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Transcript
OVER
TWO
M I LLION
COPIES SOLD
.Fllftarnin-
o"'..
t4...'l
Collins
Collins
French
Crammar
Harpercollins Publishers
Westerhill Road
Bishopbriggs
clasgow
2qT
Creat Britain
G64
First Edition 2oo4
Reprint 15 14 13 12 11 10
o HarperCollins Publishers zoo4
rsBN 978-o-oo-219644-9
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Acknowledgements
We would like to thank those authors and
PUBLISHING DIRECTOR
publishers who kindly gave permission for
copydght material to be used in the Collins
Word Web. We would also like to thank
Times Newspapers Ltd for providing
valuable data.
Lorna Knight
EDITORIAL DIRECTOR
Michela Clari
MANACING EDITOR
All dghts reserved. No part ofthis
publication may be reproduced, stored
in a retrieval system or transmitted, in
any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording or
otherwise, without the prior permission
of the publisher. This book is sold subject
to the conditions that it shall not, by way
of trade or otherwise, be lent, re-sold, hired
out or otherwise circulated without the
publisher's prior consent in any form of
binding or cover other than that in which
it is published and without a similar
condition including this condition being
imposed on the subsequent purchaser.
Entered words that we have reason to
believe constitute trademarks have been
designated as such. However, neither the
presence nor absence of such designation
should be regarded as affecting the legal
status of anv trademark.
Maree
Airlie
CONTRIBUTORS
WendyLee
Cadlle Amiot-Cadey
Di Larkin
We would like to give special thanks to
Di Larkin, Foreign Languages Consultant,
and Irene Muir, Faculty Head, Belmont
House School, for all their advice on
teaching practice in today's classroom.
Their contributions have been invaluable
in the writing of this book.
CONTENTS
Foreword for language teachers
V
Introduction for students
Glossary of grammar terms
vi
vill
Nouns
1
Using nouns
Gender
Forming plurals
1
2
9
Articles
Different types of article
The definite article: le, la, l' and les
The indefinite article: un, une and des
The partitive article: du, de la, de l'and des
Adjectives
't9
22
25
Using adjectives
Making adiectives agree
Word order with adjectives
Comparatives and superlatives of adjectives
Demonstrative adjectives: ce, cette, cet and ces
Possessive adjectives
Indefinite adjectives
Pronouns
Personal pronouns: subject
Personal pronouns: direct object
Personal pronouns: indirect object
12
12
13
25
27
32
34
37
39
4'l
42
43
.
47
49
Emphatic pronouns
51
Possessive pronouns
54
56
en and y
Using different types of pronoun together
Indefinite pronouns
Relative pronouns
Demonstrative pronouns
Verbs
The three coniugations
The present tense
The present tense: regular -er (first conjugation) verbs
The present tense: regular -ir (second conjugation) verbs
The present tense: regular -re (third conjugation) verbs
The present tense: spelling changes in -er verbs
The present tense: irregular verbs
The imperative
Reflexive verbs
59
60
62
65
69
69
71
72
74
76
78
82
85
88
The imperfect tense
The future tense
The conditional
The perfect tense
The pluperfect tense
The passive
The present participle
92
98
105
lmpersonal verbs
The subjunctive
127
Verbs followed by an infinitive
133
Other uses of the infinitive
"t37
111
1't9
122
12s
129
Negatives
138
Questions
How to ask a question in French
142
Question words
Adverbs
How adverbs are used
How adverbs are formed
Comparatives and superlatives of adverbs
Some common adverbs
Word order with adverbs
Prepositions
How prepositions are used
i, de and en
Some other common prepositions
Prepositions consisting of more than one word
Prepositions after verbs
Prepositions after adjectives
Conjunctions
et mais, ou, parce que and si
Some other common conjunctions
The conjunction que
142
146
',52
1s2
The fosy Leorning French Crommar is designed to be used with both young
and adult learners, as a group reference book to complement your course
book during classes, or as a recommended text for self-study and
homework/coursework.
The text specifically targets learners from ab initio to intermediate or CCSE
level, and therefore its structural content and vocabulary have been matched
to the relevant specifications up to and including Higher CCSE.
The approach aims to develop knowledge and understanding of grammar and
your learners' ability to apply it by:
r
155
157
160
defining parts of speech at the start of each major section with
examples in English to clarify concepts
e minimizing the use of grammar terminology and providing clear
explanations of terms both within the text and in the Glossary
'152
o illustrating all points with examples (and their translations) based on
topics and contexts which are relevant to beginner and intermediate
course content
162
The text helps you develop positive attitudes to grammar learning in your
162
163
classes by:
17'l
177
178
183
"184
184
186
187
Numbers
188
Time and date
Some common difficulties
The alphabet
Main index
190
193
Verb tables
Verb index
FOREWORD FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
198
199
1-94
95-105
Note on trademarks
Entered words which we have reason to believe constitute trademarks have been
designated as such. However, neither the presence nor the absence of such designation
should be regarded as affecting the legal status of any trademark.
o giving clear, easy-to-follow explanations
o prioritizing content according to relevant specifications for the
. sequencing points to reflect course content, e.g. verb tenses
o highlighting useful Tips to deal with common difficulties
.
levels
summarizing Key points at the end of sections to consolidate
learning
In addition to fostering success and building a thorough foundation in French
grammar, the optional Grammar Extra sections will encourage and challenge
your learners to further their studies to higher and advanced levels.
INTRODUCTION FOR STUDENTS
Whether you are starting to learn French for the very first time, brushing up on
topics you have studied in class, or revising for your CCSE exams, the fosy
Leorning French Grommor is here to help. This easy-to-use guide takes you
through all the basics you will need to speak and understand modern,
everyday French.
Newcomers can sometimes struggle with the technical terms they come across
when they start to explore the grammar of a new language. fhe Eosy Leorning
French Crammor explains how to get to grips with all the parts of speech you
will need to know, using simple language and cutting out jargon.
The text is divided into sections, each dealing with a particular area of
grammar. Each section can be studied individually, as numerous crossreferences in the text point you to relevant points in other sections of the book
for further information.
Every major section begins with an explanation of the area of grammar
covered on the following pages. For quick reference, these definitions are also
collected together on pages viii-xii in a glossary of essential grammar terms.
What is a verb?
A verb is a 'doing' word which describes what someone or something
does, what someone or something is, or what happens to them, for
rtp
lf you are in doubt as to which form of you
use vous and you will not offend anybody.
to
use,
it
is safest
to
Key points sum up all the important facts about a particular area of grammar,
to save you time when you are revising and help you focus on the main
grammatical points.
y'
y'
y'
y'
(
Key points
Wittr masculine singular nouns
Witn feminine singular nouns
witn plural nouns r use des.
un, une and des
sentences.
*
+ use un.
i use une.
change to de or
d'in
negative
tne indefinite article is not usually used when you say what
jobs people do, or in exclamations with quel.
lf you think you would like to continue with your French studies to a higher
level, check out the Grammar Extra sections. These are intended for advanced
students who are interested in knowing a little more about the structures they
will come across beyond CCSE.
exampfe, be, sing, live.
Orammar Extra!
Each grammar point in the text is followed by simple examples of real French,
complete with English translations, helping you understand the rules.
Underlining has been used in examples throughout the text to highlight the
grammatical point being explained.
l
lf you are talking about a part of your body, you usually use a word like
my or his in English, but in French you usually use the definite article.
Tourne la tete i gauche.
ll s'est cass6 le bras.
J'ai mal d la gorge.
Turn your head to the left.
He's broken his arm.
l've got a sore throat.
ln French, as with any foreign language, there are certain pitfalls which have
to be avoided. Tips and Information notes throughout the text are useful
reminders of the things that often trip learners up.
lf you want to use an adjective after quelque chose, rien, quelqu'un and
personne, you link the words with de.
quelqu'un d'important
someone important
quelque chose gl'int6ressant
something interesting
rien d'amusant
nothing funny
Finally, the supplement at the end of the book contains Verb Tables, where 93
important French verbs (both regular and irregular) are declined in full.
Examples show you how to use these verbs in your own work. lf you are
unsure of how a verb declines in French, you can look up the Verb Index on
pages 95-1 05 to find either the conjugation of the verb itself, or a crossreference to a model verb, which will show you the patterns that verb follows.
We hope that you will enjoy using the Eosy Learning French Grqmmor and fnd it
useful in the course of your study.
GLOSSARY OF GRAMMAR TERMS
ABSTRACT NOUN a word used to
refer to a quality, idea, feeling or
experience, rather than a physical
object for example, size, reoson,
hoppiness. Compare with concrete
example, wolk, have, be, go. Compare
with infinitive.
CARDINAL NUMBER a number used
in counting, for example, onet seven/
ninety. Compare with ordinal
noun.
number.
ADf ECTIVE a 'describing' word that
CLAUSE a group of words containing
a verb.
tells you more about a person or
thing, such as their appearance,
colour, size or other qualities, for
example, pretty, blue, big.
ADVERB a word usually used with
verbs, adjectives or other adverbs
that gives more information about
when, where, how or in what
circumstances something happens,
for example, quickly, happily now.
AGREE
(to) to change word endings
according to whether you are
referring to masculine, feminine,
singular or plural people or things.
AGREEMENT changing word
endings according to whether you
are referring to masculine, feminine,
singular or plural people or things.
APOSTROPHE s an ending ('s) added
to a noun to show who or what
someone or something belongs to,
for example, Danielle's dog, the
doctor's wife, the book's cover.
ART|CLE a word like the, o and an,
which is used in front of a noun. See
also definite article, indefinite
article and partitive article.
AUXILIARY VERB a verb such as be,
hove and do when it is used with a
main verb to form tenses, negatives
and questions.
BASE FORM the form of the verb
without any endings added to it, for
COMPARATIVE an adjective or
adverb with -er on the end of it or
more or /ess in front of it that is used
to compare people, things or actions,
for example, slower, less importont,
more corefully.
COMPOUND NOUN a word for a
living being, thing or idea, which is
made up of two or more words, for
example, tin-opener, roilway stotion.
CONCRETE NOUN a word that refers
to an object you can touch with your
hand, rather than to a quality or
idea, for example, ball, map, opples.
Compare with abstract noun.
CONDITIONAL a verb form used to
talk about things that would happen
or would be true under certain
conditions, for example, I would help
you if I could. lt is also used to say
what you would like or need, for
example, Could you give me the bill?
CONIUGATE (to) to give a verb
different endings according to
whether you are referring to I, you,
they and so on, and according to
whether you are referring to past
present or future, for example, I hove,
she had, they will hove.
CONfUGATION a group of verbs
which have the same endings as each
other or change according to the
same pattern.
CON|UNCTION a word such as and,
becouse or but that links two words
or phrases of a similar type or two
parts of a sentence, for example,
Diqne and I hove been friends for
yeors.; I left because I was bored.
CONSONANT a letter of the
alphabet which is not a vowel, for
example, b, f, m, s, y etc. Compare
with vowel.
CONSTRUCTION an arrangement of
words together in a phrase or
sentence.
DEFINITE ARTICLE the word the.
Compare with indefinite article.
DEMONSTRATIVE ADTECTIVE one of
the words this, thot, these and those
used with a noun to point out a
particular person or thing, for
example, this woman, thot dog.
DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN one of
the words this, thqt, these and those
used instead of a noun to point out
people or things, for example, Ihot
looks fun.
DIRECT OBTECT a noun referring to
the person or thing affected by the
action described by a verb, for
exampfe, She wrote her nome.; I shut
the window. Compare with indirect
window?'
-'He did.' Also called
stressed pronoun.
ENDING a form added to a verb, for
example, go-> gogg and to
adjectives and nouns depending on
whether they refer to masculine,
feminine, singular or plural things.
EXCLAMATION a word, phrase or
sentence that you use to show you
are surprised, shocked, angry and so
on, for exampfe/ Wow!; How dore
you!; What o surprise!
FEMININE a form of noun, pronoun
or adjective that is used to refer to a
living being, thing or idea that is not
classed as masculine.
FUTURE a verb tense used to talk
about something that will happen or
will be true.
GENDER whether a noun, pronoun
or adjective is feminine or masculine.
IMPEMTIVE the form of a verb used
when giving orders and instructions,
for example, Shut the door!; Sit down!;
Dont go!
IMPERFECT one of the verb tenses
used to talk about the pasf especially
in descriptions, and to say what was
happening or used to happen, for
example, I used to walk to school; It
was sunny at the weekend. Compare
object.
with perfect.
DIRECT OBTECT PRONOUN a word
such as me, him, us and them which
is used instead of a noun to stand in
not refer to a real person or thing
for the person or thing most directly
affected by the action described by
the verb. Compare with indirect
object pronoun.
EMPHATIC PRONOUN a word used
instead of a noun when you want to
emphasize something, for example,
ls this for me?; 'Who broke the
IMPERSONAL VERB one which does
and where the subject is represented
by it, for example, lt's going to ioin;
It's 10 o'clock
INDEFINITE ADIECTIVE one of a
small group of adjectives used to talk
about people or things in a general
way, without saying who or what
they are, for example, several, oll,
every.
INDEFINITE ARTICLE the words o and
an. Compare with definite article.
for example, Whsls hoppening?;
PART OF SPEECH a word class, for
Who's coming?
