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(unit 11)
Target population:This learning package had been designed to the first tear students in the x-ray
department of the institute of medical technology –Baghdad.
Rationale:This unit will aid those who want to learn the bones of upper limp. That apply
to x-ray field.
Centrals idea:Types of skeleton.
1. Skeleton of shoulder girdle.
3. Skeleton of forearm.
2. Skeleton of upper arm.
4. Skeleton of hand.
Instructions:1.
2.
3.
a)
b)
4.
a)
b)
Study the over view very well.
Identify the aims of unit.
Do the pre-test, if you got:
Five degree & more so you don’t need to study the unit. Then consult
the instructor.
Less than five degree so you need to study the unit. & continue In your
studying the unit.
After your study the unit, content, do the post-test if you got
Five & more than pass to study the second unit.
Less than five degree, go back to study any part of the unit then do the
post-test again
Performance objective:after studying skeleton upper limp of (unit 11), you should be able to:
1. Enumerate the types of skeleton.
2. Mention the bones of shoulder girdle.
Pre-test:1. Enumerate the types of skeleton of upper limp.
2. Mention the bones of shoulder.
Skeleton of upper limp:- it’s consist of 4 types of skeleton.
1. Skeleton of shoulder girdle.
2. Skeleton of upper arm.
3. Skeleton of forearm.
4. Skeleton of hand.
Shoulder girdle:1. Clavicle:- two bones left& right present at the upper part of the chest at
the root of the neck. It consist of body and two ends. The body is curved
shape. The two end:- 1)lateral end
articulate with scapula.
2)medial end
articulate with sternum.
2. Scapula:- is large flattened triangular bone lying on the postero-lateral
aspect of the chest from 2nd to 7th ribs.
The spine of scapula divided the posterior surface into two:
The supra spinous fossa &infra spinous fossa.
the lateral end of spine is extend &flattened to form a cromial process.
The scapula has three border(superior, medial, lateral.)
The scapula has three angle(superior, lateral, inferior.)
Glenoid cavity at the lateral angle
articulated with the head of humerus.
Skeleton of upper arm:Humerus:- longest-strongest &biggest of upper arm consist of:
1. Upper end
which is rounded & articulated with glenoid fossa
forming shoulder joint.
2. shaft
extend between the upper & lower end. The upper part of the
shaft is cylindrical &the lower part is triangular in shape.
3. Lower end articulate ulna
radius
non articulate
post-test:1. Enumerate the types of skeleton of upper limp.
2. Mention the bones of shoulder girdle.
3. Define the humerus bone.
Key of answer of unit(11):1. Types of skeleton of upper limp.
2. Bones of shoulder girdle
a) Skeleton of shoulder girdle.
a) Clavicle.
b) Skeleton of upper limp.
b) Scapula.
c) Skeleton of forearm.
d) Skeleton of hand.
Humerus bone:- this bone considered as longest, strongest &biggest bone in
the upper limp.
Unit (12)
Target population:This learning package had been designed to the first tear students in the x-ray
department of the institute of medical technology –Baghdad.
Rationale:This unit will aid those who want to learn the bones of forearm& bones of
hand.
Central ideas:1. Skeleton of forearm. A) radius
B)ulna
2. Skeleton of hand.
3. Wrist or carpal bones.
4. Metacarpal bones.
5. Phalanges.
Instructions:1. Study the over view very well.
2. Identify the aims of unit.
3. Do the pre-test, if you got:
a) Five degree & more so you don’t need to study the unit. Then consult
the instructor.
b) Less than five degree so you need to study the unit. & continue In
your studying the unit.
4. After your study the unit, content, do the post-test if you got
a) Five & more than pass to study the second unit.
b) Less than five degree, go back to study any part of the unit then do
the post-test again
Performance objective:After studying skeleton 0f forearm &handoff this unit, you should be able to
1. Enumerate the bones of forearm.
2. List the carpal bones.
3. Know the number of metacarpal bones.
Pre-test:1. Enumerate the types of forearm.
2. Mention the carpal bones.
3. Define the metacarpal bones.
Skeleton of forearm:1. Radius bone:- is the lateral of two forearm has upper& lower
end
Styloid process.
2. Ulna bone:- Longer than radius &lies medial to it.
Upper end
a)coronoid process
Between trochlear notch
b)olecranon process
trochea of humerus articulate.
Lateral to the coronoid process there’s radial notch
radio-ulner joint.
Lower end
small& separated by shallow groove.
shaft
extend between upper &lower end.
