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Enlightenment Indiana World History Standards WH.6.1 Examine how the Scientific Revolution, as well as technological changes and new forms of energy, brought about massive social, economic, and cultural change. (Economics, Government, Psychology, Sociology) WH.6.3 Explain the concept of “the Enlightenment” in European history and describe its impact upon political thought and government in Europe, North America and other regions of the world. (Economics, Government) WH.6.4 Compare and contrast the causes and events of the American and French Revolutions of the late eighteenth century and explain their consequences for the growth of liberty, equality and democracy Today’s Objectives - To analyze the development of new political, social, and economic philosophies during the Age of Enlightenment 4 Old Regime (Old Order) Throne Land Altar • Age of Reason (18th Century) or Enlightenment → Just as the Scientific Revolution used reason to understand the physical universe …others sought to use natural law to create ideal governments & societies → Enlightenment writers faced censorship because they challenged the Old Order (Monarchy, Nobility & the Church) …they justified this censorship by arguing that God set up the Old Order …some writers had to disguise their work as fiction to avoid persecution • Thomas Hobbes → English philosopher, wrote Leviathan …who believed that mankind is, by nature, “selfish & wicked” …without gov’ts to maintain order, human life would be “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short” → To avoid this destiny, men and their rulers must agree to a “social contract” …whereby all rights are given up to a strong, absolute ruler (a leviathan) Leviathan …who in return eliminates chaos to provide law & order …if the government fails, people are justified in overthrowing it -Charles I • John Locke → English philosopher, wrote Two Treatises of Government, who believed that the expectation of gov’t is not simply to provide law and order …but also to protect the natural rights that all possess upon birth - life, liberty, property, health → When gov’t fails to protect these rights, the people earn the right to overthrow it → Changed the perception of WHY we have gov’ts: -Hobbes: People exist to serve their government (Old Order) -Locke: Governments exist to serve the people (Enlightenment) social contract • Philosophes → In the middle of the 18th century, French philosophes were meeting in the salons of Paris …using reason to discuss and debate solutions to social and political problems of their time …philosophes changed the way people thought about government & society …planted the seeds of the coming revolutions Essential Question What obstacles did Enlightenment writers face? Why? How did they overcome these obstacles? Target Questions • How was the Scientific Revolution similar to the Enlightenment? • What was the social contract? • How did Locke change the perception of government? • Who were the philosophes? Required Reading Question(s) 1) What was an enlightened despot?