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Transcript
Crusades
• The Crusades were expeditions
undertaken, in fulfillment of a solemn
vow, to deliver the Holy Places from
Mohammedan tyranny.
Crusades
• The origin of the word may be traced to the cross made of cloth
and worn as a badge on the outer garment of those who took part
in these enterprises. Medieval writers use the terms crux. Since
the Middle Ages the meaning of the word crusade has been
extended to include all wars undertaken in pursuance of a vow,
and directed against infidels, i.e. against Mohammedans, pagans,
heretics, or those under the ban of excommunication. The wars
waged by the Spaniards against the Moors constituted a
continual crusade from the eleventh to the sixteenth century; in
the north of Europe crusades were organized against the
Prussians and Lithuanians; the extermination of the Albigensian
heresy was due to a crusade, and, in the thirteenth century the
popes preached crusades against John Lackland and Frederick II.
But modern literature has abused the word by applying it to all
wars of a religious character, as, for instance, the expedition of
Heraclius against the Persians in the seventh century and the
conquest of Saxony by Charlemagne
Crusades
• The idea of the crusade corresponds to a political conception which was realized in
Christendom only from the eleventh to the fifteenth century; this supposes a union
of all peoples and sovereigns under the direction of the popes. All crusades were
announced by preaching. After pronouncing a solemn vow, each warrior received a
cross from the hands of the pope or his legates, and was thenceforth considered a
soldier of the Church. Crusaders were also granted indulgences and temporal
privileges, such as exemption from civil jurisdiction, inviolability of persons or
lands, etc. Of all these wars undertaken in the name of Christendom, the most
important were the Eastern Crusades, which are the only ones treated in this article.
• DIVISION
• It has been customary to describe the Crusades as eight in number:
• the first, 1095-1101;
• the second, headed by Louis VII, 1145-47;
• the third, conducted by Philip Augustus and Richard Coeur-de-Lion, 1188-92;
• the fourth, during which Constantinople was taken, 1204;
• the fifth, which included the conquest of Damietta, 1217;
• the sixth, in which Frederick II took part (1228-29); also Thibaud de Champagne
and Richard of Cornwall (1239);
• the seventh, led by St. Louis, 1249-52;
• the eighth, also under St. Louis, 1270.
• Crusade – latin “Crux” meaning Cross
• 7th Century (Jerusalem)
Umar
• 11th C. Hakim persecutes Christians,
despoils Holy Sepulcher
• Egyptians lose control in 1071
• Seljuk Turks take over
• Reasons
– Persecution
– Threat to Byzantine Empire
• Motives @ 1st to fight Evil
• Material Motives quickly enter
– (wealth, penance, status, etc.)
• (1050 – 1131)
• Led the Popular Crusade - 1096
• “Monk” turned crusader
• Walter the Penniless (sidekick)
• Left prior to main crusading force with 20,000 followers.
• Pillaged churches and houses on the way to Constantinople.
• Byzantine Emperor Alexius sends the peasant army to Anatolia.
• They move towards Asia Minor under the leadership of Peter the Hermit and
Walter the Penniless.
• Peasant Crusaders besieged at Xerigordon and forced to surrender
• Prisoners given the choice or beheading or conversion.
– Those who convert are sent into slavery never to be heard from again.
"Lythe and listin, gentilmen,
That be of frebore blode;
I shall you tel of a gode yeman,
His name was Robyn Hode."
-A Gest of Robyn Hode
http://www.geocities.com/mrs_goddard/videomusic.html
FRIEND OR FOE
http://www.benturner.com/robinhood/sound_mit.wav
KNIGHTHOOD
SHIELD’S OF RICHARD, CHARLES V, CHARLEMAGNE, BARBAROSSA
KOCH
DEVENS
In response to the announcement by Pope Urban II of a Crusade to the Holy Land in 1095,
Christian forces from western Europe converged on Constantinople, where they united with
Byzantine forces to attack Seljuk armies in Anatolia and Muslim armies in Syria and Palestine.
By 1099 the Crusaders had achieved their goal—the capture of the city of Jerusalem. However,
Christian territories acquired during the First Crusade were gradually lost over the next 200 years.
Jerusalem was recaptured by Muslim forces in 1187, and the last Christian stonghold in the Holy
The western European
Christian armies of the
First Crusade surrounded
the city of Jerusalem in
June 1099. In mid-July,
after a long siege, the
Crusaders took the city by
storm and massacred many
of its inhabitants.
