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Crusades • The Crusades were expeditions undertaken, in fulfillment of a solemn vow, to deliver the Holy Places from Mohammedan tyranny. Crusades • The origin of the word may be traced to the cross made of cloth and worn as a badge on the outer garment of those who took part in these enterprises. Medieval writers use the terms crux. Since the Middle Ages the meaning of the word crusade has been extended to include all wars undertaken in pursuance of a vow, and directed against infidels, i.e. against Mohammedans, pagans, heretics, or those under the ban of excommunication. The wars waged by the Spaniards against the Moors constituted a continual crusade from the eleventh to the sixteenth century; in the north of Europe crusades were organized against the Prussians and Lithuanians; the extermination of the Albigensian heresy was due to a crusade, and, in the thirteenth century the popes preached crusades against John Lackland and Frederick II. But modern literature has abused the word by applying it to all wars of a religious character, as, for instance, the expedition of Heraclius against the Persians in the seventh century and the conquest of Saxony by Charlemagne Crusades • The idea of the crusade corresponds to a political conception which was realized in Christendom only from the eleventh to the fifteenth century; this supposes a union of all peoples and sovereigns under the direction of the popes. All crusades were announced by preaching. After pronouncing a solemn vow, each warrior received a cross from the hands of the pope or his legates, and was thenceforth considered a soldier of the Church. Crusaders were also granted indulgences and temporal privileges, such as exemption from civil jurisdiction, inviolability of persons or lands, etc. Of all these wars undertaken in the name of Christendom, the most important were the Eastern Crusades, which are the only ones treated in this article. • DIVISION • It has been customary to describe the Crusades as eight in number: • the first, 1095-1101; • the second, headed by Louis VII, 1145-47; • the third, conducted by Philip Augustus and Richard Coeur-de-Lion, 1188-92; • the fourth, during which Constantinople was taken, 1204; • the fifth, which included the conquest of Damietta, 1217; • the sixth, in which Frederick II took part (1228-29); also Thibaud de Champagne and Richard of Cornwall (1239); • the seventh, led by St. Louis, 1249-52; • the eighth, also under St. Louis, 1270. • Crusade – latin “Crux” meaning Cross • 7th Century (Jerusalem) Umar • 11th C. Hakim persecutes Christians, despoils Holy Sepulcher • Egyptians lose control in 1071 • Seljuk Turks take over • Reasons – Persecution – Threat to Byzantine Empire • Motives @ 1st to fight Evil • Material Motives quickly enter – (wealth, penance, status, etc.) • (1050 – 1131) • Led the Popular Crusade - 1096 • “Monk” turned crusader • Walter the Penniless (sidekick) • Left prior to main crusading force with 20,000 followers. • Pillaged churches and houses on the way to Constantinople. • Byzantine Emperor Alexius sends the peasant army to Anatolia. • They move towards Asia Minor under the leadership of Peter the Hermit and Walter the Penniless. • Peasant Crusaders besieged at Xerigordon and forced to surrender • Prisoners given the choice or beheading or conversion. – Those who convert are sent into slavery never to be heard from again. "Lythe and listin, gentilmen, That be of frebore blode; I shall you tel of a gode yeman, His name was Robyn Hode." -A Gest of Robyn Hode http://www.geocities.com/mrs_goddard/videomusic.html FRIEND OR FOE http://www.benturner.com/robinhood/sound_mit.wav KNIGHTHOOD SHIELD’S OF RICHARD, CHARLES V, CHARLEMAGNE, BARBAROSSA KOCH DEVENS In response to the announcement by Pope Urban II of a Crusade to the Holy Land in 1095, Christian forces from western Europe converged on Constantinople, where they united with Byzantine forces to attack Seljuk armies in Anatolia and Muslim armies in Syria and Palestine. By 1099 the Crusaders had achieved their goal—the capture of the city of Jerusalem. However, Christian territories acquired during the First Crusade were gradually lost over the next 200 years. Jerusalem was recaptured by Muslim forces in 1187, and the last Christian stonghold in the Holy The western European Christian armies of the First Crusade surrounded the city of Jerusalem in June 1099. In mid-July, after a long siege, the Crusaders took the city by storm and massacred many of its inhabitants. • Conrad III- German, Holy Roman Emperor Lead Troops With Louis • Pope Eugenius III- Pope • St. Bernard- Influenced start of