Skeleton of hand:1. Wrist or carpal bones:- (8 bones) in two rows proximal &distal from the
lateral.
proximal:- scaphoid, the lunate, triquetrum, pisiform.
Distal:- trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate.
2. Metacarpal bones:-5 bone 1st one articulated with thumb.
3. The phalanges:-short long bone 3 phalanges for each finger & two for
the thumb.
Post-test:1. Enumerate the types of skeleton of forearm.
2. Mention the carpal bones.
3. Define metacarpal bones,
Key of answer of unit (12)
1. Types of skeleton of forearm
a) Radius
b)
Ulna.
2. Mention the carpal bones.(the carpal bones consist of 8 bones).
The proximal row:- scaphoid, the lunate, the triquitrum &pisiform.
The distal row:- trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate.
3. Define metacarpal bone:- there are five metacarpal bones, the first
metacarpal articulate with the thumb.
Unit(13)
Target population:This learning package had been designed to the first year students in the x-ray
department of the institute of medical technology –Baghdad.
Rationale:this unit will aid those who want to learn the skeleton of lower limp, that apply
to x-ray field.
Central ideas:1. The hip bone & pelvis.
The hip bone consist of:a) Ilium.
b) Pubic.
c) Ischium.
Instructions:1. Study the over view very well.
2. Identify the aims of unit.
3. Do the pre-test, if you got:
a) Five degree & more so you don’t need to study the unit. Then consult
the instructor.
b) Less than five degree so you need to study the unit. & continue In
your studying the unit.
4. After your study the unit, content, do the post-test if you got
a) Five & more than pass to study the second unit.
b) Less than five degree, go back to study any part of the unit then do
the post-test again
Performance objective:after studying skeleton of lower limp of this unit, you should be able to:
1. Enumerate the hip bone.
2. Define the Ilium bone.
Pre-test:1. Enumerate the hip bone.
2. Define the Ilium bone.
Skeleton of lower limp:The hip bone:- each hip bone is composed of three bones.
a) The Ilium.
b) The pubic.
c) The ischium.
The two hip bones together with sacrum make up the pelvic girdle
which connects lower extremities with the trunk.
1. The Ilium:- it’s the biggest bone of the hip bones, it have two ends
&three surfaces, the upper end extend to formed a border called “iliac
crest” .the lower end formed the upper part of acetabulum. For the hip
joint.
The three surface are :a) Gluteal surface.
b) Iliac fossa.
c) Sacro-pelvic surface
2. The pubic:- has a body &two ramus. The body lies anteriotly &articulate
with that of the opposite side at the pubic symphasis. The superior
ramus run laterally from the body to take a part in the formation of the
acetabulum &the inferior ramus runs down ward to meet inferior ramus
of ischium.
3. The ischium:- is the lowest portion of the pelvis. It’s have a body which
joints the lower part of acetabulum. The superior ramus projects down
ward on the body to form ischial tuberosity on which the weight of the
body is born when sitting. Inferior ramus of the ischium raise forwards to
meet the inferior ramus of pubic. The ischium &pubic enclosed a large
opening called obturature foramen which is covered during life by
membrane.
Acetabulum:- it’s deep-cup shaped articulate with head of femur & it’s
composed of parts of three bones & it’s have acetabular notch.
*Pelvis in female is heart in shape to facilitate a born.
Post-test:1. Enumerate the hip bone.
2. Define the Ilium bone.
Key of answer of unit (13):1. Hip bone.
a) Ilium.
b) Pubic.
c) Ischium.
2. Define the Ilium bone.
Ilium bone:- board fan-shaped sheet of bone, it’s upper border
known as the iliac crest. The Ilium articulate with the sacrum at the
sacro iliac joint.
Unit(14)
Target population:This learning package had been designed to the first year students in the x-ray
department of the institute of medical technology –Baghdad.
Rationale:this unit will aid those who want to learn the bones of thigh, leg, foot, that
apply to x-ray field.
Central ideas:1. Bones of thigh.
a) Femur.
b) patella.
2. Bones of leg.
a) Tibia.
b) Fibula.
3. Bones of foot.
a) Tarsal bone.
b) Metatarsal bones.
c) Phalanges.
Instructions:1. Study the over view very well.
2. Identify the aims of unit.
3. Do the pre-test, if you got:
a) Five degree & more so you don’t need to study the unit. Then
consult the instructor.
b) Less than five degree so you need to study the unit. & continue In
your studying the unit.
