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Transcript
Study Guide-Science Exam
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
You should be able to
*identify and make observations and inferences
*distinguish between qualitative and quantitative observations
*write a hypothesis
*correctly order the steps of the scientific method
*create an experiment or analyze an experiment for possible problems
*analyze data, read graphs, create graphs
Vocabulary
observations, inferences, qualitative and quantitative observations, scientific
method, hypothesis, experiments, controls, independent variable, dependent
variable, qualitative and quantitative data
ATMOSPHERE AND WEATHER
You should be able to describe the composition and organization of Earth’s
atmosphere.
Name and list the layers of the atmosphere in order.
Compare and contrast the density, air pressure and temperature of the layers of
the atmosphere.
Name and describe two types of barometers.
Explain all the processes of the water cycle and how they work together to move
water throughout the atmosphere.
Explain how the water cycle affects weather patterns.
Meteorologist – a person who studies the weather
http://kids.earth.nasa.gov/archive/career/meteorologist.html
Meteorology – the study of the atmosphere and weather patterns
http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/meteorology
Vocabulary
air pressure, molecules, density, volume, atmosphere, altitude, absorb,
equilibrium, mercury barometer, aneroid barometer, density, precipitation,
condensation, evaporation, percolation, transpiration, runoff, groundwater,
water vapor, humidity, relative humidity, capacity
troposphere
stratosphere
mesosphere
thermosphere
exosphere
For more on Earth’s layers:
http://www.srh.noaa.gov/jetstream/
atmos/layers.htm
nitrogen
oxygen
initial
reliable
weather
wind
expand
contract
conduction
convection
radiation
local winds
global winds
Coriolis effect
sea breeze
land breeze
jet stream
monsoon
global wind belts
easterlies
westerlies
trade winds
calm regions
doldrums
horse latitudes
Go here for more information on
wind belts and calm regions:
http://www.ck12.org/earthscience/Global-Wind-Belts/
pressure gradient
pressure gradient force
force
dew point
difference
saturated
psychrometer
cumulus
stratus
cirrus
air masses (continental, polar,
maritime, tropical)
fronts (cold, warm, occluded,
stationary)
low pressure system-stormy weather
high pressure system-calm, fair
weather
Gulf Stream
Go here for a summary of fronts:
http://www.eduplace.com/science/h
mxs/es/pdf/5rs_3_8-4.pdf
IMPORTANT QUESTIONS
Where is the Gulf Stream and how does it affect storms? Why?
What is weather?
What are the three factors that cause wind?
How is heat transferred? Describe three ways and give examples of each one.
Compare and contrast the causes and characteristics of global and local winds.
Provide examples of each.
Define force.
Explain how the pressure gradient affects wind speed and strength.
Explain the roles of bacteria, precipitation, animals and plants in the nitrogen
cycle.
How do jet streams affect the weather?
How does human activity affect the atmosphere and air quality? Give specific
examples.
You should be able to make predictions about the weather when given a weather
map.
What are thunderstorms, lightning storms, tornadoes and hurricanes?
Go here for storm information:
http://www.weatherwizkids.com/
Reading a Weather Map-Examples with symbols
Forces and Motion and Energy
You should be able to
 calculate speed, distance or time using the formula
speed = distance/time
 calculate force, mass or acceleration using the formula
force=mass X acceleration
 interpret and answer questions about distance-time graphs and positiontime graphs
 describe the position of an object using directions and reference points
 explain Newton’s Three Laws of Motion. Go here for more information on
Newton’s Laws: http://teachertech.rice.edu/Participants/louviere/Newton/




describe each simple machine and how it does work
compare and contrast ideal mechanical advantage and actual mechanical
advantage
calculate ideal and actual mechanical advantage of simple machines
explain how an electrical circuit works (complete circuit, power source,
etc.)
VOCABULARY
force
motion
position
reference point
speed
velocity (speed and direction)
Newton’s Law of Motion
inertia
simple machines
lever
pulley
screw
inclined place
wedge
wheel and axle
mechanical energy
machine
work
potential vs. kinetic energy
actual vs. ideal mechanical
advantage
balanced and unbalanced forces
friction
gravity
Word Problems:
Speed (rate) = distance / time
Force=mass x acceleration
LIVING ORGANISMS AND HUMAN BODY
You should know how each of these single-celled organisms moves, eats,
reproduces and secretes waste. You should be able to compare and contrast any
two of them.
Volvox
Paramecium
Euglena
Amoeba
A cell is the smallest part of any living thing. You should be able to recognize,
describe and explain the functions of each of the following cell parts.
Found in plant and animal cells
Cell membrane
Cytoplasm
Nucleus
Nuclear membrane
Mitochondria
Golgi bodies
ribosomes
Endoplasmic reticulum
Vacuoles (central vacuole in plant cells)
Just in plants
Cell wall
Chloroplasts
The human body (and other animals) is organized into cells, tissues, organs and
organ systems. You should be able to explain the relationship between these and
compare them to the organization of something else (school, city, building, car,
etc.)
The human body is organized into organ systems. They all work together to
benefit the entire body. You should know the function of each system listed. You
should be able to explain how they work together and provide specific examples.
Urinary
Circulatory
Muscular
Skeletal
Digestive
Nervous
Endocrine
Immune
Reproductive
Respiratory
Asexual Reproduction (one parent)
 offspring is identical to parent
 mitosis
 fragmentation
 budding
 binary fission
Sexual Reproduction (two parents)
 offspring is different from parents; gets ½ its chromosomes from each
parent
 sex cells made by meiosis
 sex cells = gametes = egg and sperm in humans
 requires fertilization of egg by sperm
You should be able to compare and contrast the stages and purpose of mitosis
and meiosis.
interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis
You should be able to use a Punnett square to determine the genotype of the
offspring when given the genotype or other information about the parents.
Vocabulary
genotype, allele, phenotype, traits, genes, chromosomes, dominant, recessive,
Gregor Mendel, Reginald Punnett, pedigree