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Date: 16.09.14First Term- (2014-15) Political Science (Answer Key) Class: XII
What is the main objective of Amnesty International?
NGO that campaigns for the protection of human rights all over the world. Prepares and publishes
reports on human rights.
What does the European Union flag stand for?
Circle of gold stars stands for solidarity and harmony between the peoples of Europe. It has twelve
stars, as the number 12 is traditionally the symbol of perfection, completeness and unity.
What is human security?
It refers to the protection of people from any type of threats from which human beings are to be
protected. It covers areas like- protecting citizens from foreign attack; security from violent threats,
from threat to human dignity, dreadful diseases, freedom from fear and want.
Define ‘Shock Therapy’.
Model of transition in Russia, Central Asia and east Europe that was influenced by the World Bank and the
What is meant by Cold War?
The Cold War referred to the competition, tension and a series of confrontation between the US and SU
backed by their respective allies. This was also a war of nerves and ideology fought diplomatically without
Why is China seen as a world power in making?
China emerged as the 3rd alternative since its economic reforms of 1978. Has been the fastest growing
economy since the reforms first began there.
i) Projected to overtake US as the World’s largest economy by 2040.
ii) Its economic integration into the region makes it the driver of East Asian growth, thereby giving it
enormous influence in regional affairs.
iii) Besides, the strength of its economy, together with other factors such as population, land mass,
resources, regional location and political influence have added to its power in significant ways.
Highlight any two environmental concerns of global politics.
Depletion of resources
No access to drinking water
Loss of biodiversity
Depletion of Ozone
Coastal pollution
(any 2)
Mention two areas of cooperation between India and Bangladesh.
Part of India’s Look East Policy- on disaster management and environmental issues. Trade.
Mention any two positive aspects of India’s relations with Russia.
India stands to benefit on issues like Kashmir, energy supplies, sharing info on international terrorism, access
to Central Asia and balancing its relations with China. Of help during oil crisis. India’s nuclear energy plans,
arms market.
Highlight any two cultural consequences of globalization.
Cultural homogenization
Cultural Heterogenization.
(to be explained)
Why was Gorbachev forced to initiate reforms? How did they lead to disintegration of the Soviet 4
Internal weaknesses in SU, economic stagnation, administrative and political crisis- Gorb’s reforms an ans to
When Gorb carried out his reforms and loosened the system, he set in motion forces and expectations that
few could have predicted and became virtually impossible to control. Tug of war, lost support, Rise of
(to be explained)
Identify the contentious issues between China and India. How could these be resolved for greater 4
cooperation? Give your suggestions.
Tibet issue, China and India involved in border conflict in 1962 over Arunachal Pradesh and Aksai Chin
region of Ladakh.
More focus on trade and economic issues. Policy should be more pragmatic and less ideological. BRICS
should be strengthened.
(to be explained)
Examine the success of regional cooperation in South Asia.
SAARC as a regional organization- major initiative by the South Asian states to evolve cooperation through
multilateral means. Due to persisting political differences, SAARC has not had much success. SAARC
members signed the SAFTA which promised the formation of a free trade zone for the whole of South Asia.
Region where rivalry and goodwill, hope and despair, mutual suspicion and trust coexist.
Despite failures, United Nations is an indispensable body. Comment.
It has helped countries cooperate to make better living conditions for all.
It can help states resolve their problems peacefully.
Cooperation on global scale is required for issues like global warming, etc. UN can help produce information
and ideas about how to cooperate. It can provide mechanisms, rules and a bureaucracy.
Provides platform to discuss global issues where all countries can come together and voice their opinion.
Helps in taking up developmental issues.
World would be worse off without UN.
Examine the new sources of threats in contemporary world politics.
Human rights violations
Global poverty
(to be explained)
Examine India’s approach to protection of environment.
Signed and ratified the 1997 Kyoto Protocol in August 2002.
Policies regarding usage of fuel
Review of Rio Summit
SAARC countries should adopt common position on major global environmental issues.