INDEFINITE PRONOUN a small
INVARIABLE used to describe a form
which does not change.
exampfe, noun, verb, odjective,
preposition, pronoun.
group of pronouns such
as
everything, nobody and something,
which are used to refer to people or
things in a general way, without
saying exactly who or what they are.
INDIRECT OBf ECT a noun used with
verbs that take two objects. For
example, in I gove the carrot to the
robbit, the rqbbitis the indirect object
and carrot is the direct object.
Compare with direct object.
INDIRECT OBIECT PRONOUN when
a verb has two objects (a direct one
and an indirect one), the indirect
object pronoun is used instead of a
noun to show the person or the
IRREGULAR VERB a verb whose
forms do not follow a general pattern
or the normal rules. Compare with
regular verb.
MASCULINE a form of noun,
pronoun or adjective that is used to
refer to a living being, thing or idea
that is not classed as feminine.
NEGATIVE a question or statement
which contains a word such as not,
never or nothing, and is used to say
that something is not happening,
not true or is absenf for example,
is
I never eat meot; Don't you love me?
PARTITIVE ARTICLE the words sorne
or eny, used to refer to part of a
thing but not all of it, for example,
PASSIVE a form of the verb that is
used when the subject of the verb is
the person or thing that is affected
by the action, for example t we were
told.
PAST PARTICIPLE a verb form which
is used to form perfect and
pluperfect tenses and passives, for
example, wotched, swum. Some past
participles are also used as adjectives,
NOUN a'naming'word for a living
being, thing or idea, for example,
for exampfe, a broken watch.
He gave me q book
womary desk, hoppiness, Andrew.
to talk about the past especially
about actions that took place and
me a towel? Compare
with direct
object pronoun.
INDIRECT QUESTION used to tell
someone else about a question and
introduced by a verb such as osk, tell
or wonder, for example, He osked me
whot the time wos; I wonder who he is.
INFINITIVE the form of the verb with
fo in front of it and without any
endings added, for example, to wolk,
to hove, to be, to go. Compare with
base form.
INTERROGATIVE ADIECTIVE a
question word used with a noun to
ask who?, whqfT or which? for
example, Whqt instruments do you
ploy?; Which shoes do you like?
INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN one of
the words who, whose, whom, what
and which when they are used
instead of a noun to ask questions,
NUMBER used to say how many
things you are referring to or where
something comes in a sequence. See
also ordinal number and cardinal
number.
OBTECT a noun or pronoun which
refers to a person or thing that is
affected by the action described by
the verb. Compare with direct
obiect, indirect object and subject.
OBIECT PRONOUN one of the set of
pronouns including me, him and
them, which are used instead of the
noun as the object of a verb or
preposition. Compare with subject
pronoun.
ORDINAL NUMBER a number used
to indicate where something comes
in an order or sequence, for example,
first, fifth, sixteenth. Compare with
cardinal number.
,
Have you got Sny money?; l'm going
to buy some breod.
thing the action is intended to
benefit or harm, for example, me in
and Cqn you get
person or thing. Compare with
singular.
PERFECT one
of the verb tenses used
were completed in the past.
Compare with imperfect.
PERSON one of the three classes: the
first person (1, we), the second person
(you singular and you plural), and the
third person (he, she, it and they).
PERSONAL PRONOUN one of the
group of words including l, you and
they which are used to refer to
yourself, the people you are talking
to, or the people or things you are
talking about.
PLUPERFECT
one of the verb tenses
used to describe something that had
happened or had been true at a
point in the past, for example, /'of
forqotten to finish mv homework.
PLURAL the form of a word which is
used to refer to more than one
POSSESSIVE ADf ECTIVE one of the
words m1q your, his, her, its, our or
their, used with a noun to show that
one person or thing belongs to
another.
POSSESSIVE PRONOUN one of the
words mine, yours, hers, his, ours or
theirs, used instead of a noun to
show that one person or thing
belongs to another.
PREPOSITION is a word such as af,
for; with, into or from, which is usually
followed by a noun, pronoun or, in
Engfish, a word ending in -ing.
Prepositions show how people and
things relate to the rest of the
sentence, for example, She's of home;
a tool fel cutting gross; lt's from Dovid.
PRESENT a verb form used to talk
about what is true at the moment
what happens regularly, and what is
happening now, for example, /'m o
student; I trqvel to college by train; l'm
studvino lonauqses.
PRESENT PARTICIPLE a verb form
ending in -ing which is used in
English to form verb tenses, and
which may be used as an adjective or
a noun, for example, What ore you
doing?; the setting sun; Swimming is
easy!
PRONOUN a word which you use
instead of a noun, when you do not
need or want to name someone or
something directly, for example, lf,
you, none.
PROPER NOUN the name of a
person/ place, organization or thing.
Proper nouns are always written with
a capitaf letter, for example, Kevin,
Glasgow, Europe, London Eye.
described by the verb, for example,
My cqt doesn't drink milk. Compare
QUESTION WORD a word such as
why, where, who, which or how which
is used to ask a question.
with object.
REFLEXIVE PRONOUN a word
SUBTECT PRONOUN a
ending in -self or -selves, such
as
myself or themselves, which refers
back to the subject, for example,
He hurt himself.; Toke care of ypunell.
REFLEXIVE VERB a verb where the
subject and object are the same, and
where the action 'reflects back' on
the subject. A reflexive verb is used
with a reflexive pronoun such as
myself, yourself, herself, for example,
word such as
l, he, she and theywhich carries out
the action described by the verb.
Pronouns stand in for nouns when it
is clear who is being talked about, for
example, My brother isn't here ot the
moment. He'll be back in an hour.
Compare with object pronoun.
SUBTUNCTIVE a verb form used in
certain circumstances to express
some sort of feeling, or to show
I wqshed myself.; He shaved himself.
doubt about whether something will
REGULAR VERB a verb whose forms
happen or whether something is
true. lt is only used occasionally in
modern English, for example, /f /
were you, I wouldn't bother.; So be it.
follow a general pattern or the
normal rules. Compare with irregular
verb.
RELATIVE PRONOUN a word such as
thot, who or which, when it is used to
link two parts of a sentence together.
SENTENCE a group of words which
usually has a verb and a subject. In
writing, a sentence has a capital
letter at the beginning and a full
stop, question mark or exclamation
mark at the end.
SINGULAR the form of a word which
is used to refer to one person or
thing. Compare with plural.
STEM the main part of a verb to
which endings are added.
STRESSED PRONOUN used instead
of a noun when you want to
emphasize something, for example,
ls this for me?; 'Who broke the
window?'
-'Hs
did.' Also called
emphatic pronoun.
SUBIECT the noun in a sentence or
phrase that refers to the person or
thing that does the action described
by the verb or is in the state
NOUNS
SUPERLATIVE an adlective or adverb
with -esf on the end of it or mosf or
/eosf in front of it that is used to
compare people, things or actions,
for example, thinnesL most quickly,
What
is a noun?
A noun is a 'naming'word for a living being, thing or idea, for example,
womont happiness, Andrew.
Using nouns
D In French, all nouns
are either masculine or feminine. This is called their
gender. Even words for things have a gender.
D Whenever you are using a noun, you need to know whether it is mascullne
or feminine as this affects the form of other words used with it, such as:
o adiectives that describe it
o articles (such as le or une) that go before it
. pronouns (such as il or elle) that replace it
t)
im-po-ssi-ble (4 syllobles).
dictionary. When you come across a new noun, always learn the word for
the or o that goes with it to help you remember its gender.
o le or un before a noun tells you it is masculine
o la or une before a noun tells you it is feminine
D We refer to something
as singular when we are talking about just one of
them, and as plural when we are talking about more than one. The singular
is the form of the noun you will usually find when you look a noun up in the
dictionary. As in English, nouns in French change their form in the plural.
TENSE the form of a verb which
shows whether you are referring to
the past, present or future.
VERB a
'doing'word which
describes
what someone or something does,
what someone or something is, or
pages 25, 12
D You can find information about gender by looking the word up in a
leqst interesting.
SYLIABLE consonant+vowel units
that make up the sounds of a word,
for example, co-the-dral (3 sylloble),
For more informotion on Adjectives, Articles or Pronouns, see
and 42.
)
Adjectives, articles and pronouns are also affected by whether a noun
singular or plural.
what happens to them, for example,
be, sing, Iive.
VOWEL one of the letters o, e, i, o or
u. Compare with consonant.
Remember that you have to use the right word for the, o and
so on according to the gender of the French noun.
is
2
Nourus
Nourus 3
Gender
',21 Nouns referring to animals
tr
>
l
Nouns referring to people
Most nouns referring to men and boys are masculine.
un homme
un roi
ln English we can choose between words like bull or cow, depending on the
sex of the animal we are referring to. In French too there are sometimes
separate words for male and female animals.
un taureau
a bull
a man
a king
une vache
F
Most nouns referring to women and girls are feminine.
a girl
une fille
une reine
a queen
)
When the same word is used to refer to either men/boys or women/girls,
its gender usually changes depending on the sex of the person it refers to.
un camarade
a (male) friend
a (female) friend
une camarade
Sometimes, the same word with different endings is used for male and
female animals.
un chien
une chienne
une Belge
Words for other animals do not change according to the sex of the animal.
Just learn the French word with its gender, which is always the same.
Some words for people have only one possible gender, whether they refer to a male
or a female.
a (male or female) baby
une personne
une vedette
a (male or female) person
a (male or female) guide
un
make a word masculine or feminine by
changing the ending, for example, Englishngn and EnglishwpmsL or prince
and princess. In French, very often the ending of a noun changes
depending on whether it refers to a man or a woman.
un prince
a prince
a princess
une princcssc
un employ6
une employ6e
+
For further explanation of grammatical
tems, please see pages viii-xii.
a mouse
There are lots of rules to help you:
o
words ending in -e are generally feminine (une boulangerie a baker's;
une banque a bank)
o
words ending in a consonant (any letter except e, e, i, o or u) are
generally masculine (un a6ropo{ an airporf un film a film)
are some exceptions to these rules, so it is best to check in
dictionary if you are unsure.
a (female) employee
snd feminine forms of words,
L
D There
a (male) employee
For more informotion on Masculine
a fish
French, however, things are either masculine or feminine. As things do not
divide into sexes the way humans and animals do, there are no physical
clues to help you with their gender in French. Try to learn the gender as
you learn the word.
D In English, we can sometimes
an Englishman
an Englishwoman
poisson
une souns
11] Nouns referring to thinqs
) ln English, we call all things - for example, toble, cor, book, apple - 'i( . ln
a (male or female) star
un Anglais
une Anglaise
a (female) dog, a bitch
When you do not know or care what sex the animal is, you can
usually use the masculine form as a general word.
Grammar Extn!
un b6b6
un guide
a (male) dog
rrp
a Belgian (man)
a Belgian (woman)
un Belge
a cow
see
poge 7.
a
4
)
Nourus 5
Nourus
-on
These endings are often found on masculine nouns.
Masculine ending
Examples
-age
un villaqe a village
un voyagg a journey
un 6tage a floor
le fromage cheese
BUT:
-olr
-sme
>
The following types of word are also masculine:
.
names of the days of the week, and the months and seasons of the year
le lundi
septembre prochain
le printemps
o
un mirqL a mirror
un couloir a corridor
le sqL the evening
un mouchoir a handkerchief
Tu apprends le frangais
French
Portuguese
depuis
combien de temps?
o most metric weights and measures
un gramme
le racisme racism
un mdtre
un kilomitre
o
la peau skin
D
How long have you been learning
French?
a gramme
a metre
a kilometre
English nouns used in French
le football
un tee-shirt
un sandwich
BUT:
football
a tee-shirt
a sandwich
These endings are often found on feminine nouns.
-eu
un leu a oame
Feminine endinq
-ou
un cheu a cabbage
le genou the knee
-anGe
-rel
le cahier the exercise book
un quaillel an area
un escalier a staircase
-anse
-ence
-ense
Examples
la chance luck, chance
une danse a dance
la patience patience
la d6fense defence
-ton
lc silence silence
une r6gion a region
BUT:
une addition a bill
une r6union a meeting
la circulatlon traffic
BUT:
BUT:
la fin the end
une main a hand
Spring
the names of languages
le frangais
le tourismc tourism
un magas!4 a shop
un jardin a garden
un dessin a drawing
le vin the wine
Monday
next September
le portugais
un cadeau a present
un chapeau a hat
un gdteeu a cake
le rideau the curtain
-tn
un ballon a ball
le citrgn the lemon
BUN
un appartement a flat
un b6timent a building
le ciment cement
un vGtement a garment
lleau water
un champignon a mushroom
une maison a house
la saison the season
une image a picture
une page a page
la plage the beach
-ment
I
-t6
-ti6
un avion a plane
une sp6cialit6 a speciality
la moiti6 half
BUT:
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
un 6t6 a summer
le p6t6 p6t6
6
Nourus 7
Nourus
4l
Grammar E><tra!
