell; controls many cell activities, including production
2. Nucleolus: located in cell nucleus; important in reproduction (RNA)
3. Chromatin network: located in nucleus; forms chromosomes which contain
genes that carry inherited characteristics; DNA (A-T/G-C bases); males XY
and females XX
4. Centrosome: located in cytoplasm near nucleus; contains 2 centrioles
important in reproduction
5. Mitochondria: located throughout the cytoplasm; “powerhouse” of cell;
helps produce energy (ATP .. ADP)
6. Ribosomes: protein synthesis
7. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) - transport system of channels
8. Lysosomes: sacks of digestive enzymes
9. Golgi Apparatus: synthesizes carbohydrates (CHO) and
transports enzymes/hormones; “packaging” of materials
10. Vesicle: fluid filled sack
11. Vacuole: containers
Cell Reproduction
• Mitosis: replaces dead/injured cells; divide into 2
identical cells; form of asexual reproduction; some cells
do not reproduce after birth i.e. nerve cells in brain and
spinal cord, muscle cells
• Meiosis: reduction division; 23 chromosomes = ovum; 23
chromosomes = sperm
• Cells of the same type joined together for
a common purpose
• Includes:
– Epithelial
– Muscle
– Nervous
– Connective
Characteristics of Tissues
60-99% water with various substances dissolved in it (tissue fluid) .
Dehydration: insufficient amount of tissue fluid
Edema: excess amount of tissue fluid .. swelling
Osmosis: unassisted diffusion of water
Types of Tissues
Covers surface of body and lining of intestinal, respiratory, urinary tract,
and other body cavities; forms glands
a. Has supporting “basement membrane” for protection
b. Forms thin sheets, not very strong
c. Has no blood vessels but depends on capillaries in underlying connective
(1) Protection i.e. skin
(2) Absorption i.e. digestive tract lining and kidneys
(3) Filtration i.e. kidneys
(4) Excretion i.e. kidneys
(5) Secretion i.e. glands, kidneys
(6) Sensory reception i.e. skin
Connective tissue
Provides supporting framework of organs and other body parts
Soft connective tissue
– Adipose (fat): stores fat as reserve food or energy source, insulates
body, acts as padding
– Fibrous: helps hold the body together, i.e. tendons, ligaments, fasciae,
Hard connective tissue
– Cartilage: tough, elastic material found between bones of spine and at
end of long bones where it acts as a shock absorber; also found in
nose, ears, larynx; no nerves poor blood supply .. heals poorly
– Osseous (Bone): similar to cartilage but has calcium salts, nerves, blood
vessels; body structure, calcium storage
Nervous tissue
• Made up of special cells called neurons and neuroglia
(supporting cells)
• Transmits impulses throughout the body
• Reacts to stimuli
• Makes up brain, spinal cord, and nerves
Muscle Tissue
Produces movement by contraction of muscle fibers (cells)
Three types:
• Skeletal: attaches to bones to provide movement;
striated, voluntary
• Cardiac: causes heart to beat; striated, involuntary
• Smooth: in walls of hollow organs i.e digestive tract,
blood vessels; No striations, involuntary
• Groups of different tissues that work
together for a special function i.e. heart,
stomach, lungs, skin
Organ Systems
• Groups of different organs that work
together for a special function i.e.
respiratory, urinary
Skeletal System
Bones, Associated cartilages, Joints
Strength, Support, Shape, Protection,
Leverage, Cell Production
Muscular System
Muscles (Skeletal Muscles, Smooth muscles,
Cardiac Muscles)
Motor power for movements of body
Nervous System
Brain, Spinal Cord, Nerves, Nerve Endings
Control and Coordination of all body
Respiratory System
Lungs, Nose, Trachea, Bronchi, Bronchioles, Alveoli
Gaseous exchange
Heart, Blood vessels (Arteries, Veins and
Capillaries), Blood
Flow of blood (and nutrients)
throughout body
Lymphatic System
Lymph vessels, Central lymphoid tissue, Peripheral
Lymphoid Organs, Lymphocytes
Drainage and Protection
Endocrine System
Pituitary gland, Thyroid gland, Parathyroid glands,
Adrenal glands, Pancreas Testes, Ovary, Liver
Regulation of body functions (Chemical
Digestive System
Oral Cavity, Esophagus, Stomach, Small Intestine,
Large Intestine, Anus Liver, Pancreas, Salivary
glands, Teeth, Tongue
Digestion and absorption of food
Urinary System
Kidneys, Ureters, Urinary bladder, Urethra
Regulation of body’s internal
environment, and production and
excretion of urine
Male Reproductive
Penis, Testes
Formation of sperms and semen, and
fertilizing the female
Uterus, Ovaries, Vulva, Labia, Clitoris
Formation of eggs and bearing the fetus
during development
Anatomic Position
• Body standing erect with
arms to the side and
palms facing forward,
head and feet forward
Directional Terms
A. Coronal/Frontal: divides the
body or organ vertically into
anterior and posterior parts
B. Transverse: divides the body
or organ horizontally or into
cranial/caudal parts
C. Medial/Mid-sagittal: divides
the body or organ vertically
into equal right and left parts
Body Cavities
Body Regions
Abdominal Regions
Body Quadrants
Incisions and lacerations
• Superficial
• Deep