4. After your study the unit, content, do the post-test if you got
a) Five & more than pass to study the second unit.
b) Less than five degree, go back to study any part of the unit then do
the post-test again.
Performance objective:After studying skeleton of thigh, leg, foot, you should be able to:
1. Enumerate the bones of thigh.
2. Mention the bones of leg.
3. List the bones of foot.
Pre-test:1. Enumerate the bones of thigh.
2. Mention the bones of leg.
3. List the bones of foot.
Bones of leg:Tibia:- it’s long bone, it’s consist of upper &lower end with shaft.
The upper end articulate with femur to form knee joint.
It is have two process called medial & lateral chondyle.
The upper surface of these two processes are covered by cartilage.
These two chondyle articulate with chondyle of femur between these
articulated surface there are cartilage called
1. Medial semi lunar cartilage.
2. lateral semi lunar cartilage.
The surface inferior the lateral chondyle articulate with fibula.
These two chondyle extend anteriorly to meet tibial tuberosity which the
patellar ligament attached.
Posteriorly there’s a notch called posterior inter chondylar area.
The shaft:-it’s triangular in shape except the lower part which surrounded have
three surface &three border.
The three surface:
1. anterior.
2. Medial.
3. Lateral.
The three border:
1. Anterior.
2. Medial.
3. Lateral
(interossous border).
The lower end:- it’s concave in shape articulate with talus bone take a pat
information of ankle joint. There is a prolongation from medial side called
medial malleolus &there’s a fibular notch on lateral side to articulate with
fibula.
Fibula:- it has upper &lower end & shaft:
Upper end called head & articulate with tibia.
Lower end lateral malleolus project. it’s have two articulated surface:
medial
articulate with tibia . inferior
articulate with talus bone.
The shaft
is long to which attached of several muscle &the interossous
membrane which binds tibia & fibula together.
Bones of foot:1. The tarsal bone:- 7 bone in two rows inferior & superior.
*inferior row have two bone.
a) Talus
(upper)
b) Calcaneus (lower)
*superior row have four bones called
a) Medial cuneiform bone.
b) Inter medial cuneiform bone.
c) Lateral cuneiform bone.
d) Cuboid bone.
*the 7th bone is navicular bone: it’s lie between the inferior &superior
rows from the medial side.
2. The metatarsal bone:- they are 5 bone from the medial side the first one.
The first three bone articulate with the three cuneiform bone & the other
two are articulate with cuboid bone.
3. The phalanges:- there are two in the great toe & three in other four toes.
Post-test:1. Enumerate the bones of thigh.
2. Mention the bones of leg.
3. List the bones of foot.
Key of answer of unit (14):1. Bones of thigh.
a) Femur.
b) patella.
2. Bones of leg.
a) Tibia.
b) Fibula.
3. Bones of foot.
a) Tarsal bone.
b) Metatarsal bones.
c) Phalanges.
Unit(15)
Target population:This learning package had been designed to the first year students in the x-ray
department of the institute of medical technology –Baghdad.
Rationale:This unit will aid those who want to learn the bones of skull that apply to x-ray
field.
Central ideas:The skull consist of:
1. Cranium.
2. Facial bone.
3. Cranial fossa.
Instructions:1. Study the over view very well.
2. Identify the aims of unit.
3. Do the pre-test, if you got:
a) Five degree & more so you don’t need to study the unit. Then consult
the instructor.
b) Less than five degree so you need to study the unit. & continue In
your studying the unit.
4. After your study the unit, content, do the post-test if you got
a) Five & more than pass to study the second unit.
b) Less than five degree, go back to study any part of the unit then do
the post-test again.
Performance objective:After studying skull, cranium, facial bone of this unit, you should be able to:1. Define skull.
2. Enumerate the bones of cranium.
3. List the facial bones.
Pre-test:1. Enumerate the bones of skull.
2. Mention the bones of cranium.
3. List the facial bones.
The skull:it’s consist of groups of bones attached to each other by sutures which make
these connection very strong & with out movement.
The skull consist of two main parts.
1. Mandible
2. Cranium
The cranium consist of
calvaria box of cranium
Base of skull
Facial bone
1. The mandible:- it’s consist of body which arch like convex from out
side, this body have two border inferior which can by catch it by hand
&superior border which called (alveoli process)which carry the tooth of
mandible.
 The Rami:- it’s two, one of them left & the other right, attached to the
end of bone arch &extend up ward in a postero- lateral directions.