In thinking about the consequences of globalization, it is necessary to keep in mind that the same set of
policies does not lead to the same results everywhere. While globalization has led to similar economic
policies adopted by governments in different parts of the world, this has generated vastly different
outcomes in different parts of the world.
i) What is the prime concern of those who are against economic globalization? Why?
Worried about extent of state withdrawal. It is likely to benefit only a small section of the
population while impoverishing those who were dependent on the govt for jobs and welfare.
ii) What do they suggest to minimize the negative effects of globalization?
Need to ensure institutional safeguards or creating ‘social safety nets’.
iii) What do the advocates of economic globalization speak on the same?
It is inevitable and it is not wise to resist the march of history.
Leads to greater economic growth and well-being for larger sections of the population.
The Cold War tended to divide the world into two rival alliances. It was in this context that non alignment
offered the newly decolonized countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America a third option- not to join either
i) The NAM was the culmination of which three factors?
Cooperation among five founder countries
Growing Cold War tensions & its widening arenas
Dramatic entry of many new decolonized African countries into international arena.
ii) NAM is not isolationism. Comment.
Isolationism means remaining aloof from world affairs Ex. Foreign policy of US from 17871914. NAM played an active role in mediating between two rival alliances in the cause of peace
and stability.
iii) NAM is not neutrality. Comment.
Neutrality refers to policy of staying out of war. States practicing neutrality do not help end a war
nor take positions on the appropriateness or morality of war. NAM countries actually involved in
war for various reasons. Worked to prevent wars & tried to end wars.
In the traditional conception of security, the greatest danger to a country is from military threats. The
source of this danger is another country which by threatening military action endangers the core values of
sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity.
i) In responding to the threat of war, what are the three basic choices in front of a government?
ii) Explain balance of power as a component of traditional security.
Maintaining favorable balance of power with other countries, esp close by. A good part of
maintaining a Bop is to build up one’s military power, although economic and technological
power are also important since they are the basis of military power.
iii) Explain alliance building as a component of traditional security.
An alliance is a coalition of states that coordinate their actions to deter or defend against military
attack. Most alliances are formalized in written treaties and are based on a fairly clear
identification of who constitutes the threat. Based on national interests.
Pg 62, VK
Study the map and answer the following questions:
i) Identify countries A, B, C, D, E
A- Philippines
B- Indonesia
C- Thailand
D- Singapore
E- Malaysia
ii) Which organization did they form and when?
ASEAN, 1967
Do you think this Union is an example of successful regional organizations?
Rapidly growing into a very imp regional orgn. Its vision 2020 has defined an outward looking role for
ASEAN in the intl community. Has mediated the end of Cambodian conflict, East Timor crisis, and meets
annually to discuss East Asian cooperation. Has focused on creation of FTA for investment, labour and
services. The US, China, India have all moved into agreements on FTAs.
Answer the following questions based on the above cartoon. Pg 131
i) What does the above cartoon depict?
Resource geopolitics over freshwater which is very scarce life sustaining resource.
ii) Explain the two types of water wars with examples.
Disagreements- Ex. Of River Indus
Violent types- that b/w Israel, Syria and Jordan in the 50s & 60s over attempts by each side to divert water
from Jordan & Yarmuk rivers.
iii) Explain briefly resource geopolitics of oil.
Immense wealth associated with oil generates political struggles to control it. Gulf region. 30% of global oil
production. Has 64% of known reserves. Saudi Arabia- ¼ of total reserves. Iraq’s reserves.
What is meant by ‘Operation Iraqi Freedom’? Mention its main objectives as well as the hidden
objectives. Explain any two consequences of this operation.
Codename given by the US when it launched invasion of Iraq on 19th March, 2003. More than 40 countries
joined in the US led ‘Coalition of the Willing’ after the UN refused to give its mandate to the invasion. Main
purpose to prevent Iraq from developing WMD. But an eyewash. No evidence of WMD has been unearthed
in Iraq. Hidden- controlling oilfields and installing a regime friendly to the US.
Consequences- Govt of Iraq fell, US not able to pacify Iraq.
Full-fledged insurgency against US occupation was ignited in Iraq.
