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Transcript
Biological Invasions: a threat to
California Ecosystems
• Taught by Dr. Matteo Garbelotto
– [email protected]
– Office: Third floor Hilgard Hall
– Office hours: by appointment
Course info
•
•
•
•
One two hour lecture per week
One quiz every week on previous lecture
Tainter and Baker Forest Pathology book
Some readings will be posted on the Lab’s
Web site: www.matteolab.org
» Link to UCB course
» POWERPOINT LECTURES, assigned readings
» Posted on Fridays
Course info
• One final quiz (3 questions out of 9)
• One short Powerpoint presentation
• Possibility to improve grade by writing paper
(5 pages) on same topic as oral presentation
• One computer lab: use of software for genetic
analyses (Dr. Osmundson)
• One field activity Saturday April 27th:
participation in UCB SODBLITZ
(www.sodblitz.org)
GRADING
•
•
•
•
25% class and field activity participation
25% weekly quizzes
25% final quiz
25% oral presentation
EMERGENT FOREST DISEASES: ARE THEY
A THREAT TO NATIVE ECOSYSTEMS?
• Intro to Disease
• Native Diseases
• Invasive fungi and emergent
disease I
• Invasive fungi and emergent
disease II
• Exotic CA pathogens
(EPCA): White Pine Blister
rust
• EPCA:Dutch Elm Disease
• EPCA: Pine Pitch Canker,
Colored Canker of Sycamore
• EPCA: Sudden Oak Death
• Genetic Analyses of Invasive
spp
• EPCA: Other invasive
Phytophthoras
• Habitat change: Annosum
root rot
• Host change: Cypress
canker; Armillaria root Rot
• Newly introduced disease
and US introduced: Xylella,
1000 canker, Phragmidium
violaceum, Chestnut blight
• Finals
EMERGENT FOREST
DISEASES: ARE THEY A
THREAT TO NATIVE
ECOSYSTEMS?
Matteo Garbelotto
U.C.Berkeley
Disease: injurious physiological activity
caused by the continuous irritation by a
primary causal factor and expressed in
characteristic pathological conditions
called symptoms
Disease: any disturbance of a plant that
interferes with its normal, structure,
function or economic value
Primary causal factor=agent
ABIOTIC
BIOTIC (incl. VIRUSES)
BIOTIC DISEASES caused by:
Parasitic plants
Bacteria
Fungi
Oomycetes
Viruses
Nematodes
Tree of Life, from Patterson & Sogin, 1992
Phorodenron villosum on oak
Leafy mistletoe
Fungi
• Eukaryotic organisms, heterotrophs,
characterized by chitin and B-glucans in
the cell wall, feeding through
absorption, reproducing by spores and
producing a vegetative structure made
up of tubular structures,branched,
irregular, and indefinite in growth
(modified from B. Kendric 1992)
Fungal hyphae and mycelium
There are no differentiated
structures in fungi, but
hyphae can generate…
mycelia
stroma
rhizomorphs
Ascomycetes (predominance of n in life cycle)
Ascus
Sexual spores (ascospores)
are generated within “sacks”
called asci
*
Ascomycota
Ascomata
apothecium
perithecium
cleistothecium
*
pseudothecium
*
Basidiomycetes (Div. Basidiomycota) n+n or rarely 2n is
predominant in life cycle
Sexual spores, basidiospores,
are carried naked on surface of “clubs”
called basidia
*
Richiami sulle entità biotiche
Basidiomycota
spores
basidia
conidiomi
anamorphic fungi no sexual
stage
*
acervulo
*
conidiofori liberi
*
Marssonina betulae
*
Cryphonectria sp.
Oomycetes (Div. Oomycota) Kingdom: straminopila
(prev. Chromista)
zooconidio di
oomicete
Important group of forest pathogens, includes the genera
Pithyum and Phytophthora
Although apparently similar to the fungi, oomycetes are an
example of convergence, basically the same morphology was
*
selected because of their lifestyle similar to that of the fungi.
they all have a water dependant phase, they have cellulose in
the cell wall, and are mostly 2n
Types of disease: biotic vs.
abiotic or..
• Infectious: a disease that is caused
by a pathogen which can spread
from a diseased to a healthy host.
• Non-infectious: a disease that is
caused by an environmental or host
factor. It is not spread between a
diseased and healthy individual.
Types of diseases
•
•
•
•
•
•
Foliar diseases and blights
Stem diseases: cankers, wilts
Trunk rots
Root diseases
Seedling diseases
Fruit and flower disease