* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
World History Eastridge Unit 2 Study Guide Enlightenment & Revolution 1. What were the main ideas of each Enlightenment thinker: Hobbes People are naturally wicked, nasty and brutish. Absolute monarchy is best gov’t. to control people. Locke People are naturally good. Natural rights: Life, liberty, property. Social contract: People submit to gov’t. in return for protection of natural rights. Voltaire Individual freedoms/rights: Freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom of the press. Montesquieu Separation of powers between branches of gov’t. Rousseau Direct democracy best form of gov’t. Beccaria No cruel and unusual punishment. Speedy, public trial; reasonable bail. Punishment a tool to create an orderly society. Wollstonecraft Equality of women; education of women. 2. According to Enlightenment thinkers, how should government decisions be made? By using logic and reason. 3. Why did Enlightenment thinkers fight against the “divine right” of kings to rule? They believe that the people give permission (consent) to the gov’t. to rule. 4. What two revolutions were inspired by the Enlightenment? American and French Revolutions World History Eastridge 5. What was the Estates-General? Why did King Louis XVI call the meeting? Meeting of rep. of the 3 estates in France. The King called the meeting because the government needed money. King Louis XVI wanted the Estates to raise taxes. 6. What were the causes of the French Revolution? Old Regime Heavy taxes (esp. on 3rd Estate) Costly wars Overspending by the government Crop failures 7. What was the Tennis Court Oath? Why was it important? 3rd Estate declares the National Assembly. They pledge allegiance to the National Assembly which will write a new constitution to create a new government of France. 8. What was the Reign of Terror? Why did it happen? Committee of Public Safety carried out this campaign of violence and terror. The “Terror” was used to fight internal enemies of the revolutionary gov’t. World History Eastridge 9. List the major accomplishments of Napoleon. What mistakes did he make? Accomplishments Napoleonic Code Reestablished order after the chaos of the revolution. Created a uniform code of law throughout Europe. Mistakes Invasion of Russia Continental System Peninsular War 10.What was the Congress of Vienna? Who led it? What did it accomplish? Meeting of European powers after the fall of Napoleon. Metternich (Austria) led the meetings. Reestablished a balance of power in Europe. Created the Concert of Europe: Series of alliances to prevent future revolutions in Europe. 11.Create a Venn diagram that illustrates the similarities and differences between the American Revolution and the French Revolution.