A few words have different meanings depending on whether they are masculine or
feminine. These are the most common:
Masculine
Meaning
Example
Feminine
Meaning
Example
un livre
a book
un livre de
une livre
a pound
poche
une livre
sterling
a paperback
a pound
D In French there are sometimes
very different words for men and women,
and for male and female animals, just as in English.
sterling
un mode
a method
le mode
la mode
fashion
d'emploi
d la mode
in fashion
the directions
for
un poste
a set
un poste de
(TV/rodio)'
professeur a
teaching job
a post
(job);
>
use
la poste
posr
the post
mettre
quelque
office
chose
a turn;
a walk
la
tower
walk
un taureau
une vache
a bull
un neveu
une nidce
a nephew
a niece
y'
y'
y'
y'
a (female) friend
un employ6
une employ6e
a (male) employee
a (female) employee
Eiffel the
un Frangais
Eiffel Tower
une Frangaisg
a Frenchman
a Frenchwoman
la
tour
Key points
Vtost nouns referring to men, boys and male animals are
masculine: most nouns referrinq to women. oirls and female
animals are feminine. The endiig of a French- noun often changes
depending on whether it refers to a male or a female.
Generally, words ending in -e are feminine and words ending in a
are masculine, though there are many exceptions to
;;,:t""T:.",
These endings are often found on masculine nouns:
-age, -ment, -oir, -sme, -eau, -eu, -ou, -ier, -in and -on.
These endings are often found on feminine nouns:
-ance, -anse, -ence, -ense, -ion, -t6, -ti6.
Oays of the week, months and seasons of the year are masculine.
So are languages, most metric weights and measures, and English
nouns used in French.
For further explanation of grammatical
tems, please see pages viii-xii.
a cow
Many masculine French nouns can be made feminine simply by changing
the ending. This is usually done by adding an -e to the masculine noun to
form the feminine.
> lf the masculine singular
y'
a woman
a (male) friend
something
une toul
a man
une amie
to post
faire un tour
to go for a
un homme
une femme
un aml
poste
an extension
(phone)
un tour
i
Masculine and feminine forms of words
un 6live
form already ends in -e, no further e is added.
une 6live
a (male) pupil
a (female) pupil
un camarade
une camarade
a (male) friend
a (female) friend
un colldgue
une colldgue
a (male) colleague
a (female) colleague
rtp
lf a masculine noun ends in a vowel, its pronunciation does not
change when an -e is added to form the feminine. For example,
ami and amie (meaning friend) are both pronounced the same.
lf a masculine noun ends with a consonant that is not pronounced,
for example, -d, -s, -r or -t, you DO pronounce that consonant when
an -e is added in the feminine. For example, in 6tudiant (meaning
student), you cannot hear the U in 6tudiante, you can hear the t.
8
Nouls
Noutrts
Forming plurals
Ttp
Some masculine nouns, such as voisin (meaning neighbour), end
in what is called a nasal vowel and an -n. \Mth these words, you pronounce
the vowel 'through your nose' but DO NOT say the n. When an -e is
added in the feminine - for example, voisine - the vowel becomes a
normal one instead of a nasal vowel and you DO pronounce the n.
trl
l
t
I
> In English
we usually make nouns plural by adding an -s to the end
(gorden + gardens; house'+ houses), although we do have some nouns
which are irregular and do not follow this pattern (mouse - mice;
child * children).
Some other patterns
rtp
Some changes to endings from masculine to feminine are a little more
complicated but still fall into a regular pattern.
Masculine
Feminine
ending
-f
endinq
-ve
-x
-se
-eur
-euse
-teur
-teuse
-trice
-an
-anne
-ten
-tenne
Example
un veut/une veuve
un 6poux/une 6pouse
un dansegr/
une danseuse
un chanteur/
une chanteuse
un acteul/unc acldce
un paysan/
une paysannc
a (male) dancer/
a (female) dancer
un jardin
a garden
a (male) farmerl
a (female) farmer
des jardins
gardens
un Parisiea/
une Parisienne
a (male) Parisian/
une voiture
des voitures
cars
a (female) Parisian
-onne
un lion/une lionne
a lion/a lioness
a (male) foreigner/
a (female) foreigner
-et
-ette
un 6trange/
une 6trangire
le cadet/la cadette
y'
l/
y'
for more information on Adjectives, Articles ond Pronouns, see
pages 25,12 and 42.
Most French nouns also form their plural by adding an -s to their singular
form.
a (male) singer/
a (female) singer
an actor/an actress
-ere
-elle
*
widow
a husband/a wife
-on
-er
-el
Remember that you have to use les with plural nouns in
Any adjective that goes with the noun has to agree with
any pronoun that replaces it.
Meaning
a widower/a
Plurals ending in -s
un professionnel/
une professionnelle
the youngest (male)
child
the youngest (female)
child
a (male) professional/
un h6tel
des h6tels
>
a (female) professional
be made to refer to females
by adding an -e. lf the masculine singular form already ends in
-e, no further e is added.
tne pronunciation of feminine nouns is sometimes different from
that of the corresponding masculine nouns.
Other patterns include:
-er * -Ere
-f * -ve
-teur * -teuse or -trice
-et + -ette
-x + -se
-an, -en and -on > -anne
-eur + -euse -enne and -onne
-el - -elle
For further explanation of grammatical
tems, please see pages viii-xii.
l4
)
a hotel
hotels
lf the singular noun ends in -s/ -x or -2, no further -s is added in the plural.
Key points
ly'rany masculine French nouns can
a car
un fils
des fils
50n5
une vorx
des voix
voices
un nez
a nose
des nez
noses
a son
a voice
Plurals ending in -x
The following nouns add an -x instead of an -s in the plural:
.
nouns ending in -eau
un chapeau
des chapeaux
a hat
hats
9
10 Nourus
o most nouns ending in -eu
un jeu
a game
games
des jeux
o a FEW nouns ending in -ou (MOST nouns ending in -ou add -s as usual)
des bijoux
a jewel
jewels
un caillou
des cailloux
a pebble
pebbles
un chou
des choux
a cabbage
cabbages
un genou
des genoux
a knee
un hibou
an owl
owls
un bijou
des hiboux
knees
un joujou
des joujoux
a toy
un pou
des poux
a louse
toys
lice
Adding an -s or -x to the end of a noun does not usually change
the way the word is pronounced. For example, professeur and
professeurs and chapeau and chapeaux sound just the same when
you say them out loud.
lf the singular noun ends in -al or -ail, the plural usually ends in -aux.
un journal
des journaux
a newspaper
newspapers
un animal
des animaux
an animal
animals
un travail
des travaux
jobs
a job
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
11
rtp
The plural of un
3I
eil
(an eye) is des yeux (eyes).
Plural versus singular
D A few words relating to clothing are plural in English but NOT in
un slip
un short
un pantalon
French.
pants
shorts
trousers
A few common words are plural in French but NOT in English.
les
les
affaires
cheveux
business
hair
desrenseignements information
Grammar E><tra!
When nouns are made up of two separate words, they are called compound nouns, for
example, les grands-parents (meaning grandparents), des ouvre-boites (meaning tlnopeners). The rules for forming the plural of compound nouns are complicated and it is
best to check in a dictionary to see what the plural is.
'y'
rrp
l
Nourus
tutostFrench nouns form ,nt?rtoo,,lrjitl, adding an -s to their
singular form. lf the singular noun ends in -s, -x or -2, no further
-s is added in the plural.
y' Most nouns ending in -eau or -eu add an -x in the plural.
y' trrtost nouns ending in -ou take an -s in the plural, with a few
exceptions.
y' lI the singular noun ends in -al or -ail, the plural usually ends in
-aux.
y'- naaing an -s or -x to the end of a noun does not generally affect
the way the word is pronounced.
y' lfew common words are plural in English but not in French, and
vice versa.
ARncus
The definite article: le, la,
ARTICLES
t
What is an article?
ln English, an article is one of the words the, a, and on which is given in
front of a noun.
>
Different types of article
D There
o
are three types of article:
t
f
l'and les
The basic rules
In English we only have one definite article: the. In French, there is more
than one definite article to choosefrom. All French nouns are either
masculine or feminine and, just as in English, they can be either singular or
plural. The word you choose for the depends on whether the noun it is
used with is masculine or feminine, singular or plural. This may sound
complicated, but it is not too difficult.
For more informotion
the definite article: fhe in English. This is used to identify a particular
thing or person.
on Nouns,
see
page
1.
with masculine noun
with feminine noun
l'm going to the supermarket.
Singular
le (l')
la (l')
That's the woman I was talking to.
Plural
les
les
o the indefinite article: a or on in English, some or any (or no word at all) in
the plural. This is used to refer to something unspecific, or that you do
not really know about.
ls
le and la change to l'when they are used in front of a word
starting with a vowel and most words starting with h.
there a supermarket near here?
I need a day off.
.
the paltllyc article: some or any (or no word at all) in English. This
used to talk about quantities or amounts.
is
> le is used in front of masculine singular nouns.
le roi
le chien
Can you lend me some sugar?
Did you buy any wine?
Do you like chocolate?
le jardin
the king
the dog
the garden
> la is used in front of feminine
la reine
la souris
la porte
singular nouns.
the queen
the mouse
the door
f is used in front of singular nouns that start with a vowel (a, e, i, a, or u),
whether they are masculine or feminine.
I'ami (masculine) the friend
the water
leau (feminine)
f'6tage (mqsculine) the floor
[]
Note that l' is also used in front of most words starting with
some others take le or la instead.
llh6pital
le hamster
la hi-fi
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
13
the hospital
the hamster
the stereo
h but
14 Anncus
Anrrcus
When
rtp
i
is
15
followed by les, the two words become aux.
to the houses
to the students
maisons
aux 6tudiants
aux
It is a good idea to learn the article or the gender with the noun
when you come across a word for the first time, so that you know
whether it ls masculine or feminine. A good dictionary will also give
you this information.
When ir is followed by la or l', the words do not change.
i
la
dr
l'h6tel
bibliothdque
to/at the library
to/at the hotel
les is used in front of plural nouns. whether they are masculine or feminine
and whatever letter they start with.
les
les
les
les
the dogs
the doors
the friends
the hotels
chiens
portes
amis
h6tels
le and la change to l' when they are used in front of a word
starting with a vowel and most words starting with h.
3
that you
a Note
in
In
have to make the noun plural too, just as you would
French, as in English, you usually add an -s.
English.
+
For more information on Forming
plurals,
see
poge 9.
rrp
When les is used in front of a word that starts with a consonant,
you DO NOT say the s on the end of les: les chiens the dogs.
When les is used in front of a word that starts with a vowel, most
words starting with h, and the French word y, you DO pronounce
the s on the end of les. lt sounds like the z in the English word zip:
f
E
)
+
)
es amis the friends,
Using
i
lefh6tels
with le.la.l'and
>
t
/
the hotels.
see
page t 63.
When i is followed by le, the two words become au.
au cin6ma
to/at the cinema
aux professeurs
to the teachers
For further explanation of grammatical
The French word de is translated into English in several different ways,
including of and from. There are special rules when you use it together with
t
)
For more information on the preposition de, see
poge 166.
>
When de is followed by le, the two words become du.
du cin6ma
from/of the cinema
des professeurs
from/of the teachers
>
When de is followed by les, the two words become des.
des maisons
from/of the houses
des 6tudiants
from/of the students
D When de
les
on the preposition d,
Using de with le, la, l' and les
le and les.
The French word ir is translated into English in several different ways,
including ot or to. There are special rules when you use it together with le
and les.
For more informqtion
I
tems, please see pages viii-xii,
is followed by la or l', the words do not change.
de la bibliothique from/of the library
de I'h6tel
from/of the hotel
T'P
le and la change to l' when they are used in front of a word
starting with a vowel and most words starting with h.
Amcles
16 Anncus
y'
y'
y'
lf you are talking about a part of your body, you usually use a word like my
or hrs in English, but in French you usually use the definite article.
Turn your head to the left.
Tourne la t6te d gauche.
ll s'est cass6 le bras.
He's broken his arm.
l've got a sore throat.
J'ai mal d la gorge.
Key points
Wtfr masculine sinqular nouns , use le.
Wittr feminine singular nouns , use la.
Wi|h nouns starting with a vowel, most nouns beginning with h
and the French word y , use l'.
tntn plural nouns ' use les.
y'
y' i+ le=au
> ln French you have to use the definite article in front of the names of
countries, continents and regions.
i+les=aux
de+le=du
la Bretagne
l'Europe
de+les=des
Brittany
La France est
Europe
France is very beautiful.
tris belle.
J'ai achet6 ce poster au Japon.
E
Je viens des
Using the definite article
L
The definite article in French (le, la, l' and les) is used in more or less the
same way as we use fhe in English, but it is also used in French in a few
places where you might not expect it.
}
The definite article is used with words like prices, flu and time that describe
qualities, ideas or experiences (called abstract nounS) rather than something
that you can touch with your hand. Usually, the is missed out in English
with this type of word.
Les prix montent.
J'ai la
grippe.
Je n'ai pas le
@
}
temps.
Prices are rising.
[J
I
l've got flu.
)
Note that if the name of the country comes after the French word
en, meaning to or in, you do not use the definite article. en is used
with the names of countries, continents and regions that are
feminine in French.
For more information on the preposition en, see
)
I don't have time.
Etats-Unis.
languages and sports.
Tir aimes les maths?
J'apprends le frangais depuis
ans.
with pleasure
Mon sport pr6t6r6, c'est le
wi thout d o u
bt)
[J
Je n'aime pas le caf6.