• Conrad III- German, Holy Roman
Emperor Lead Troops With Louis
• Pope Eugenius III- Pope
• St. Bernard- Influenced start of
Crusade
• King Louis VII- French Lead Troops
• Baldwin III- King of Jerusalem
•
•
•
•
Edessa was taken by Muslims
Came as a shock
Fight Muslims in Spain
St. Bernard stated that crusade was
more than to gain back Holy Land
• Many simple pilgrims joined the forces
• Few trained soldiers
• Louis the Young
• King of France
• Overall leader
of Crusade
• Holy Roman Emperor
• Military Experience
• Needed convincing to
go
• Never crowned by
Pope
• Advocate for Crusade
• Claimed that fighting
was not just for
church but for
salvation as well
• Convinced
Conrad III to fight
• Imad Ad-Din Zengi captured Edessa, sparking
the 2nd crusade
• Saracens destroy the Germans
• Nur ed-din added lands to Muslim state
• Saladin came after crusade
•
•
•
•
Originally taken by Christians in 1098
Had been weakened by several Muslim attacks
Christians knew it was soon to go
Muslims finally succeed on Christmas Eve 1144
• Almost completely destroyed when crossing plains of Anatolia(May
1146)
• Remnants of Army arrives in Constantinople(Dec. 1146)
• Travel through Hungry, stealing (June 1147)
• Stop at Dorylaedum to rest, and are destroyed (Oct. 1147)
• Rest of the Germans are massacred by the Turks(Feb. 1148).
• Again, mismanaged and dumb
• Many killed just on the way to the Holy Land/Edessa
• Some by land some by sea, land troops almost all killed
• Main goal of Crusaders
• All troops set to meet
there
• Germans mostly dead
• French infantry cut down
• All three leaders
disorganized/too proud
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Basically none
Small parts of Spain/Italian Islands
Showed how strong Muslims were
Showed how unified leaders can work together
Christians thought twice about fighting
Knew Muslims strengths
The siege of Damascus is done after one week
Saladin comes into power in Muslim world
A grim scene of
Richard Coeur de
Lion massacring
his Saracen
hostages in the
Holy Land. From
his balcony,
Richard
complacently
observes the
gruesome
spectacle. Headless
corpses are piled
up beneath a
platform on which
two blindfolded
men are about to
be beheaded.
Others await their
turn, while soldiers
lead the next
victims to the
ladder
Saladin was a Muslim
ruler in the 12th
century, during the
time Europeans led
Crusaders to the
Middle East. Saladin
fought the Crusaders
several times, and
recaptured Jerusalem
for Muslims in 1187.
This portrait of Saladin
is in the Uffizi Gallery
in Florence, Italy.
Movie
Movie2
Movie3(saladin)
Introduction
• European Crusaders built massive castles to protect their
territory and expand the fortresses of their prisoners.
• Means Fortress from word Castellum
• cas·tle (www.dictionary.com) n.
– A large fortified building or group of buildings with
thick walls, usually dominating the surrounding
country.
Many people still have a romantic view of castles
(knights, damsels in distress and nonstop feasting)
Castles were very utilitarian in feudal society as a
protector, landmark, and source of pride among the
community.
As the population grew and more protection was needed, stronger and bigger
castles were built. Early castles were made of timber and dirt which made them
weak and flammable. Eventually, stone was used and older castles were rebuilt
with stone. Most castles took an average of 10-15 years to complete.
William the Conqueror
from Normandy, France
changed the medieval landscape.
Medieval societies soon made stone towers
and walls in every country.
Many fell into ruins in the years to come.
William the Conqueror's use of castles during the Norman
invasion changed the way medieval battles were fought for
hundreds of years
Castle Architecture
Stone, mortar, wood were
the simple components used
to construct these heavily
fortified structures
Medieval castles were built
for safety, not comfort
Cold, stone floors and walls
didn’t keep in the heat, and
water had to be brought by
the bucketful throughout the
castle
castles relied on
the surrounding
landscape to
provide much of
the protection
An inner courtyard of a castle. - Large courtyard outside of the inner ward but still held within the out curtainwall.
Fighting position on the top of the castle wall or tower. This includes the crenelated wall and the wall walk.
Top of a wall or tower that has lower sections (crenels) for the purpose of giving a castle defender a position to fight or fire
through. This protective stonework is the classic outline of the top of a castle wall.
(Also called embrasures) Low sections of the crenelations.
Bailey or Basilica
or Outer Ward
Battlement
Crenelations
Crenels
The encircling wall of a castle connecting the towers and other fortifications.
Curtain Wall
A wooden bridge across a moat or pit that can be raised or withdrawn making crossing impossible.
Drawbridge
Large inner courtyard contained inside a castle, usually the ward located around the keep.
