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3.1 Compounds
Compounds are pure substances made of more than
one kind of atom joined together. The atoms are held
together with chemical bonds.
(c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007
See pages 76 - 78
Compounds come in two basic types: covalent
and ionic.
To determine whether a compound is covalent or
ionic, the periodic table is required.
(c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007
Covalent Compounds
 Covalent
compounds are made up of
two non-metals.
 Covalent compounds share electrons to
form molecules. Example: water
(c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007
Ionic Compounds
 Ionic
compounds are made up of a metal
and a non-metal.
 In ionic compounds, atoms gain or lose
electrons to form ions. Example: NaCl
(c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007
Ionic Compounds
Ionic solids exist as a solid in the form of an ionic
The positive ions attract all of the negative ions,
and vice versa. In the example of table salt (NaCl)
the one-to-one ratio of ions results in a simple
square-shaped ionic cyrstal:
(c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007
See page 78
Polyatomic Ions
Covalent and ionic bonds can occur
A molecule can gain or lose electrons to
become charged, forming a polyatomic ion.
Polyatomic ions form compounds like
other ions.
 Example: Ammonium ion (NH4+)
(c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007
Polyatomic Ions
(c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007
Section 3.1 Quiz
See pages 79 - 80