I don't like coffee.
Les ordinateurs co0tent trds cher. Computers are very expensive.
Les professeurs ne gagnent pas Teachers don't earn very much.
beaucoup.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
trois
foot.
Do you like maths?
l've been learning French for
three years.
My favourite sport is football.
Note that the definite article is not used after en.
Gomment est-ce qu'on
You also use the definite article when you are talking about things like coffee
or computers thatyou can touch with your hand (called concrete nouns) if
you are talking generally about that thing. Usually, the is missed out in
English with this type of word.
page 168.
You often use the definite article with the name of school subjects,
to be hungry (literally to have hunger)
probably (lite ra lly.
I bought this poster in Japan.
I come from the United States.
Je vais en Ecosse le mois prochain. l'm going to Scotland next
month.
ll travaille en Allemagne.
He works in Cermany.
trtote that there are some set phrases using avoir, avec or sans
followed by a noun, where the definite article is NOT used.
avoir faim
avec plaisir
sans doute
17
dit'fils'
How do you say 'fils' in English?
en anglais?
Sophie est nulle en chimie.
L
Sophie's no good at chemistry.
When you use the verb parler (meaning to speak) in front of the name of
the language, you do not always need to use the definite article in French.
Tu parles espagnol?
Do you speak Spanish?
ll parle bien I'anglais.
He speaks English well.
18 Anncus
) You use le with dates, and also with the names of the days of the week and
the seasons when you are talking about something that you do regulady or
that
mai.
She's leaving on the seventh of May.
Je vais chez ma grand-mdre I go to my grandmother's on
le dimanche.
Sundays.
Note that you do not use the definite article after en.
En hiver nous faisons du
L
ski.
>
I
The basic rules
In English we have the indefinite article o, which changes to an in front of
word that starts with a vowel. ln the plural we say either some, any or
nothing at all.
D In French, you choose from un, une and des, depending on whether the
noun is masculine or feminine, and singular or plural.
In winter we go skiing.
with masculine noun
with feminine noun
You often find the definite article in phrases that tell you about prices and
Singular
un
une
rates.
Plural
des
des
6 euros le kilo
3 euros la pidce
On roulait d 100 kilomitres
d l'heure.
y'
6 euros a kilo
3 euros each
We were doing 100 kilometres an
hour.
Key points
The definite article is used in French with:
. abstract nouns
. concrete nouns (when you are saying something that is true obout
>
un is used in front of masculine singular nouns.
un rol
a king
un chien
a dog
un jardin
a garden
>
une is used in front of feminine singular nouns.
une reine
a queen
une souris
a mouse
une porte
a door
.;:[fi^z':::l
.
r
des is used in front of plural nouns, whether they are masculine or
feminine, and whatever letter thev start with.
(some/any) dogs
des chiens
(some/any) mice
des souris
(some/any) friends
des amis
countries/ continents and regions
school subjects, languages and sports
: ::;:t"t
the week and the seasons (when you are tolking obout
something that you do regularly or thot is a habit)
. prices
and rates
[J
+
Note that des is also a combination of de + les and has other
meanings, such as saying who something belongs to or where
something is from.
For more information on des, see
poge 166.
T'P
When des is used in front of a word that starts with a consonant
(any letter except o, e, i, o or u), you DO NOT say the s on the end
of des: des chiens (some/ony) dogs,
When des is used in front of a word that starts with a vowel, and
most words starting with h, you DO pronounce the s on the end.
lt sounds like the z in the English word zip: des amis (some/any)
friends, des h6tefs (some/ony) hotels.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii,
19
The indefinite article: un, une and des
t
is a habit.
Elle part le 7
@
Anncus
a
20 Amcus
A
}
Anrrcus
lrr questions and negative sentences des means any, or is not translated at
The indefinite article in negative sentences
all.
n English we use words like not and neverto indicate that something is not
happening or is not true. The sentences that these words are used in are
f
frires?
ll n'y a pas deufs.
Tu as des
called negative sentences.
I never do my homework on time.
In French, you use word pairs like ne ... pas (meaning not) and ne ...
jamais (meaning never) to say that something is not happening or not true.
When un, une or des is used after this type of expression, it has to be
changed to de.
I don't have a bike.
Je n'ai pas de v6lo.
Nous n'avons pas de cousins. We don't have any cousins.
+
For more information on Negotives, see
page 138.
T'P
As an English speaker, you will know what sounds right in
your own language. The important thing to remember is that des
can NEVER be missed out in French, even if there is no word in
English.
4l
>
r0p
Je n'ai pas d'ordinateur.
I don't have a computer.
ll n'y a pas d'horloge dans la salle.There isn't a clock in the room.
,)
There are some very common adjectives, like beau, bon and petit, that can come
BEFORE the noun instead of after it. When an adjective comes before a plural noun,
des changes to de.
J'ai regu de beaux cadeaux.
Gette r6gion a de trds jolis
+
For more information
I got some lovely presents.
This area has some very pretty
villages.
on Word order with odjectives, see page j2.
with the adjective quel (meaning what a), in sentences like
O,uel dommage!
What a shamel
Ouelle surprise!
What a surprise!
Ouelle bonne id6e!
What a good idea!
For more information on quel, see
o
Orammar Et<tra!
Using the indefinite article
The indefinite article is used in French in much the same way as we use
some and ony in English, but there are two places where the indefinite
article is NOT used:
o
de changes to d' in front of a word starting with a vowel and
most words starting with h.
villages,
Have you got any brothers?
There aren't any eggs.
Do you have stamps?
Avez-vous des timbres?
I don't know him.
)
r
F
des can mean different things in English, depending on the sentence. Some
is often the best word to use.
l've got a dog, two cats and
J'ai un chien, deux chats et
some mice.
des souris.
Tu veux des chips?
Would you like some crisps?
page 148.
when you say what jobs people do
ll est professeur.
Ma mdre est infirmidre.
He's a teacher.
My mother's a nurse.
T'P
When you use c'est (to mean he/she is), you DO use un or une.
When you use ce sont (to mean they are), you DO use des.
G'est un m6decin.
Ge sont des acteurs.
Q
r3
For more
He's/She's a doctor.
They're actors.
information on c'est ond ce sont,
see
poge 65.
The meaninq of des
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii,
21
Key points
y' wtn masculine singular nouns + use un.
y' Wttr feminine singular nouns ) use une.
y' witfr plural nouns - use des.
y' un, une and des - change to de or d' in negative sentences.
y' tne indefinite article is not usually used when you say what jobs
people do, or in exclamations with quel.
4
22 Anncus
Anncus
The partitive article: du, de la, de l' and des
tr
D des
is used in front of plural nouns, whether they are masculine or feminine
and whatever letter they start with.
The basic rules
du, de la, de l' and des can all be
)
used to give information about the
amount or quantity of a particular thing. They are often translated into
English as some or any.
)
In French, you choose between du, de la, de l'and des, depending on
whether the noun is masculine or feminine, singular or plural.
with masculine noun
with feminine noun
Singular
du (de l'l
de la (de l')
Plural
des
des
des g6teaux
des lettres
des h6tels
@
@
+
is used in front of masculine sinoular nouns,
For more
te
The partitive article in negative sentences
)
information on des,
see
poge 166.
pairs like ne ... pas (meaning not) and ne ...
jamais (meaning never) to say that something is not happening or not true.
In this type of expression, du, de la, de l' and des all change to de.
Nous n'avons pes de beurre. We don't have any butter.
Je p mange iamais de viande. I never eat meat.
ll n1y a pas de timbres.
There aren't any stamps.
a
(some/any) butter
t)
For more information
on Negatives,
see
poge 138.
(some/any) orange juice
Note that du is also a combination of de + le and has other
meanings, such as saying who something belongs to or where
something is from.
For more informotion on
from.
+
French word y.
du beurre
du jus d'orange
is
D In French, you use word
de + le and de la change to de l'when they are used in front of
word starting with a vowel, most words starting with h, and the
du
(some/any) cakes
(some/any) letters
(some/any) hotels
Note that des is also a combination of de + les and has other
meanings, such as saying who something belongs to or where
something
rrp
)
23
du,
see
most nouns starting with h.
ll n'a pas d'argent.
He doesn't have any money.
ll n'y a pas d'horloge dans la salle. There isn't a clock in the room.
page 166,
de la is used in front of feminine singular nouns.
(some/any) meat
de la viande
de la margarine
(some/any) margarine
de l' is used in front of singular nouns that start with a vowel and
nouns starting with h, whether they are masculine or feminine.
de l'argent (masculine) (some/any) money
de l'eau (feminine) (some/any) water
de l'herbe (feminine) (some/any) grass
Grammar Ertra!
There are some very common adjectives, like beau,
J'ai regu de beaux cadeaux.
tems, please see pages viii-xii.
I
got some lovely presents.
Cette r6gion a de trds jolis villages. This area has some very pretty villages.
t
For further explanation of grammatical
bon and petit, that can come
the noun instead of after it. When an adjective comes before a plural noun, des
< hanges to de.
BEFORE
:)
For more informotion
on Word order with odjectives,
see
poge 32.
24 Anncus
tr
}
The meaning of du. de la. de
l'and des
ADJECTIVES
du, de la, de l' and des are often translated into English as some ?r onyt
but there are times when no word is used in English to translate the French.
ll me doit de llargent'
What is an adjective?
An adjective is a 'describing'word that tells you more about a person or
thing, such as their appearance, colour, size or other qualities, for example,
pretty, blue, big.
He owes me (some) money.
l'm going to buy (some) flour and
Je vais acheter de la farine et
du beurre pour faire un gdteau' butter to make a cake.
Est-ce qu'il y a des lettres Pour Are there any letters for me?
moi?
She doesn't want any butter'
Elle ne veut pas de beurre.
I don't take milk.
Je ne prends Pas de lait.
Using adjectives
D Adjectives
are words like clever, expensive and sl//y that tell you more about
a noun (a living being, thing or idea). They can also tell you more about a
pronoun, such as he or they. Adjectives are sometimes called 'describing
words'. They can be used right next to a noun they are describing, or can
be separated from the noun by a verb like be, Iook, feel and so on.
rrp
Remember that du, de 14 de l' and des can NEVER be missed
out in French, even if there is no word in English.
a clever girl
an expensive coat
a silly idea
He's just being silly.
Key points
y' wittr masculine singular nouns + use du'
y' Wth feminine singular nouns + use de la.
y' Wth singular nouns starting with a vowel and some nouns
beginning with h * use de l'.
y' Wtn plural nouns 'use des'
y' du, de la, de l'and des ' change to de or d'in negative
sentences.
t
)
For more information
on Nouns and Pronouns,
see
pqges 1 and 42.
> In English,
the only time an adjective changes its form is when you are
making a comparison.
She's cleverer than her brother.
That's the silliest idea I ever heard!
D In French, however, most adjectives agree with what they are describing.
This means that their endings change depending on whether the person or
thing you are referring to is masculine or feminine, and singular or plural.
un mot frangais
une chanson frangaise
des traditions francaises
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages
viii'xii'
a French word
a French song
French traditions
26 Ao.lecnvrs
) In English we put adjectives BEFORE the noun they describe, but in French
you usually put them
un chat noir
+
AFTER it.
a black cat
For further information, see Word
y'
y'
order with adjectives on poge 32.
Ao.lecnves 27
Making adjectives agree
ll
The basic rules
D
In dictionaries, regular French adjectives are usually shown in the masculine
singular form. You need to know how to change them to make them agree
with the noun or pronoun that they are describing.
Key points
Most French adjectives .han# [r'"ir]orr, according to whether
the person or thing they are describing is masculine or feminine,
singular or plural.
In French adjectives usually go after the noun they describe.
D To make an adjective agree with the noun or pronoun it describes, you
simply add the following endings in most cases:
with masculine noun
Singular
Plural
-e
-s
un chat noir
une chemise noire
des chats noirs
des chemises noires
A
with feminine noun
-es
a black cat
a black shirt
black cats
black shirts
Making adiectives feminine
> With most
adjectives you add an -e to the masculine singular form to make
it feminine.
un chat noir a black cat -+ une chemise noirc a black shirt
un sac lourd a heavy bag --+ une valise lourde a heavy suitcase
>
lf the adjective already ends in an -e in the masculine, you do not add
another -e.
un sac jaune a yellow bag > u.. chemise jaune a yellow shirt
un gargon sage a good boy + une fille sage a good girl
l
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
Some changes to endings are a little more complicated but still follow a
regular pattern. Sometimes you have to double the consonant as well as
adding an -e. On the next page there is a table showing these changes.
28
Aolecrves
Aolecnvps
Masculine ending Feminine ending
-ve
-f
Example
Meaning
new
hapPy
L
Some very common adjectives have irregular feminine forms.