Crusade • King Louis VII- French Lead Troops • Baldwin III- King of Jerusalem • • • • Edessa was taken by Muslims Came as a shock Fight Muslims in Spain St. Bernard stated that crusade was more than to gain back Holy Land • Many simple pilgrims joined the forces • Few trained soldiers • Louis the Young • King of France • Overall leader of Crusade • Holy Roman Emperor • Military Experience • Needed convincing to go • Never crowned by Pope • Advocate for Crusade • Claimed that fighting was not just for church but for salvation as well • Convinced Conrad III to fight • Imad Ad-Din Zengi captured Edessa, sparking the 2nd crusade • Saracens destroy the Germans • Nur ed-din added lands to Muslim state • Saladin came after crusade • • • • Originally taken by Christians in 1098 Had been weakened by several Muslim attacks Christians knew it was soon to go Muslims finally succeed on Christmas Eve 1144 • Almost completely destroyed when crossing plains of Anatolia(May 1146) • Remnants of Army arrives in Constantinople(Dec. 1146) • Travel through Hungry, stealing (June 1147) • Stop at Dorylaedum to rest, and are destroyed (Oct. 1147) • Rest of the Germans are massacred by the Turks(Feb. 1148). • Again, mismanaged and dumb • Many killed just on the way to the Holy Land/Edessa • Some by land some by sea, land troops almost all killed • Main goal of Crusaders • All troops set to meet there • Germans mostly dead • French infantry cut down • All three leaders disorganized/too proud • • • • • • • • Basically none Small parts of Spain/Italian Islands Showed how strong Muslims were Showed how unified leaders can work together Christians thought twice about fighting Knew Muslims strengths The siege of Damascus is done after one week Saladin comes into power in Muslim world A grim scene of Richard Coeur de Lion massacring his Saracen hostages in the Holy Land. From his balcony, Richard complacently observes the gruesome spectacle. Headless corpses are piled up beneath a platform on which two blindfolded men are about to be beheaded. Others await their turn, while soldiers lead the next victims to the ladder Saladin was a Muslim ruler in the 12th century, during the time Europeans led Crusaders to the Middle East. Saladin fought the Crusaders several times, and recaptured Jerusalem for Muslims in 1187. This portrait of Saladin is in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, Italy. Movie Movie2 Movie3(saladin) Introduction • European Crusaders built massive castles to protect their territory and expand the fortresses of their prisoners. • Means Fortress from word Castellum • cas·tle (www.dictionary.com) n. – A large fortified building or group of buildings with thick walls, usually dominating the surrounding country. Many people still have a romantic view of castles (knights, damsels in distress and nonstop feasting) Castles were very utilitarian in feudal society as a protector, landmark, and source of pride among the community. As the population grew and more protection was needed, stronger and bigger castles were built. Early castles were made of timber and dirt which made them weak and flammable. Eventually, stone was used and older castles were rebuilt with stone. Most castles took an average of 10-15 years to complete. William the Conqueror from Normandy, France changed the medieval landscape. Medieval societies soon made stone towers and walls in every country. Many fell into ruins in the years to come. William the Conqueror's use of castles during the Norman invasion changed the way medieval battles were fought for hundreds of years Castle Architecture Stone, mortar, wood were the simple components used to construct these heavily fortified structures Medieval castles were built for safety, not comfort Cold, stone floors and walls didn’t keep in the heat, and water had to be brought by the bucketful throughout the castle castles relied on the surrounding landscape to provide much of the protection An inner courtyard of a castle. - Large courtyard outside of the inner ward but still held within the out curtainwall. Fighting position on the top of the castle wall or tower. This includes the crenelated wall and the wall walk. Top of a wall or tower that has lower sections (crenels) for the purpose of giving a castle defender a position to fight or fire through. This protective stonework is the classic outline of the top of a castle wall. (Also called embrasures) Low sections of the crenelations. Bailey or Basilica or Outer Ward Battlement Crenelations Crenels The encircling wall of a castle connecting the towers and other fortifications. Curtain Wall A wooden bridge across a moat or pit that can be raised