 Condylar process:- it’s extend from up ward posterior to the rami
consist of head & neck
the head formed the (tempro –mandibular joint )
 Coronoid process:- it’s triangular in shape, it’s base connect with
upper anterior side to rami.
2. The cranium:I. Calvaria.
II. Skeleton of the face
I. Calvaria:- it’s the part of skull consist of two parts superior(box of
the skull) & inferior(base of the skull).
 Box of cranium:- consist of these bones.
a) Frontal bone: it’s formed the upper part of cranium.
b) Parietal bones: they formed upper- middle part of cranium &attached
to each other by sagittal suture.
c) Temporal bones: they extend at the sides of cranium.
d) Occipital bone: it’s found at the upper posterior part of cranium at
posterior side of base.
e) Ethmoid bone: it’s found in anterior middle part of base.
f) Sphenoid bone: it’s found in the base of cranium.
 Base of skull:- have three fossa each one lie posterior &down ward the
fossa which before it.
1. Anterior cranial fossa, It’s contain the frontal lobe of brain.
The bone which formed this fossa are
Ethmoid bone
Frontal bone
Sphenoid bone
(bri form plate)
(Orbital plate)
(lesser wing)
2. Middle cranial fossa, it's contain pituitary gland
the bone which formed this fossa are
Sphenoid
Sphenoid
Temporal bone
(body)
(great wing)
3. Posterior cranial fossa,it’s contain:cerebellum,pons,medulla oblongata
Occipital
Sphenoid
Temporal bone
(body)
II. Facial bone(skeleton of the face):1. Maxillary.
2. Nasal.
3. Zygomatic.
4. Lacrimal.
5. Inferior conchae.
6. Vomer.
7. Palatine bone.
8. Mandible.
Nasal sinuses:- they are cavities neighborhood to the nasal passage lined by
mucus membrane. &they formed from
1. Frontal sinus.
3. Ethmoidal sinus.
Post-test:1. Enumerate the bones of skull.
2. Mention the bones of cranium.
3. List the facial bones.
2. Maxillary sinus.
4. The two sphenoidal sinuses.
Key of answer of unit (15):The skull consist of:
a) Cranium.
b) Facial bone.
1. Frontal bone.
1. Maxillary.
2. Parietal bones.
2. Nasal.
3. Temporal bones.
3. Zygomatic.
4. Occipital bone.
4. Lacrimal.
5. Sphenoidal bone.
5. Inferior conchae.
6. Ethmoidal bone.
6. Vomur.
7. Palatine bone.
8. Mandible.
Unit(16)
Target population:This learning package had been designed to the first year students in the x-ray
department of the institute of medical technology –Baghdad.
Rationale:This unit(16) will aid those who want to learn the bones of thoracic cage,
sternum, ribs, that apply to x-ray field.
Central ideas:1. The thoracic cage.
2. Sternum.
a) Manubrium.
b) Body.
c) Xiphoid.
3. Ribs.
Instructions:1. Study the over view very well.
2. Identify the aims of unit.
3. Do the pre-test, if you got:
a) Five degree & more so you don’t need to study the unit. Then
consult the instructor.
b) Less than five degree so you need to study the unit. & continue In
your studying the unit.
4. After your study the unit, content, do the post-test if you got
a) Five & more than pass to study the second unit.
b) Less than five degree, go back to study any part of the unit then do
the post-test again.
Performance objective:After studying thoracic cage, sternum, ribs, of this unit you should be able to:1. List the bones of sternum.
2. Know the number of ribs.
Pre-test:1. Enumerate the bones of sternum.
2. Mention the number of ribs.
The thoracic cage:it’s composed of bones &muscles, the bones consist of twelve thoracic
vertebrae posteriorly & the sternum anteriorly &the encircling ribs. Between
the ribs there are inter costal muscle & separating the thorax from abdomen is
the diaphragm.
The sternum:- it forms the middle portion of anterior wall of the thorax
&consist of three parts:
The manubrium: is triangular bone which articulate with the clavicles, on
either side of it’s upper border the manubrium articulate with the body at
sternal angle, at this level the 2nd costal cartilage lie.
The fist costal cartilage at the lateral aspect of manubrium below the clavicles.
The body:- is long &narrow &articulate with manubrium at the second costal
cartilage below these it’s articulate with3rd,4th,5th,6th,7th,costal cartilage.
The xipoid:- is the smallest &lowest piece of the sternum it may be
cartilaginous or bony.