Masculine form
Feminine form
Meaning
-x
-se
neuf/neuve
heureux/heureuse
blanc
blanche
white, blank
-el
-ere
cher/chire
dear, expensive
doux
douce
soft, swee! mild, gentle
-an
-en
-anne
-enne
-onne
paysan/paysanne
europ6en/euroP6ennt
farming, country
faux
fausse
untrue
bon/bonne
cruel/cruelle
pareil/pareille
good, right
favori
favorite
favourite
cruel
frais
fraiche
fresh, chilly, cool
similar
gentil
gentille
nice, kind
clear
grec
grecque
Greek
complete, full
gros
grosse
big, fat
long
longue
rong
nul
nulle
useless
roux
tousse
red, red-haired
-on
-elle
-eille
-el
-eil
-ette
-et
-dte
net/nette
complet/comPlite
European
un bon repas a good meal -) de bonne humeur in a good mood
un homme cruel a cruel man -) une remarque cruelle a cruel remark
rw
seG
sdche
dry, dried
turc
turque
Turkish
lf a masculine adjective ends in a vowel (o, e, i, o or u), its
pronunciation does not change when an -e is added to form the
ieminine. For example, ioli and iolie are both pronounced the same'
lf a masculine adiective ends with a consonant that is not
pronounced, such as -d, -s or -t you DO pronounce that consonant
when an -e is added in the feminine. For example, in chaud
(meaning hot, worm), you cannot hear the d when it is said out loud;
in the feminine form chaude, you can hear the d sound'
This is also true when you have to double the consonant before the
-e is added, for example, gros (meanin g big, fot), where you cannot
hear the s, and the feminine form grosse, where you can hear the s
sound.
Some masculine adjectives, such as bon (meaning good) or italien .
(meaning ltalion), end in what is called a nasal vowel and an -n' With
ih"r" *Jtdt, you pronounce the vowel 'through your nose' Uy- d.o.
not say the n. When the consonant is doubled and an -e is added in
the feminine - bonne, italienne - the vowel becomes a normal one
instead of a nasal vowel and you do pronounce the n'
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages
viii-xii'
mon spoft favori my favourite sport -+ ma chanson favorite my
favourite song
un ami grec a Creek (male) friend + une amie grecque a Greek
(female) friend
A very small group of French adjectives have an extra masculine singular
form that is used in front of words that begin with a vowel (a, e, i, o or u)
and most words beginning with h. These adjectives also have an irregular
feminine form.
Masculine form in
front of a word
beginning with a
consonant
Masculine form in
Feminine
front of
form
word
Meaning
beginning with a
vowel or most
words beginning
with
beau
a
h
bel
belle
lovely, beautiful,
good-looking,
handsome
fou
fol
folle
nouveau
nouvel
nouvelle
new
vreux
vieil
vieille
old
un bel appartement a beautiful flat
le Nouvel An
New Year
un vieil arbre
an old tree
mad
29
30
tr
Ao;rcrvrs
Aorecnvrs
+
Making adiectives plural
> With most adjectives you add an -s to the masculine singular
or feminine
singular form to make it plural.
un chat noir a black cat + des chats noirs black cats
une valise lourde a heavy suitcase - des valises lourdes heavy suitcases
>
Invariableadiectives
A small number of adjectives (mostly relating to colours) do not change in
the feminine or plural. They are called invariable because their form NEVER
changes, no matter what they are describing. These adjectives are often
made up of more than one word - for example, bleu marine (meaning
novy blue), or else come from the names of fruit or nuts - for example,
orange (meaning orange), marron (meaning brown).
Ttp
des chaussures maron brown shoes
une veste bleu marine a navy blue jacket
When an adjective describes a masculine and a feminine noun or
pronoun, use the masculine plural form of the adjective.
The house and garden are
La maison et le iardin sont
beaux.
Sophie et son petit ami
trds gentils.
sont
very nrce.
y'
lf the masculine singular form already ends in an -s or an -x, you do not
add an -s.
un fromage frangais a French cheese - des fromages frangais French
y'
cheeses
un homme dangereux a dangerous man -) des hommes dangereux
dangerous men
lf the masculine singular form ends in -eau or -al, the masculine plural
usually -eaux or -aux.
is
le nouveau professeur the new teacher + les nouveaux professeurs
the new teachers
le r6le principal the main role * les r6les principaux the main roles
rrp
Adding an -s or an -x does not change the pronunciation of a
word. For example, noir and noirs sound just the same, as do
nouveau and nouveaux.
When the -s or -x ending comes before a word starting with a vowel
or most words starting with h, you have to pronounce the s or x on
the end of the adjective. lt sounds like the z in the English word zip.
les anciens 6ldves the former pupils
big hotels
de grands h6tels
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
Key points
agree with a feminine singular noun or
pronoun, you usually add -e to the masculine singular. lf the
adjective already ends in an -e, no further -e is added.
Several adjectives ending in a consonant double their consonant
as well as adding -e in the feminine.
beau, fou, nouveau and vieux have an irregular feminine form
and an extra masculine singular form that is used in front of
words that begin with a vowel and most words beginning with h:
y'- fo make an adjective
beautiful.
Sophie and her boyfriend are
31
y'
y'
y'
y'
bel, fol, nouvel, vieil,
To make an adjective agree with a masculine plural noun or
pronoun, you usually add -s to the masculine singular. lf the
adjective already ends in an -s or an -x, no further -s is added.
t tne adjective ends in -eau or -al, the masculine plural is usually
-eaux or -aux.
To make an adjective agree with a feminine plural noun or
pronoun, you usually add -es to the masculine singular.
Some adjectives relating to colours never change their form.
32
Aouecnvrs 33
Aruecnvrs
Word order with adiectives
Ttp
tr
dernier (meaning /ost) and prochain (meaning nexf) go AFTER
nouns relating to time, for example, semaine (meaning week) and
mois (meaning month). Otherwise they go BEFORE the noun.
>>
The basic rules
when adjectives are used right beside the noun they are describing, they
go BEFORE it in English. French adiectives usually go AFTER the noun'
the right time
I'heure exacte
the
following page
la page suivante
)> Adjectives describing colours, shapes or nationalities always go AFTER the
noun.
des cravates rouges red ties
a round table
une table ronde
a French word
frangais
un mot
)
Some very common adiectives usually come BEFORE the noun'
lovely, beautiful, good-looking, handsome
beau
la semaine demiire
la demidre fois que je t'ai
la semaine
short
grand
gros
joli
tall, big, long, great
big, fat
high
youn9
pretty
]d
long
long
bad, poor
better
D In French you
mauvais
mon petit ami
my boyfriend
peas
les petits pois
les grandes vacances the summer holidays
une grande personne an adult, a grown-up
premier
vieux
first
une belle journ6e
a lovely day
Cood luck!
une icgnc femme blonde
un nouveau film int6ressant
old
Bonne chance!
>
There is a small group of common adjectives whose meaning changes
depending on whether they come before the noun or 9o after it'
Meaning
ancten
Example before
noun
un ancien
colleague
cher
colldgue
Chire Julie
ma propre
chambre
MV OWN
Adjective
a
former
Dear lulie
Using more than one adiective
can use more than one adjective at a time to describe
someone or something. lf one of the adjectives usually comes BEFORE the
noun and the other usually goes AFTER the noun, the word order follows
the usual pattern.
new
small, little
petit
Example after
noun
un fauteuil
ancien
une robe chdre
Meaning
an antique
chair
bedroom
un mouchoir
propre
y'
y'
an expensrve
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages
viii-xii'
a clean
handkerchief
a young blonde woman
an interesting new film
lf both adjectives usually come AFTER the noun, they are joined together
with et (meaning ond).
un homme mince et laid
a thin, ugly man
une personne intelligente et dr6le an intelligent, funny person
dre55
propre
next week
the next time I go there
Grammar Extra!
good, right
nouveau
the last time I saw you
When certain adjectives are used with certain nouns, they take on a meaning you
cannot always guess. You may need to check these in your dictionary and learn them.
Here are a few:
court
meilleur
prochaine
vais
la prochaine fois que j'y
bon
haut
jeune
last week
vu
y'
Key points
Most French adjectives go after the noun they describe.
Some very common adjectives usually come before the noun:
bon,/mauvais, court/long, grand/petit, jeune/nouveau/vieux,
gros, haut, beau, joli, premier, meilleur.
The meaning of some adjectives such as ancien, cher and propre
varies according to the position in the sentence.
34
Ao.lecrves 35
Ao.rpcnves
a la plus with feminine singular adjectives
Gomparatives and superlatives of adiectives
tr
a les plus
Making comparisons using comparative adiectives
What is a comparative adjective?
A comparative adjective in English is one with -er on the end of it or
more or /ess in front of it, that is used to compare people or things, for
example, slower,
}
Iess
important, more beautiful.
>
To say that something or someone is the leqst easy, the leost pretty, the leost
and so on, you use:
le moins with masculine singular adjectives
expensive
o
o la moins with feminine singular adjectives
o les moins with plural adjectives (for both masculine and feminine).
and so on, you use
pfus (meaning more) before the adjective.
Cette question est plus facile. This question is easier.
This iacket is more expensive.
Cette veste est olus chdre.
le guide le moins utile
Cette question est la moins
To say something is less expensive, less complicoted and so on, you use
facile.
moins (meaning /ess) before the adjective.
Gette veste est moins chdre. This iacket is less expensive.
un projet moins compliqu6 a less complicated plan
)
)
moi.
facile
rtp
ll est aussi inquiet que moi.
Cette ville n'est pas aussi
grande que Bordeaux.
A
When the adjective comes AFTER the noun, you repeat
definite article (le, la or les).
She's smaller than me.
This question is easier than the
first one.
To say that something or someone is as
use aussi ...que.
...
os
les mois les moins
something or someone else,
He's as worried as me.
les moins belles
Q
}
ln French, to say that something or someone is easiest, prettiest, most
expensive and so on, you use:
o
le plus with masculine singular adjectives
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii'xii'
/)
pleasant months
photos
the least attractive photos
for more information on Word order with adjectives,
see
poge 32.
D In phrases like the biggest hotel in London and the oldest person in the village,
you use de to translate ln.
le plus grand h6tel de Londres the biggest hotel in London
la personne la plus Ag6e du village the oldest person in the village
What is a superlative adiective?
A superlative adjective in English is one with -esf on the end of it or
most ot leostin front of it, that is used to compare people or things, for
example, thinnest, most beoutiful, least interesting.
agr6ables the least
the
When the adjective comes BEFORE the noun, you do not repeat the
definite article.
This town isn't as big as Bordeaux.
Making comparisons using superlative adiectives
the least useful guidebook
This question is the least easy (or
the hardest).
the least pleasant months
les mois les moins agr6ables
les moins belles photos
the least attractive photos
To introduce the person or thing you are making the comparison with, use
que (meaning fhan).
Elle est plus petite que
Cette question est plus
que la premidre.
the most useful guidebook
the easiest question
the biggest hotels
the smallest cars
expensive
ln French, to saythatsomething is easier, more
L
with plural adjectives (for both masculine and feminine)
le guide le plus utile
la question la plus facile
les plus grands h6tels
les plus petites voitures
I
)
s
>
For more information on de and du, see
l
poge 166.
Inegular comparative and superlative adiectives
- better
French also has a
Just as English has some irregular comparative and superlative forms
instead of 'more good', and worst instead of 'most bod'
few irregular forms.
-
36 Aorrcrves
Ao.lecnvEs 37
Adjective
Meaning
Comparative
bon
9ooo
meilleur
mauvats
bad
prre
smaller,
lesser
Meaning
Superlative
Meaning
better
le meilleur
the best
worse
le pire
le plus
mauvais
the worst
le moindre
le plus petit
the smallest
the leas!
the slightest
plus mauvais
petit
small
moindre
plus petit
J'ai une meilleure id6e.
ll ne fait pas le moindre effort.
l've got a better idea.
He doesn't make the slightest effort.
Demonstrative adjectives ce, cette, cet and ces
What is a demonstrative adjective?
A demonstrative adjective is one of the words this, thot, these and those
used with a noun in English to point out a particular thing or person, for
example, this womon, thot dog.
In French you use ce to point out a particular thing or person. Like all
adjectives in French, ce changes its form depending on whether you are
referring to a noun that is masculine or feminine, singular or plural.
T'P
Singular
Choose the right form of the adjective to match the noun or
pronoun, depending on whether it is masculine or feminine, singular
or plural. Don't forget to change le to la or les too in superlatives.
Plural
Masculine
Feminine
Meaning
ce (cet)
cette
this
that
ces
ces
these
those
rtp
cet is used in front of masculine singular nouns which begin with
a vowel and most words beginning with h.
this/that bird
cet oiseau
this/that hospital
cet hOpital
Grammar Ertra!
bien and its comparative and superlative forms mieux and le mieux can be both
adjectives and adverbs.
lf est bien, ce restaulant. (=adjective) This restaurant is good.
Elle va mieux aujourd'hui, (=odverb) She's better today.
Q
For more informotion on Adverbs, see
poge 152.
ce comes BEFORE the noun it refers to.
Combien co0te ce
y'_To compare people
y'
y'
l/
y'
Key points
or things in French you use plus + adjective,
moins + adjective or aussi ... que.
than in comparatives corresponds to que.
French superlatives are formed with lellalles plus + adjective and
le/la/les moins + adjective.
in after superlatives corresponds to de.
bon, mauvais and petit have irregular comparatives and
superlatives: bon/meilleur/le meilleur, mauvais/pire/le pire,
petit/moindre/le moindre.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
manteau?
Comment s'appelle
cette
How much is this/that coat?
What's this/that company called?
entreprise?
int6ressants.