Iraqi casualties higher, US lost 3,000 military personnel.
50,000 Iraqi civilians have been killed since the US led invasion.
Evaluate the role of European Union as a supranational organization. 148
Economic influence
Political and Diplomatic areas
(to be explained)
Military influence
Examine the consequences of the disintegration of USSR.
1. End of Cold war confrontations
2. Unipolar world, US hegemony
3. Independent countries, own choices.
(to be explained)
What was India’s response to the Cold War? Critically analyze India’s NAM policy.
Response- Took care in staying away from the two alliances
It raised its voice against the newly decolonized countries becoming part of these alliances.
Analysis- Served India’s interests- 1. Allowed India to take Intl decisions and stances that served its interests
rather than that of superpowers &their allies. 2. Was often able to balance one superpower against the other.
Criticized- 1. Unprincipled 2. Was inconsistent and took contradictory postures.
What are the constraints on American power? What are the possible strategies in front of India to deal
with American hegemony?
Constraints1. Institutional architecture of the American state itself.
2. Open nature of the American Society.
StrategiesMaintain aloofness
Historic opportunity for India to take advantage of US hegemony
India should take lead in establishing a coalition of countries from the developing world.
(to be explained)
What are the steps taken by China towards the introduction of Open Economy? What have been the
demerits of this policy?
1972- Eco. Relations with US
Premier Zhou Enlai proposed the 4 modernizations in 1973.
1978- Deng Xiaoping announced the ‘open door’ policy &eco reform sin China. Opened economy step by
step. Agri- 1982, Industry- 1998, Trade barriers removed only in SEZs. Dual Pricing.
Demerits- Unemployment, Female employment and conditions of work are bad, Enviro degradation,
Corruption, economic inequality.
Explain the system of government in Bhutan and Maldives. Examine India’s ties with both these 6(2+4)
Bhutan is still a monarchy but the King has initiated plans for its transition to multi-party democracy.
Maldives a Sultanate till 1968 when it was transformed into a republic with a Presidential form of Govt. June
2005- multi party system.
Bhutan- Efforts made by the Bhutanese monarch to weed out the guerrillas & militants from northeastern
India operate in the country has been helpful to India. 2. India is involved in big hydroelectric projects in
Bhutan and remains the Himalayan kingdom’s biggest source of devp.
Maldives- Warm and cordial. When Tamil mercenaries from S.Lanka attacked Maldives, India helped. 2.
Also contributed towards eco devp, tourism & fisheries.
What are the two basic kinds of reforms that face the UN? Explain each briefly.
Reform of structures and processes- new members, Veto
Jurisdiction of the UN- Steps proposed in 2005.
(to be explained)
What is cooperative security? Discuss India’s security strategy.
Cooperative security refers to international co-op between the countries or orgns. To protect the people from
any kind of threats like terrorism, poverty, etc.
Strategy1. Strengthening its military capability
2. Strengthen international norms
3. Meeting security challenges within the country
4. Economic devp.
(to be explained)
What is meant by global commons? Explain the principle of ‘common but differentiated
There are some areas or regions of the world which are located outside the sovereign jurisdiction of any one
state, and therefore require common governance by the international community. These are known as res
communis humanitatis or global commons. Example- earth’s atmosphere, Antartica, the ocean floor, and
outer space.
Common but differentiated responsibilities1. Different views of global north and global south.
2. Developing countries ate in the process of industrialization and they must not be subjected to same
Accepted at Earth Summit, 1992
UNFCCC also accepts this principle.
Per capita emission of India is only 0.9 tonnes per capita in 2000.
Capability of developed countries is more.
How does the UN define indigenous people? What are the demands of the indigenous people? Examine their
status in India.
Populations as comprising the descendants of peoples who inhabited the present territory of a country at the
time when persons of a different culture or ethnic origin arrived there from other parts of the world and
overcome them.
Demands- 1. Admission to the world community as equals.
2. existence of indigenous communities with an identity of their own.
India- STs, 8%, Constitutional protection, displaced for devp.
Examine the consequences of globalization.
(to be explained)