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Phrases Notes: Phrase - A group of related words that do not have a subject or a verb. Infinitive - A verbal that begins with -to that is used as a noun, adjective, or adverb. Example: Climbing to a high chamber, in a well of houses, he threw himself down in his clothes on a neglected bed, and its pillow was wet with wasted tears. (A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens). Example: to walk, to read, to imagine. I sold the watch to get the money to buy your combs. (The Gift of the Magi by O. Henry). Preposition - A word that shows the relationship between a noun or pronoun and another word in sentence. Example: I had worked hard for nearly two years, for the sole purpose of infusing life into an inanimate body. (Frankenstein by Mary Shelley). Prepositional phrase - A group of words that begins with a preposition, ends with a noun or pronoun, and is used as an adjective or an adverb. Example: The mass of men lead lives of quiet desperation. (Walden by Henry David Thoreau). Participle - A verbal ending in -ing, -ed, -d, or an irregular form that is used as an adjective. Example: I am not in the giving vein today. (Richard III by William Shakespeare). Participial phrase - A participle with its modifiers and complements. Example: In the morning, looking into each other’s faces, they read their fate. (The Outcasts of Poker Flat by Bret Harte). Infinitive phrase - An infinitive with its object and modifiers. Example: To see him leap and run and pursue me over hedge and ditch was the worst of nightmares. (Treasure Island by Robert Louis Stevenson). Gerund - A verbal ending in -ing used as a noun. Example: Saying is one thing, and paying is another. (The Mayor of Casterbridge by Thomas Hardy). Gerund phrase - A gerund with all of its modifiers. Example: The coming of daylight dispelled his fears, but increased his loneliness. (White Fang by Jack London). Appositive - A noun, pronoun, or phrase that identifies or extends information about another noun or pronoun in a sentence. Example: At the man’s heels trotted a dog, a big native husky, the proper wolf dog. (To Build a Fire by Jack London).