These/Those books are very
interesting.
Ces couleurs sont jolies.
These/Those colours are pretty.
Ces livres sont trds
lf you want to emphasize the difference between something that is close to
you and something that is further away, you can add:
o
-ci on the end of the noun for things that are closer
Take this case.
Prends cette valisqqi.
38 Aorecnves
o -lir on the end of the noun for things that are further away
Est-ce que tu reconnais cette Do you recognize that person?
personnel!i?
y'
y'
y'
Key points
Theadjective ce corresponds io thrs and thatin the singular, and
these and thosein the plural.
Theforms are ce and cette in the singular, and ces in the plural.
cet is used with masculine singular nouns beginning with a vowel
and most words beginning with h.
You can add -ci on the end of the noun for things that are closer,
or -li for things that are further away, to emphasize the difference
between them.
Ao.recnves 39
Possessive adjectives
What is a possessive adjective?
frr tnglish a possessive adjective is one of the words mv yourl his, her, its,
rur or their used with a noun to show that one person or thing belongs to
,rnother.
Here are the French possessive adjectives. Like all French adjectives, these
agree with the noun they refer to.
with masculine
singular noun
mon
ton
son
with feminine
singular noun
ma (mon)
with plural noun
Meaning
mes
ta (tonl
tes
my
your
sa (sonl
ses
his
(masculine or feminine)
her
its
one's
notre
votte
notre
votre
nos
vos
our
your
leur
leur
leurs
their
rrp
You use mon, ton and son with feminine singular nouns in front
of words that begin with a vowel and most words beginning with h.
This makes them easier to say.
assiette
histoire
son erreur
mon autre [email protected]
D
mon
my plate
ton
your story
his/her mistake
my other sister
Possessive adjectives
come
BEFORE
the noun they describe.
Voild mon mari.
Mon frdre et ma [email protected]
i
Glasgow.
Est-ce que tes voisins
leur maison?
Rangez vos affaires.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
There's my husband.
habitent My brother
and sister live in
Clasgow.
vendent
Are your neighbours selling their
house?
Put your things away.
40
Ao.lecrves
Aouecrves
Indefinite adjectives
rw
What is an indefinite adjective?
Arr indefinite adjective is one of a small group of adjectives that are used
to talk about people or things in a general way without saying exactly
who or what they are, for example, severol, oll, every.
Possessive adjectives agree with what they describe, NOT with the
person who owns that thing. For example, sa can mean his, her, its
and one's, but can only ever be used with a feminine singular noun.
Paul cherche sa montre.
Paul cherche ses lunettes.
Paul's looking for his watch.
Paul's looking for his glasses.
Gatherine a appel6 son frdre.
Catherine a appel6 sa s(Eur.
)
@
For more information on the difference between
tu ond vous,
see
page 43.
Note that possessive adjectives are not normally used with parts of
the body. Use le, la, l' or les instead.
J'ai mal d la main.
For more informotion
(
{
t/
1/
see
Masculine
Feminine
singular
plural
plural
autre
autre
autres
autres
chaque
chaque
meme
meme
memes
memes
quelques
quelques
some, a few
tous
toutes
all, every
. mon/ton/son/notre/votre/leur
ll travaille tout le temps.
same
l've got other plans.
I go every year.
I have the same coat.
He has some friends in Paris,
There are a few bottles left.
He works all the time.
rrp
You can also use
tout to talk about how often something happens.
tous les jours
tous les deux jours
[)
t
)
Note that these words can also be used as pronouns, standing in place
of a noun instead of being used with one. chaque and quelques have
a slightly different form when they are used in this way.
For more information on Pronouns, see page 42.
l/
y'
tems, please see pages viii-xii.
toute
other
every, each
J'ai d'autres projets.
J'y vais chaque ann6e.
J'ai le m6me manteau.
ll a quelques amis d Paris.
ll reste quelques bouteilles.
Key points
The French possessive adjectives are:
For further oxplanation of grammatical
Meaning
Feminine
singular
poge 12.
in the masculine singular
o ma/ta/sa/notre/votre/leur in the feminine singular
. mes/tes/ses/nos/vos/leurs in the plural
Possessive adjectives come before the noun they refer to. They
agree with what they describe, rather than with the person who
owns that thing.
You use mon, ton and son with feminine singular nouns when
the following word begins with a vowel. You also use them with
most words beginning with h.
Possessive adjectives are not normally used with parts of the body.
Use le, la, l' or les instead.
the noun it refers to. Here
Masculine
tout
My hand hurts.
on Articles,
BEFORE
are the most common French indefinite adiectives:
The equivalent ol your in French is ton/taltes for someone you call tu, or
votre/vos for someone you call vous.
+
+
In French, this type of adjective comes
Catherine called her brother.
Catherine called her sister.
Key points
tne most common French indefinite adjectives are autre, chaque,
m€me, quelques and tout.
tney come before the noun when they are used in this way.
41
Pnoruourus 43
PRONOUNS
What is a pronoun?
A pronoun is a word you use instead of a noun, when you do not need
or want to name someone or something directly, for example, it, you,
Personal pronouns: subiect
What is a subject pronoun?
A subject pronoun is a word such as l, he, she and they, which performs
the action expressed by the verb. Pronouns stand in for nouns when it is
clear who is being talked about for example, My brother isn't here qt the
moment. He'll be bqck in qn hour.
none.
l
1"
There are several different types of pronoun:
o
o
o
o
Personal pronouns such as l, you, he, her and they, which are used to
refer to yourself, the person you are talking to, or other people and
things. They can be either subject pronouns (1, you, he and so on) or
obiect pronouns (him, her, them and so on).
Possessive pronouns like mine and yours, which show who someone or
something belongs to.
lndefinite pronouns like someone or nothing, which refer to people or
things in a general way without saying exactly who or what they are.
Relative pronouns like who, which or fhot, which link two parts of a
sentence together.
.
D
I
Usinq subiect pronouns
Here are the French subject pronouns:
Singular
je (i'l
Meaning
Plural
nous
we
tu
you
you
il
he
vous
ils
elles
they (feminine)
+
elle
on
one
(we/you/they)
Je pars en vacances demain.
Nous habitons d Nice.
Reflexive pronouns, a type of object pronoun that forms part of French
reflexive verbs like se laver (meaning to wosh) or s'appeler (meaning fo
be colled).
o
The two French pronouns, en and y, which are used in certain
constructions.
o
The pronouns qui? (meaning who?, whom), que? (meaning whot?),
quoi? (meaning whot) and lequel? (meaning which one), which are
used in asking questions.
finished my homework and gave it to my teacher.
Do you remember Jack? | saw him at the weekend.
I
Word order with personal pronouns is usually different in French and
English.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
l'm going on holiday tomorrow.
We live in Nice.
rtp
j' in front of words beginning with a vowel, most
words beginning with h, and the French word y.
l'm just coming!
J'arrive!
Bon, j'y vais. Righf l'm off,
je changes to
poge 88.
+ For more information on Questions, see poge 142.
) Pronouns often stand in for a noun to save repeating it.
)
she
it
Demonstrative pronouns like thrs or those, which point things or people
For more information on Reflexive verbs, see
they (masculine)
it
out.
o
Meaning
2l tu or vous?
> ln English
we have only one way of saying you. In French, there are two
words: tu and vous. The word you use depends on:
o whether you are talking to one person or more than one person
o
whether you are talking to a friend or family member, or someone else
> lf you are talking to one person you know well, such as a friend,
person or a relative, use tu.
Tu me pr6tes ce CD? Will you lend me this CD?
a young
44 Pnoruourus
)
Pnoruourus 45
lf you are talking to one person you do not know so well, such as your
teacher, your boss or a stranger, use vous.
Vous pouvez entrer. You may come in.
il is also used to talk about the weather, the time and in certain other set
phrases, often in the same way as some phrases with it in English.
ll pleut.
ll est deux heures.
ll faut partir.
lf you are in doubt as to which form of you to use, it is safest to
use vous and you will not offend anybody.
D lf you are talking to more than
one person, you have to use vous, no
matter how well you know them.
Vous comprenez, les enfants? Do you understand, children?
[J Note that the adjectives you use with tu and vous have to agree in
the feminine and plural forms.
Vous 6tes certain,
Monsieur
Vous 6tes certains, les enfants? Are you sure, children?
(masculine plurol)
Grammar Ertra!
Any past participles (the form of the verb ending in -6, -i or -u in French) used with €tre
in tenses such as the perfect also have to agree in the feminine and plural forms.
Vous 6tes oartie quand, Estelle? When did you leave, Estelle?
(feminine singular)
Estelle et Sophie - vous 6tes
parties quand? (feminine plurol)
+
tr
}
For more informotion
ifs (meaning they) and elles (meaning they) are used in the plural to talk
about things, as well as about people or animals. Use ils for masculine
nouns and elles for feminine nouns.
lls vont appeler ce soir.
'Oi sont Anne et Rachel?' *
'Elles sont d la piscine.'
'Est-ce qu'il reste des billets?'
-'Non, ils sont tous vendus.'
'Tu aimes ces chaussures?''Non, elles sont affreuses!'
Are you sure, Mr Leclerc?
Leclerc? (mo scu li n e si ng u I o r)
Estelle and Sophie
leave?
on the Past participle,
see
-
illelle and ils/elles
In English we generally refer to things (such as table, book, cor) only as it. In
French, il (meaning he, it) and elle (meaning she, it)are used to talk about
a thing, as well as about a person or an animal. You use il for masculine
nouns and elle for feminine nouns.
ll est d6jd parti.
Elle est actrice.
She's an actress.
ll mord, ton chien?
Prends cette chaise. Elle est
Take this chair. lt's more
plus confortable.
comfortable.
He's already left.
Does your dog bite?
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viiS-xii.
They're going to call tonight.
'Where are Anne and Rachel?''They're at the swimming pool.'
?re there are any tickets left?' 'No, they're all sold.'
'Do you like those shoes?'- 'No,
they're horrible!'
lf you are talking about a masculine and a feminine noun, use ils.
Oue font ton pdre et ta mire
What do your father and mother do
quand ils partent en vacances? when they go on holiday?
'Oi sont le poivre et la
'Where are the pepper and the
moutarde?'-'lls sont d6jdr sur mustard?' - 'They're already on the
la table.'
table.'
4l
on
D on
is
when did you
poge 111.
It's raining.
It's two o'clock.
We/You have to go.
frequently used in informal, everyday French to mean h/e.
On va i la plage demain.
We're going to the beach tomorrow.
On y va?
Shallwe go?
on can also have the sense of someone or they.
On m'a vol6 mon polte-monnaie. Someone has stolen my purse.
On vous demande au t6l6phone: There's a phone call for you.
rrp
often used to avoid a passive construction in French.
On m'a dit que tu 6tais malade. I was told you were ill.
on
is
*
For more informotion on the Possive, see
poge 122.
46 PRoruourus
)
Pnoruourus 47
You can also use on as we use you in English when we mean people in
general.
On peut visiter le ch6teau en
You can visit the castle in the
616.
5Ummer.
D'ici on peut voir les c6tes
From here you can see the French
What is a direct object pronoun?
A direct object pronoun is a word such as me, him, us and them, which is
used instead of the noun to stand in for the person or thing most directly
frangaises.
coast.
affected by the action expressed by the verb.
Ttp
,
The form of the verb you use with on is the same as the illelle
form.
4
y'
y'
y'
y'
y'
Personal pronouns: direct object
For more informotion
on Verbs,
see
French subject pronouni
Using direct obiect pronouns
D Direct object pronouns stand in for nouns when it is clear who or what is
being talked aboug and save having to repeat the noun.
l've lost my glasses. Have you seen them?
'Have you met Jo?'-'Yes, I really like her!'
poges 69-1 37.
Key points
tne
1l
D
ire: je (j'), tu, il, elle, on in the
singular, and nous, vous, ils, elles in the plural.
to say you in French, use tu if you are talking to one person you
know well or to a young person. Use vous if you are talking to
one person you do not know so well or to more than one person.
il/ils (masculine singular/plural) and elle/elles (feminine
singular/plural) are used to refer to things, as well as to people or
animals. il is also used in certain set phrases.
lf there is a mixture of masculine and feminine nouns, use ils.
on can mean we, someone, you, they, or people in general.
It is often used instead of a passive construction.
Here are the French direct object pronouns:
Meaning
Singular
me (m')
Meaning
Plural
me
nous
u5
te (t'l
you
vous
you
le (l')
him
les
it
la (l')
them (mosculine
ond feminine)
her
it
lls vont nous aider.
Je la vois.
'Tu aimes les carottes?''Non, je les d6teste!'
E
+
They're going to help us.
I can see her/it.
'Do you like carrots?'- 'No, I hate
them!'
Note that you cannot use direct object pronouns after a preposition
like i or de, or when you want to emphasize something.
For more informotion on Emphotic pronouns, see
poge 51.
T'P
me changes to m', te to t', and le/la to l' in front of words
beginning with a vowel, most words beginning with h, and the
French word y.
Je t'aime.
Tu m'entends?
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
Can you hear me?
48
D
Pnoruourus
PRoruourus 49
ln orrk'rs and instructions telling someone to do something, moi is used
instr,,rrl of me, and toi is used instead of te.
Aidez-mo_i!