or withdrawn making crossing impossible. Drawbridge Large inner courtyard contained inside a castle, usually the ward located around the keep. Inner Ward The central fortification in a castle, usually a tower or building strongly fortified in the inner ward that provides the defenders with a final defensive position, as well as providing living quarters. The keep often is also the tallest fortification in a castle, with a commanding view of all the fighting positions. Keep Trench dug around a castle often filled with water. Moat The natural or artificial hill upon which the keep of an early castle was built. (i.e., motte and bailey castles) Motte Walkway located behind the crenelations of a castle, or the fighting platform area of a castle tower. Sliding secondary gate used to guard a castle entrance, usually made of vertical and horizontal metal bars or reinforced wood beams. This was designed to make the use of rams against the main gate less effective. Circular or Square fortification used to provide stability and additional defensive capabilities to the curtain wall. Parapet Portcullis Tower Castle under siege The Mantlet A portable wooden wall that could be rolled forward to protect troops from attack by archers on the The Ladder - The castle attacking army could walls. use ladders to attempt to climb the walls The Trebchet - This weapon was a giant sling powered by a counterweight. It was capable of throwing hundreds of pounds into, or even over, the castle wall The Ram - The ram was a tree trunk stripped of branches and often capped with an iron point. It was then hung by chains from a rolling shed. The Keep The keep was a large central tower that served as the residence of whatever Lord owned the castle Castle defense mechanisms • • • • Moats Catapults Drawbridge Concrete walls Draw bridge Moat Castle defender Built by the Crusaders in 1150AD in the only significant break in the mountain range between Antakya, Turkey and Beruit, Lebanon. It originally housed a garrison of 4,000 and construction was expanded over 100 years. After holding off a number of concerted attacks, it finally sell to Sultan Baibars in 1271. Built in 1132 by the Crusader king, Baldwin I of Jerusalem. Fell to Saladin in 1188. The governor at time was Renauld de Chatillion used to throw his enemies over the battlements into the valley 450m below... and to ensure he prolonged their agony, he would encase the victims' heads in wooden boxes so they wouldn't loose consciousness before hitting the bottom. (So much for the chivalry of Knights.) Kantara Castle The Kantara Castle is the easternmost of the castles situated on the Kyrenia mountain range in North Cyprus. Laying at 630 metres above sea level it is well positioned to control the entrances to Karpass Peninsula and Mesaoria plain. It is thought to be built in the 10th century as a lookout post by the Byzantines against the raiding Arabs. The castle is first time mentioned in history when Richard the Lionheart captured Cyprus in 1191 and Isaac Comnenus, the despotic ruler of the island, took refuge in the castle. This citadel was originally a Muslim stronghold - founded possibly in 1062. In the early 12th century, it felled into Crusader hands. Safita (Arabic )صا فيتاis a city in north-western Syria, located to the southeast of Tartous and to the northwest of Krak des Chevaliers. The city has a population of 33,000. It is located on the tops of 3 hills and the valleys in between them, in the coastal mountain ranges of Syria. It was important during the crusades, and was inhabited by the Knights Templar of the castle Chastel Blanc while part of the County of Tripoli. • Founded 1118, aftermath of 1st Crusade • Poor Knights of Christ • Temple of Solomon • Started as Monastic Order • Bernard of Clairvaux • the knights, equipped as heavy cavalry; • the sergeants, equipped as light cavalry and drawn from a lower social class than the knights; • farmers, who administered the property of the Order; • the chaplains, who were ordained priests and saw to the spiritual needs of the Order. • Primarily used as a military order • Forerunner to Professional Army • Used wealth for Fortifications in Holy Land • Downfall Philip IV (France) • Knights are arrested on Oct. 13th (Friday) • Pope transfers money to papacy (1307) • Many morph into Hospitallers • Accident • Donated large sums to join order • Pope gave massive grants to Knights • Lend money to Spanish, later others traveling on Crusade • Conspiracy Theories • Heresies – Homosexuals, Anti-Christian, Baphomet • Strange Ritual Practices • Cathars Two Templars burned at the stake, from a French 15th century manuscript The manuscript