Inner Ward
The central fortification in a castle, usually a tower or building strongly fortified in the inner ward that provides the defenders
with a final defensive position, as well as providing living quarters. The keep often is also the tallest fortification in a castle, with
a commanding view of all the fighting positions.
Keep
Trench dug around a castle often filled with water.
Moat
The natural or artificial hill upon which the keep of an early castle was built. (i.e., motte and bailey castles)
Motte
Walkway located behind the crenelations of a castle, or the fighting platform area of a castle tower.
Sliding secondary gate used to guard a castle entrance, usually made of vertical and horizontal metal bars or reinforced wood
beams. This was designed to make the use of rams against the main gate less effective.
Circular or Square fortification used to provide stability and additional defensive capabilities to the curtain wall.
Parapet
Portcullis
Tower
Castle under siege
The
Mantlet A
portable
wooden
wall that
could be
rolled
forward
to protect
troops
from
attack by
archers
on the The Ladder - The
castle attacking army could
walls. use ladders to attempt
to climb the walls
The Trebchet - This weapon
was a giant sling powered by a
counterweight. It was capable of
throwing hundreds of pounds
into, or even over, the castle wall
The Ram - The
ram was a tree
trunk stripped
of branches
and often
capped with an
iron point. It
was then hung
by chains from
a rolling shed.
The Keep The keep
was a large
central tower
that served
as the
residence of
whatever
Lord owned
the castle
Castle defense mechanisms
•
•
•
•
Moats
Catapults
Drawbridge
Concrete walls
Draw bridge
Moat
Castle defender
Built by the Crusaders in 1150AD in the only significant break in the
mountain range between Antakya, Turkey and Beruit, Lebanon. It
originally housed a garrison of 4,000 and construction was expanded
over 100 years. After holding off a number of concerted attacks, it
finally sell to Sultan Baibars in 1271.
Built in 1132 by the Crusader king, Baldwin I of Jerusalem. Fell to Saladin in
1188. The governor at time was Renauld de Chatillion used to throw his enemies
over the battlements into the valley 450m below... and to ensure he prolonged their
agony, he would encase the victims' heads in wooden boxes so they wouldn't loose
consciousness before hitting the bottom. (So much for the chivalry of Knights.)
Kantara Castle
The Kantara Castle is the easternmost of the castles situated on the Kyrenia mountain range in
North Cyprus. Laying at 630 metres above sea level it is well positioned to control the entrances
to Karpass Peninsula and Mesaoria plain.
It is thought to be built in the 10th century as a lookout post by the Byzantines against the raiding
Arabs. The castle is first time mentioned in history when Richard the Lionheart captured Cyprus
in 1191 and Isaac Comnenus, the despotic ruler of the island, took refuge in the castle.
This citadel was originally a Muslim
stronghold - founded possibly in 1062. In
the early 12th century, it felled into
Crusader hands.
Safita (Arabic ‫ )صا فيتا‬is a city in north-western Syria,
located to the southeast of Tartous and to the northwest
of Krak des Chevaliers. The city has a population of
33,000. It is located on the tops of 3 hills and the
valleys in between them, in the coastal mountain
ranges of Syria. It was important during the crusades,
and was inhabited by the Knights Templar of the castle
Chastel Blanc while part of the County of Tripoli.
• Founded 1118, aftermath of 1st Crusade
• Poor Knights of Christ
• Temple of Solomon
•
Started as Monastic Order
•
Bernard of Clairvaux
•
the knights, equipped as heavy cavalry;
•
the sergeants, equipped as light cavalry and drawn from a lower
social class than the knights;
•
farmers, who administered the property of the Order;
•
the chaplains, who were ordained priests and saw to the spiritual
needs of the Order.
•
Primarily used as a military order
•
Forerunner to Professional Army
•
Used wealth for Fortifications in Holy Land
•
Downfall
Philip IV (France)
• Knights are arrested on Oct. 13th (Friday)
•
Pope transfers money to papacy (1307)
•
Many morph into Hospitallers
•
Accident
•
Donated large sums to join order
•
Pope gave massive grants to Knights
•
Lend money to Spanish, later others traveling on Crusade
•
Conspiracy Theories
•
Heresies – Homosexuals, Anti-Christian, Baphomet
•
Strange Ritual Practices
•
Cathars
Two Templars burned at the stake, from a French 15th century manuscript
The manuscript
illustration (c.
1350) alludes to
the accusation of
sodomy against
the templars.