Help me!
Assieds-toi.
Sit down.
le is rornetimes used to refer back to an idea or information that has already
been given. The word lf is often missed out in English.
'Ta chemise est trds
'Je l9 sais.'
C.l
L
sale.'-
'Your shirt's very
Personal pronouns: indirect object
What is an indirect object pronoun?
When a verb has two objects (a direct one and an indirect one), the
indirect object pronoun is used instead of a noun to show the person or
thing the action is intended to benefit or harm, for example, me in He
gove me a book; Can you get m9. o towel?
dirty.'-
'l know.'
1l
Word order with direct obiect pronouns
> lt is important
to understand the difference between direct and indirect
object pronouns in English, as they can have different forms in French:
The direct object pronoun usually comes BEFORE the verb.
Je
I love you.
t'aime.
@
Can you see them?
whaf?
Elle ne nous connait pas.
She doesn't know us.
He gave me a book.
object pronoun)
Note that in orders and instructions telling someone to do something,
the direct object pronoun comes AFTER the verb.
Sit down.
ll voudrait la revoir.
Puis-je vous aider?
Key points
y'
The French direct object pronouns are: me (m,),
y'
in the singular, and nous, vous, les in the plural.
Except in orders and instructions telling someone to do
something, the direct object pronoun comes before the verb.
He gave me a
object)
D
me (=indirect
book. + What did
he give me?
+
a book (=jjyssl
towel? + Whot cqn you get me? + a towel (=direct
Here are the French indirect object pronouns:
Singular
Meaning
me (m')
me,
te (t')
Plural
Meaning
nous
us,
you, to you, for you
vouS
you, to you, for you
lui
him, to him, for him
it, to it, for it
leur
them, to them, for them
(mosculine ond feminine)
lui
her, to her, for her
it, to it, for it
te (t,), lella (t,)
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii,
+
object and NOT the indirect oblect
Can you get me a
object)
He'd like to see her again.
Can I help you?
Who did he give the book to?
o if something answers the question what or who, then it is the direct
He saw me,
When a verb like vouloir (meaning to want) or pouvoir (meaning to be oble
to, can) is followed by another verb in the infinitive (the 'fo'form of the
verb), the direct object pronoun comes BEFORE the infinitive.
-
the question who to/for? or to/for
Can you get me a towel? '+ Who con you get o towel for? + me
(=i ndi rect obj ect p ro no u n)
In tenses like the perfect that are formed with avoir or €tre and the past
participle (the part of the verb that ends in -4 -i or -u in French), the direct
object pronoun comes BEFORE the part of the verb that comes from avoir
or 6tre.
ll m'a vu.
}
o an indirect object answers
Les voyez-vous?
Asseyez-vous.
D
Using indirect obiect pronouns
to me, for me
to us, for
us
ll nous 6crit tous les jours.
He writes
lls te cachent quelque chose.
They're hiding something from you.
to
us every day.
50
PRoruourus 51
PRotrtoutrts
rq
Emphatic pronouns
me changes to m' and te to t' in front of words beginning with
vowel, most words beginning with h, and the French word y.
ll m'a donn6 un
livre.
Tu m'apportes une
serviette?
What is an emphatic pronoun?
An emphatic pronoun is used instead of a noun when you want to
emphasize something, for example ls this for me?
a
He gave me a book.
Can you get me a towel?
The pronouns shown in the table are used instead of the preposition i with
a noun.
l'6cris i Suzanne. l'm writing to Suzanne. -+ fe lui 6cris. l'm writing to her.
Donne du lait au chat. Give the cat some milk. -+ Donne-lui du lait. Give
1l
)
In French, there is another set of pronouns which you use after
prepositions, when you want to emphasize something and in certain other
cases. These are called emphatic pronouns or stressed pronouns.
it some milk.
Some French verbs like demander i (meaning to osk) and t6l6phoner i
(meaning to phone) take an indirect object even though English uses a
direct obiect.
ll leur tril6phone tous les soirs. He phones them every evening.
)
Singular
Meaning
Plural
Meaning
mot
I
nouS
we
toi
you
vouS
you
lui
he
eux
they (mosculine)
them
elles
they (feminine)
them
me
elle
sol
Je pense souvent a toi.
C'est pour moi?
Venez avec moi.
ll a besoin de nous.
KeY Points
fhe French indirect object pionouns are: me (m'), te (t'), lui in
y'
the singular, and nous, vous, leur in the plural.
Except in orders and instructions telling someone to do
something, the direct object pronoun comes before the verb.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
I often think about you.
ls this for me?
Come with me.
He needs us.
soi (meaning oneself is used with the subiect pronoun on and with words
tout fe monde (meaning everyone) or chacun (meaning each one).
like
Note that in orders and instructions telling someone to do
something, the indirect obiect pronoun comes AFTER the verb.
Give me that!
Donne-moi ga!
y'
oneself
$ourself, ourselves
The indirect object pronoun usually comes BEFORE the verb'
@
she
her
Word order with indirect obiect pronouns
Dominique vous 6crit une lettre. Dominique's writing you a letter'
He doesn't speak to us.
ll ne nous parle pas.
ll ne veut pas me r6pondre. He won't answer me.
u5
him
On the other hand, some French verbs like attendre (meaning to wait for),
chercher (meaning to look for) and regarder (meaning to /ook ot) take a
direct object even though English uses an indirect obiect.
Je les attends devant la gare. l'll wait for them outside the station.
E
Using emphatic pronouns
4
ll faut avoir confiance en
soi.
Tout le monde est rentr6
soi.
chez
You have to have confidence in
yourself.
Everyone went home.
When to use emphatic pronouns
> Emphatic pronouns are used in the following circumstances:
o after a preposition
C'est pour-mqi?
ls this for me?
52
Pnoruouus 53
PRoruourus
o
for emphasis, especially where a contrast is involved
You look like your father, she
doesn't.
ll m'6nerve, lui!
He's getting on my nerves!
o on their own without
o
9
pdre,
mais elle non.
Toi, tu ressembles d ton
a verb
'Oui a cass6 la fen6tre?'-'Lul.' 'Who broke the window?'
'Je suis fatigu6e.'-'Moi aussi.' 'l'm tired.' - 'Me too''
after c'est and ce sont (meaning it ts)
ls that you, Simon?
C'est toi, Simon?
It's them.
Ge sont eux.
-
For more informotion on c'est and ce sont, see page 65.
o
.
in comparisons
Tu es plus jeune que moi.
ll est moins grand que toi.
You're younger than me.
He's smaller than you (are).
when the sublect of the sentence is made up of two pronouns, or of a
pronoun and a noun
My father and she don't get on.
Mon pire et elle ne
s'entendent pas.
Grammar Extra!
You can add -m€me or -m6mes to the emphatic pronouns when you particularly want
to emphasize something. These forms correspond to English myself, ourselves and so on
Form with -m6me
Meaning
mot-meme
myself
toi-m€me
yourself
lui-m€me
himself, itself
elle-m€me
herself, itself
soFmeme
nous-memes
oneself $ourself, ou rselves)
ourselves
vous-meme
vous-memes
yourself
yourselves
eux-meme5
themselves (m a scu I i n e)
elles-mGmes
themselves (feminine)
Je I'ai fait moi-m6me.
Elle l'a choisi elle-m6me.
I
did it myself.
it herself.
She chose
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages
viii'xii.
54
PRoruourus 55
Pnoruourus
Possessive pronouns
What is a possessive pronoun?
A possessive pronoun is one of the words mine, yours, hers, his, ours or
thelrs, which are used instead of a noun to show that one person or thing
befongs to another, for example, Ask Carole if this pen is hers.
Grammar Ertra!
Remember that ir with the definite article le becomes au, and
\o:
d + le mien + au mien
i
+ les miens
i with
les becomes aux,
+ aux miens
+ aux miennes
d + les miennes
)
Tu pr6fdres ce manteau au
Here are the French possessive pronouns:
Meaning
Feminine
singular
la mienne
les miens
les miennes
mrne
le tien
la tienne
les tiens
les tiennes
yours
le sien
la sienne
les siens
les siennes
his
J'ai oubli6 mes cl6s. J'ai
hers
des
Feminine
singular
le mien
plural
le n6tre
la n6tre
les n6tres
les n6tres
ourS
le vdtre
la vdtre
les
vdtres
les vdtres
yours
le leur
la leur
les leurs
les leurs
theirs
Ces CD-ld, ce sont les miens.
Those CDs are mine.
Heureusement que tu as tes
c163. J'ai oubli6 les miennes.
It's lucky you've got your keys.
lforgot mine.
In French, possessive pronouns agree with what they describe,
NOT with the person who owns that thing. For example, le sien
can mean his or hers, but can only be used to replace a masculine
singular noun.
'C'est le v6lo de Paul?''Oui, c'est le sien.'
'C'est le v6lo d'lsabelle?''Oui, c'est le sien.'
'ls that Paul's bike?'
'Yes, it's his,'
'ls that lsabelle's
'Yes, itt hers.'
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
-
bike?'-
to mine?
with les becomes
de + le mien + du mien
de + les miens + des miens
de + les miennes r des miennes
t
)
tiennes,
For more informotion
y'
y'
rtp
Do you prefer this coat
Remember that de with the definite article le becomes du, and de
des, so:
Masculine
plural
Masculine
mien?
besoin
on Articles,
see
l've forgotten my keys. I need
yours.
poge 12.
Key points
The French possessive pronouns are le mien, le tien, le sien for
singular subject pronouns, and le n6tre, le v6tre and le leur for
plural subject pronouns. Their forms change in the feminine and
the plural.
In French, the pronoun you choose has to agree with the noun it
replaces, and not with the person who owns that thing.
56
PRonourrrs 57
Pnoruourus
zlY
en and y
)
en and y do not usually refer to people. How we translate them into English
depends on where en and y are found in French.
normally followed by i to avoid repeating
the same word.
'Je pensais i l'examen.'-'Mais 'l was thinking about the exam.'arr6te d'y penser!'
'Well, stop thinking about it!' (y
replaces d in penser d quelque chose)
'Je ne m'attendais pas i ga.'- 'l wasn't expecting that.'-'Well, I
'Moi, je m'y attendais.'
was expecting it.' (y reploces d in
s'qttendre d quelque chose)
>yis used with verbs and phrases
:
tren
is used with verbs and phrases normally followed by de to avoid
repeating the same word.
Si tu as un probldme, tu peux lf you've got a problem, you can
talk to me about it. (en replaces de
m'en parler.
in parler de quelque chose)
prGter
Can you lend me that book? | need
Est-ce que tu peux me
it. (en reploces de in svoir besoin de
ai
besoin.
ce livre? J'eo
quelque chose)
ll a un beau iardin et il en est He's got a beautiful garden and is
very proud of it. (en reploces de in
trds fier.
D en
y can afso mean there. lt can be used to replace phrases that would
use
prepositions such as dans (meaning tn) and sur (meaning on).
She spends the whole summer
Elle y passe tout l'6t6.
there.
Regarde dans le tiroir. Je pense Look in the drawer. I think the keys
que les cl6s y sont.
are in there.
Qtre fier de quelque chose)
)
.)
l
en can also replace the partitive article (du, de la, de l', des).
. Je n'ai pas d'argent.Tu en as? | haven't got any money. Have you
got any?
'Tu peux me prGter des timbres?' 'Can you lend me some stamps?'-'Non, je dois en acheter.' 'No, I have to buy some.'
For more information on the
en
)
see
I
Word order with en and y
en and y usually come BEFORE the verb.
J'gn
veux.
I
moi.
content?
Elle en a parl6 avec
En Gtes-vous
Comment fait-on pour y
N'y pense plus.
poge 22.
aller?
want some.
She talked to me about it.
{re you pleased with it/them?
How do you get there?
Don't think about it any more.
In orders and instructions telling someone to do something, en or y come
EB the verb and are attached to it with a hyphen O.
Take some.
Prenez-en.
Stay there.
Restez-y.
is also used:
o as a preposition
o with the present
+
Portitive article,
t
A[f
participle of verbs
For more information on Prepositions
and the Present participle,
see poges
1 62 qnd 1 25.
When en is used with avoir, with il y a or with numbers, it is often not
translated in English but can NEVER be missed out in French.
'Est-ce que tu as un
'Have you got a dictionary?' -'Yes,
dictionnaire?'-'Oui, j'en ai un.' l've got one.'
'Gombien d'6ldves y a-t-il dans 'How many pupils are there in your
ta classe?'-'ll y en a trente.' class?' - 'There are thirty.'
J'en veux deux.
I
want two (of them).
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages
viii'xii.
rrp
The final -s of -er verbs is usually dropped in the tu form used for
orders and instructions. When an -er verb in the tu form is used
before en or y, however, the -s is not dropped, to make it easier to
sav.
Donne des bonbons i ton
Donnes-en i ton frire.
Va dans ta chambre!
Vis;y|
t ) For more information
frire.
Cive some sweets to your brother.
Cive some to your brother.
Go to your room!
Co on!
on the Imperotive, see poge 85.
58
L
+
Pnoruourus 59
PRoruoulvs
en and y come AFTER other direct or indirect obiect pronouns.
Cive them some.
Donnez-leur-en.
He spoke to me about it
ll m'en a parl6.
