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World History
Unit 2 Study Guide
Enlightenment & Revolution
1. What were the main ideas of each Enlightenment thinker:
 Hobbes
People are naturally wicked, nasty and brutish.
Absolute monarchy is best gov’t. to control people.
People are naturally good.
Natural rights: Life, liberty, property.
Social contract: People submit to gov’t. in return
for protection of natural rights.
Individual freedoms/rights: Freedom of speech,
freedom of religion, freedom of the press.
Separation of powers between branches of gov’t.
Direct democracy best form of gov’t.
No cruel and unusual punishment.
Speedy, public trial; reasonable bail.
Punishment a tool to create an orderly society.
Equality of women; education of women.
2. According to Enlightenment thinkers, how should government decisions
be made?
By using logic and reason.
3. Why did Enlightenment thinkers fight against the “divine right” of kings
to rule?
They believe that the people give permission (consent) to the
gov’t. to rule.
4. What two revolutions were inspired by the Enlightenment?
American and French Revolutions
World History
5. What was the Estates-General? Why did King Louis XVI call the
Meeting of rep. of the 3 estates in France. The King called the meeting
because the government needed money. King Louis XVI wanted the
Estates to raise taxes.
6. What were the causes of the French Revolution?
Old Regime
Heavy taxes (esp. on 3rd Estate)
Costly wars
Overspending by the government
Crop failures
7. What was the Tennis Court Oath? Why was it important?
3rd Estate declares the National Assembly.
They pledge allegiance to the National Assembly which will write a new
constitution to create a new government of France.
8. What was the Reign of Terror? Why did it happen?
Committee of Public Safety carried out this campaign of violence and
The “Terror” was used to fight internal enemies of the revolutionary
World History
9. List the major accomplishments of Napoleon. What mistakes did he
Napoleonic Code
Reestablished order after the chaos of the revolution.
Created a uniform code of law throughout Europe.
Invasion of Russia
Continental System
Peninsular War
10.What was the Congress of Vienna? Who led it? What did it accomplish?
Meeting of European powers after the fall of Napoleon.
Metternich (Austria) led the meetings.
Reestablished a balance of power in Europe.
Created the Concert of Europe:
Series of alliances to prevent future revolutions in Europe.
11.Create a Venn diagram that illustrates the similarities and differences
between the American Revolution and the French Revolution.