•
Conspiracy Theories
•
Heresies – Homosexuals, Anti-Christian, Baphomet
•
Strange Ritual Practices
•
Cathars
•
The Holy Grail, Ark of the Covenant
•
Hid away in Scotland (Rosslyn Chapel)
•
Stories, Ivanhoe (1820), The Road to Jerusalem
(1998), The Knights Templar (1999), The
Kingdom at the End of the Road (2000)
th
4
Crusade
(1201-1204)
Pope the Innocent
• August 1198 – Pope
Innocent III
proclaims the launch
of the Fourth
Crusade
• Managed to
excommunicate both
Holy Roman
emperor Otto IV and
King John of
England in 1209.
Venice
Venice was led by a group of upper
class merchants
The Doge: Ruler of Venice
Enrico Dandolo
Enrico Dandolo
• He is the Doge of
Venice (Blind Leader)
• Becomes Leader of
Crusade against Zara
• Takes up the Cross
Isaac II Angelus
• Ruled for 10 years
(1185-1195)
And again from (1203
– 1204)
• 1195- Brother Alexius
III gauged out his eyes
and imprisoned him
Alexius III Angelus
• After gauging out Isaac II eyes he
imprisons him and takes his thrown
• After which he begins harassing the
Venetians because they had special
trading rights in Constantinople.
The Beginning
November 19, 1202 the Fourth
Crusade gets underway.
Against the commands of the
pope they still attack Zara for
the Venetians.
After only 5 days of fighting the
city of Zara is captured by
Crusaders.
The Pope excommunicates all
who are involved for going
against his word.
Crusade Pathway
Alexius III Angelus
• Offers the Crusaders
200,000 marks and
the reunification of
the Byzantine Church
with Rome if they
capture
Constantinople for
him.
• The Fourth Crusade is
called to recapture
Jerusalem, but it is
diverted to
Constantinople instead.
The capital of the
Byzantine Empire would
be captured, sacked,
and held by Latin rulers
until 1261.
Game Plan
• After capturing Zara they wait a year and
then set off to Constantinople once again
against the wishes of the Pope.
• On April 6, 1203 the Crusaders launch an
attack on the Christen city of
Constantinople.
• Constantinople falls
to the Crusaders on
July 17th, 1203
• Alexius IV is made
co-emperor
• His father Isaac II is
released from Prison
and also made coemperor
Alexius V Ducas
• Brother in law to Alexius III
• He positioned himself as the leader of a anti
Latin group and gained power
• He took over Constantinople by killing Alexius
IV and emprisioned Issac II.
• Alexius Ducas Murtzuphios became Alexius V
Ducas after taking over the throne.
THE RESULTS
• Constantinople was the richest city in Christendom
(pope recognized holy land). The next 3 days they
managed to carry off a great deal of there wealth.
• The Men of the Crusade most being French decide
to place a Latin emperor in hoping all problems will
be solved.
• The Sacking ravaged Constantinople so bad that it
never recovered.
In the End
Meanwhile , Byzantine refugees founded
their own successor states, the most
notable of these being the Empire of Nicaea
under Theodore Lascaris (relative of
Alexius III), the Empire of Trebizond, and
the Despotate Epirus.
Where’s My Money
• After months of not being paid , the
soldiers of the Fourth Crusade attack
Constantinople again.
• Alexius V Ducas is forced to flee to
Thrace
• Pope Innocent protests this behavior, but
does not hesitate at the opportunity to
reunite Greek and Latin churches.
• Fifth Crusade (1217-1221): landed in Egypt (which controlled the Holy
Land) and accomplished nothing. (trapped by Nile flood)
• Sixth Crusade (1228-1229): led by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II
von Hohenstaufen, against the Pope's wishes (Frederick and the pope didn't
get along). This was actually a peaceful visit, which led to an agreement
permitting Christians free access to the Holy Places.
• Seventh Crusade (1248-1254): resulted when the Egyptians Mamelukes routed a local Christian
army in 1244. led by Louis IX of France ("Saint Louis"), also attacked Egypt, but failed amid great
suffering.
• Eighth Crusade (1270): Louis' second attempt to invade Muslim Africa, which ended in failure
when he died.
• Ninth Crusade (1271-1272): never actually reached the Holy Land, despite being led by Prince
Edward of England (later Edward I).
Acre (modern Akko, in Israel), the last Christian stronghold in
the Holy Land fell in 1291. Although several popes preached
renewed crusades to liberate the Holy Land, they were
mostly unsuccessful. The last expedition generally regarded
as a crusade occurred in 1399, when a Christian army
marched into the Balkans. After some successes, they were
totally routed at Nikopolis, northwest of Constantinople.
ReSuLtS
What was accomplished?
Gains?
Losses?
Winners?
Losers?