The Ribs:- they are 12th ribs, articulate posteriorly with thoracic vertebrae&
arched around the thorax to connected (the 7th Ribs) to the sternum.
The 8th,9th,10th, ribs have cartilage attached to each other &join the 7th costal
cartilage. The 11th,12th Ribs are floating ribs.
The anterior end is concave to facilitate the connection with cartilage.
The posterior have head, neck, tubercles, to facilitate articulation with thoracic
vertebrae.(costal vertebrae joint).
Between the ribs are the inter costal space which are occupied by the inter
costal muscles, nerves, blood vessels
*there are two types of ribs:1.True ribs:- it include the first seven ribs which connect with sternum directly
from the anterior end by costal cartilage.
2.false ribs:- it include all the false ribs which is the lower five ribs & it is two
types: A-false floating ribs.
B-false non floating ribs.
Post-test:1. Enumerate the bones of sternum.
2. Mention the number of ribs.
Key of answer of unit(16):1. There are twelve ribs on each side.
2. Bones of sternum.
a) Manubrium.
b) Body.
c) Xiphoid.
Unit (17)
Target population:This learning package had been designed to the first year students in the x-ray
department of the institute of medical technology –Baghdad.
Rationale:This unit(17) will aid those who want to learn the bones of vertebral column,
types of vertebrae.
Central ideas:1.
2.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
Vertebral column.
Vertebrae: consist of 5 types:
seven cervical.
Twelve thoracic.
Five lumber.
Five sacral
Four coccygeal.
Instructions:1. Study the over view very well.
2. Identify the aims of unit.
3. Do the pre-test, if you got:
a) Five degree & more so you don’t need to study the unit. Then consult
the instructor.
b) Less than five degree so you need to study the unit. & continue In
your studying the unit.
4. After your study the unit, content, do the post-test if you got
a) Five & more than pass to study the second unit.
b) Less than five degree, go back to study any part of the unit then do
the post-test again.
Performance objective:After studying vertebral column, vertebral types of this unit, you should be
able to:1. Enumerate the types of vertebraes.
2. Mention the number of each vertebraes.
3. Know the joints of vertebral column.
Pre-test:1. Enumerate the types of vertebraes.
2. Mention the number of each vertebraes.
3. What are the joints of vertebral column.
the vertebral column
it’s the central axis of the body &consist of irregular bones called vertebrae. It
protect the spinal cord &supports the weight of the head & trunk.
1. Seven cervical.
2. Twelve thoracic.
3. Five lumber.
4. Five sacral.
5. Four coccygeal.
Typical vertebrae:- consist of
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Rounded body anteriorly with flattened upper& lower surface.
Vertebral arch posteriorly. Which consist of two pedicles
Vertebral foramen occupied by spinal cord.
Transverse process.(two) one in each side.
Spinous process(one posteriorly).
Articular process(four, two in each side inferior &superior articular
process).
The cervical vertebrae:The seven cervical vertebra differ from the basic plan &it’s found in first two.
*The first cervical vertebrae is called the atlas, it’s has an anterior arch in place
of body.
*The second cervical vertebrae called axis has projecting up wards from the
body called odontoid process.
The chief characteristics of cervical vertebrae:1. The bodies small &oval.
2. The arch is large.
3. The transverse process have a foramen in which the vertebral artery
runs.
4. The spinous process of the first six vertebrae is bifid at the tips.
The thoracic vertebrae:-(2 in number)
1. the bodies are heart in shape, they articulate from both side with heads
of ribs.
2. The spinous process are long &down ward directed.
3. The transverse process are articulate with tubercles of the ribs.
The lumber vertebrae(5 in number)
1. The bodies are large & wide.
2. The vertebral foramen are triangular in shape.
3. The spines are quadrangular &project back ward.
The sacrum:The sacrum is triangular in shape &consist of five vertebrae fused into one
bone.
The coccyx:The coccyx is small triangular bone composed of four rudimentary vertebrae.
Post-test:1. Enumerate the types of vertebraes.
2. Mention the number of each vertebraes.
3. What are the joints of vertebral column.
Key of answers of unit (17):1. Types of vertebraes:a) Cervical.
b) Thoracic.
c) Lumber.
d) Sacral.
e) Coccygeal.
2. Number of each vertebraes:a) Seven.
b) Twelve.
c) Five.
d) Five.
e) Four.
3. Joint of the vertebral column.
The majority of vertebrae articulate with each other through
cartilaginous joints.