illustration (c. 1350) alludes to the accusation of sodomy against the templars. • Conspiracy Theories • Heresies – Homosexuals, Anti-Christian, Baphomet • Strange Ritual Practices • Cathars • The Holy Grail, Ark of the Covenant • Hid away in Scotland (Rosslyn Chapel) • Stories, Ivanhoe (1820), The Road to Jerusalem (1998), The Knights Templar (1999), The Kingdom at the End of the Road (2000) th 4 Crusade (1201-1204) Pope the Innocent • August 1198 – Pope Innocent III proclaims the launch of the Fourth Crusade • Managed to excommunicate both Holy Roman emperor Otto IV and King John of England in 1209. Venice Venice was led by a group of upper class merchants The Doge: Ruler of Venice Enrico Dandolo Enrico Dandolo • He is the Doge of Venice (Blind Leader) • Becomes Leader of Crusade against Zara • Takes up the Cross Isaac II Angelus • Ruled for 10 years (1185-1195) And again from (1203 – 1204) • 1195- Brother Alexius III gauged out his eyes and imprisoned him Alexius III Angelus • After gauging out Isaac II eyes he imprisons him and takes his thrown • After which he begins harassing the Venetians because they had special trading rights in Constantinople. The Beginning November 19, 1202 the Fourth Crusade gets underway. Against the commands of the pope they still attack Zara for the Venetians. After only 5 days of fighting the city of Zara is captured by Crusaders. The Pope excommunicates all who are involved for going against his word. Crusade Pathway Alexius III Angelus • Offers the Crusaders 200,000 marks and the reunification of the Byzantine Church with Rome if they capture Constantinople for him. • The Fourth Crusade is called to recapture Jerusalem, but it is diverted to Constantinople instead. The capital of the Byzantine Empire would be captured, sacked, and held by Latin rulers until 1261. Game Plan • After capturing Zara they wait a year and then set off to Constantinople once again against the wishes of the Pope. • On April 6, 1203 the Crusaders launch an attack on the Christen city of Constantinople. • Constantinople falls to the Crusaders on July 17th, 1203 • Alexius IV is made co-emperor • His father Isaac II is released from Prison and also made coemperor Alexius V Ducas • Brother in law to Alexius III • He positioned himself as the leader of a anti Latin group and gained power • He took over Constantinople by killing Alexius IV and emprisioned Issac II. • Alexius Ducas Murtzuphios became Alexius V Ducas after taking over the throne. THE RESULTS • Constantinople was the richest city in Christendom (pope recognized holy land). The next 3 days they managed to carry off a great deal of there wealth. • The Men of the Crusade most being French decide to place a Latin emperor in hoping all problems will be solved. • The Sacking ravaged Constantinople so bad that it never recovered. In the End Meanwhile , Byzantine refugees founded their own successor states, the most notable of these being the Empire of Nicaea under Theodore Lascaris (relative of Alexius III), the Empire of Trebizond, and the Despotate Epirus. Where’s My Money • After months of not being paid , the soldiers of the Fourth Crusade attack Constantinople again. • Alexius V Ducas is forced to flee to Thrace • Pope Innocent protests this behavior, but does not hesitate at the opportunity to reunite Greek and Latin churches. • Fifth Crusade (1217-1221): landed in Egypt (which controlled the Holy Land) and accomplished nothing. (trapped by Nile flood) • Sixth Crusade (1228-1229): led by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II von Hohenstaufen, against the Pope's wishes (Frederick and the pope didn't get along). This was actually a peaceful visit, which led to an agreement permitting Christians free access to the Holy Places. • Seventh Crusade (1248-1254): resulted when the Egyptians Mamelukes routed a local Christian army in 1244. led by Louis IX of France ("Saint Louis"), also attacked Egypt, but failed amid great suffering. • Eighth Crusade (1270): Louis' second attempt to invade Muslim Africa, which ended in failure when he died. • Ninth Crusade (1271-1272): never actually reached the Holy Land, despite being led by Prince Edward of England (later Edward I). Acre (modern Akko, in Israel), the last Christian stronghold in the Holy Land fell in 1291. Although several popes preached renewed crusades to liberate the Holy Land, they were mostly unsuccessful. The last expedition generally regarded as a crusade occurred in 1399, when a Christian army marched into the Balkans. After some successes, they were totally routed at Nikopolis, northwest of Constantinople. ReSuLtS What was accomplished? Gains? Losses? Winners? Losers?