For more informqtion on Direct obiect pronouns qnd lndirect obiect
pronouns, see poges 47 ond 49.
y'
y'
y'
y'
Key points
en is used with verbs and expiessions normally followed by de to
avoid repeating the same word.
en can also replace the partitive article.
When en is used with avoir and il y a or with numbers, it is often
not translated in English but can never be missed out in French.
y is used with verbs and expressions normally followed by i to
Using different types of pronoun together
D
Sometimes you find a direct object pronoun and an indirect object pronoun
in the same sentence.
He gave me (indirect obiect) them (direct obiect).
He gave them (direct object) to me (indirect object).
)
When this happens in French, you have to put the indirect and direct obiect
pronouns in a certain order.
;;
---
te
Direct ---}ei*E---*-----..te
en
lui
:-
avoid repeating the same word.
y' y can also mean there and may replace expressions
y'
y'
that would be
used with dans and sur or some other preposition indicating
a place.
en andy usually come before the verb, except in orders and
instructions telling someone to do something, when en or y
follows the verb and is attached to it with a hyphen.
en and y come after other direct or indirect object pronouns.
Dominique vous l'envoie
demain.
ll te les a montr6s?
Je les lui ai lus.
Ne la leur donne pas.
Elle ne m'en a pas parl6.
y'
y'
For further explanation of grammatacal terms, please see pages viii-xii.
Dominique's sending it to you
tomorrow.
Has he shown them to you?
I read them to him/her.
Don't give it to them.
She didn't speak to me about it.
Key points
lf a direct and an indirect object pronoun are used in the same
sentence, you usually put the indirect object pronoun before the
direct object pronoun.
With lui and leur, this order is reversed and you put the direct
object pronoun before the indirect object pronoun.
60
PRoruourus 61
Pnoruourus
lndefinite pronouns
What is an indefinite pronoun?
An indefinite pronoun is one of a small group of pronouns such as
everything, nobody and something which are used to refer to people or
things in a general way without saying exactly who or what they are.
)
'What did you buy?'lf the sentence contains a verb you have to use ne with it.
He's eaten nothing.
Here are the most common French indefinite pronouns:
o
.
+
chacun (masculine singular)lchacune (feminine singular) each, everyone
We each gave ten euros.
Nous avons chacun donn6
dix euros.
Everyone does what they like.
Chacun fait ce qu'il veut.
Toutes les villas ont chacune Each villa has its own swimming
pool.
leur piscine.
personne nobody/no one, anybodylanyone
ll nly a personne d la maison. There's no one at home.
Elle ne veut voir personne. She doesn't want to see anybody.
For more informotion
on Negatives,
see
page 138.
.
tout everything
ll organise tout.
.
o
quelque chose something, anything
f'ai quelque chose pour
toi.
i
Avez-vous quelque chose
d6clarer?
+
l've got something for you.
Do you have anything to declare?
o
quelqu'un somebody/someone, anybody/anyone
There's someone at the door.
ll y a quelqu'un i la porte.
parapluie?
Has anybody seen my umbrella?
Ouelqu'un a vu mon
o
rien nothing, anything
Elle n'a rien dit.
Rien n'a chang6.
She didn't say anything.
Nothing's changed.
For more informotion on Negatives, see
page 138.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
ls everything OK?
tous (mosculine pluraf)ltoutes (feminine plurat) all
I know them all.
Je les connais tous.
Elles sont toutes arriv6es? Are they all here?
You can use quelque chose
de/rien de and quelqu'un de/personne de
with adjectives if you want to
say
nothing interesting, something new and
so on.
rien d'int6ressant
y'
Oui sait la r6ponse? Personne. Who knows the answer? No one.
lf the sentence contains a verb you have to use ne with it.
He's organizing everything.
Tout va bien?
y'
nothing interesting
Key points
rlen and personne can be used on their own to answer
questions, but need to be used with ne when there is a verb in
the sentence.
quelque chose/rien and quelqu'un/personne can be followed
by de + adjective.
62
Pnoruourus 63
PRotrtoutrts
Relative pronouns: qui, que, lequel, auquel, duquel
>
What is a relative pronoun?
ln English a relative pronoun is one of the words who, which and thot
(and the more formal whom) which can be used to introduce information
that makes it clear which person or thing is being talked about, for
qui is also used after a preposition such as i de or pour to talk about
pcaplc.
the person he is speaking to
la personne d qui il parle
pour
j'ai
qui
les enfants
achet6 the children I bought sweets for
des bonbons
example, The mon who has just come in is Ann's boyfriend; The vase that
you broke wos quite valuable.
Relative pronouns can also introduce further information about someone
or something, for example, Peter, who is q brilliant painter, wonts to study
ort; lone's house, which was built in 1890, needs o lot of repoirs.
D In French, the
tr
)
T(/p
ln English we often miss out the object pronouns who, which
and that. For example, we can say both the friends thot I see most, ol
the friends I see most, and the house which we wqnt to buy, or the
house we wont to buy. In French you can |{EVER miss out que or qui
relative pronouns are qui, que, lequel, auquef and duquel.
in this way.
qui and que
2l
qui and que can both refer to people or things.
Subject
Direct object
Relative pronoun
Meaning
qui
who
which
that
que
Mon frdre, qui a vingt ans, est
l'universit6.
Est-ce qu'il y a un bus qui va
i
au centre-ville?
Les amis que je vois le plus
sont L6a et Mehdi.
Voild la maison que nous
voulons acheter.
>
lequel, laquelle. lesquels. lesquelles
fequel (meaning which)is used after a preposition such as i de or pourto
talk about things. lt has to agree with the noun it replaces.
who, whom
which
that
Masculine
Feminine
Meaning
Singular
lequel
laquelle
which
Plural
lesquels
lesquelles
which
le livre pour lequel elle
My brother, who's twenty, is at
la table sur laquelle
mon sac
university.
ls there a bus that goes to the town
centre?
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
the book she is famous for
mis
the table I put my bag on
j'ai
Remember that ir and de combine with the definite article le to become au
and du, and with les to become aux and des. lequel/lesquels/lesquelles
combine with ir and de as shown in the table. laquelle doesn't change.
The friends (that) | see most are L6a
and Mehdi.
That's the house (which) we want
to buy.
que changes to qu' in front of a word beginning with a vowel
and most words beginning with h.
est
GOnnue
t|
'
+ lequel
+ laquelle
+ lesquels
+ lesquelles
Meaning
a
auquel
i
laquelle
auxquels
auxquelles
to which
de
duquel
de laquelle
desquels
desquelles
of which
For more information
on d ond dq
see
poges 14 and 15.
64
Pnoruourus 65
Pnoruourus
Orammar Extra!
dont means whose, of whom, of which, about which and so on. lt can refer to people or
things, but its form NEVER changes.
la femme dont la voiture est
en panne
les films dont tu parles
y'
y'
the woman whose car has broken
down
the films you're talking about
Key points
qui and que can both refer to people or things: qui is the subject
of the part of the sentence it is found in; que is the object.
y'
n Engfish we often miss out the object pronouns who, which and
thot, but in French you can never miss outque orqui.
After a preposition you use qui if you are referring to people, and
lequel if you are referring to things - lequel agrees with the noun
y'
a+ lequel 'auquel
f
Demonstrative pronouns: ce, cela/ga, ceci, celui
What is a demonstrative pronoun?
ln English a demonstrative pronoun is one of the words this, that,
and fhose used instead of a noun to point people or things out, for
these,
exampfe, Thqt looks fun.
rl
ce
> ce is usually used with the verb
Gtre (meaning to be) in the expressions
c'est (meanin g it's, that's), c'6tait (meaning it wos, that wos), ce sont
(meaning it's, that's) and so on.
C'est moi.
C'6tait mon frdre.
Ce sont eux.
it replaces.
It's me.
That was my brother.
It's them.
rrp
i+lesquels ,auxquels
i + lesquelles * auxquelles
y' de+ lequel ' duquel
ce becomes c' when it is followed by a part of the verb that starts
with e or 6.
ce becomes E' when it is followed by a part of the verb that starts
de+lesquels'desquels
de+ lesquelles' desquelles
with a.
Qa 6t6 difficile.
It was difficult.
Note that after c'est and ce sont and so on you have to use the
emphatic form of the pronoun, for example, moi instead of je, eux
instead of ils and so on.
C'est moi.
Q
For more informotion on Emphotic
It's me.
pronount
see
poge 51.
D ce is used:
o
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
with a noun or a question word to identify a person or thing
Who is it?, Who's this/that?
Oui est-ce?
They're teachers.
Ce sont des professeurs.
que
What's this/that?
c'est?
Ou'est-ce
It's a tin-opener.
C'est un ouvre'boite.
66
PRorrroulus 67
PRotuoutrts
o
with an adjective to refer to a statement, idea and so on that cannot be
classed as either masculine or feminine
C'est trds int6ressant.
C'est dangereux.
Ce n'est pas grave.
o
That's/lt's very interesting.
That's/lt's dangerous.
It doesn't matter.
for emphasis
G'est moi qui ai t6l6phon6. lt was me who phoned.
Ce sont les enfants qui ont fait It was the children who made the
le
g6teau.
cake.
E cela, ga and ceci
l cefa and Ea mean it, this or that. Both refer to a statement,
rtp
ga and cela are used in a more general way than il and elle,
which are usually linked to a noun that has already been mentioned.
plait d'aller d l'6tranger? Do you like going abroad?
Elle te plait, ma
nouvelle
Do you like my new car?
voiture?
L
ceci means fhis and is not as common as cela and ga. lt is used to talk
about something that has not yet been mentioned.
Lisez ceci.
)
Read this.
}
Meaning
Singular
celui
celle
the one
Plural
ceux
celles
the ones
celui and its other forms are used before:
o
qui, que or dont
'Ouelle robe pr6f6rez-vous?' 'Which dress do you like best?'
-'Celle qui est en vitrine.'
- 'The one in the window.'
Prends ceux que tu pr6fires. Take the ones you like best.
the one I told you about
celui dont je t'ai parl6
like i, dans and so on.
proche
celui
de la fontaine
the one near the fountain
celui and its other forms can be used with de to show who something
belongs to. In English, we would use 's.
I haven't got a camera but I can
Je n'ai pas d'appareil photo
mais je peux emprunter celui borrow my sister!.
de ma seur.
Compare your answers with your
Comparez vos r6ponses d
neighbour's.
celles de votre voisin.
You can add the endings -ci and -lir to celui and its other forms to
emphasize the difference between something that is close to you and
something that is further away.
r use -ci for something that is closer to you
o use -li for something that is further away
Masculine
Feminine
Meaning
Singular
celui-ci
celui-lir
celle-ci
celle-lir
this, this one
that that one
Plural
ceux-cl
ceux-lir
celles-ci
celles-lir
these, these ones
those, those ones
ceci is also used to hand or show someone something.
Prends ceci.Tu en auras besoin. Take this. You'll need it.
tr
Feminine
o prepositions
an idea or an
obfect. ga is used instead of cela in everyday, informal French.
It doesn't matter.
Qa ne fait rien.
Ecoute-moi gal
Listen to this!
Cela d6pend.
That/lt depends.
Je n'aime pas cela.
I don't like that.
Donne-moi ga!
Give me that!
Qa te
Masculine
celui, celle. ceux, celles
celui and celle mean the one; ceux and celles mean the ones. The form you
choose depends on whether the noun it is replacing is masculine or
feminine, and singular or plural.
For further explanation of grammatical
tems, please see pages viii-xii.
On prend quel fromage?
Celui-ci ou celui-ld?
Ces chemises ont deux poches
mais celles-li n'en ont pas.
Which cheese shall we get? This
one or that one?
These shirts have two pockets but
those have none.
68
PRor,roulvs
y'.
"
cei.soften found
," ,n"
",lo"rlrl,"",lr'".'"rt
."
VERBS
sont and so on.
:il',:!iil"i0",,"" or thins
;J:,fi:"J;""#n:T:?"t;*:l:no'o
What is a verb?
A verb is a 'doing' word which describes what someone or something
does, what someone or something is, or what happens to them, for
on that cannot be crassed
example, be, sing, live.
it,
"y' :jffff|l'i"un
cefui and celle mean
thisor thot;ceci means rhis, but is not as
fhe one; ceuxand celles mean the ones.
They are often found with the endings -ci and -li and are used
to distinguish between things which are close and things which
are further away.
The three coniugations
D
Verbs are usually used with a noun,
with a pronoun such
as I, you or she, or
with somebody's name. They can relate to the present the past and the
future; this is called their tense.
t
)
)
For more informotion
on Nouns and Pronouns,
see
pages 1 ond 42.
Verbs are either:
. regular; their forms follow the normal rules
o irregular; their forms do not follow the normal rules
D Regular English verbs have a base form (the form of the verb without any
endings added to it for example, walk). The base form can have fo in front
it for example, to wolk. This is called the infinitive. You will find one of
these forms when you look a verb up in your dictionary.
of
D
French verbs also have an infinitive, which ends in -er, -ir or -re, for
example, donner (meaning to give), finir (meaning to finish), attendre
(meaning to woit). Regular French verbs belong to one of these three verb
groups, which are called conjugations. We will look at each of these three
conjugations in turn on the next few pages.
> English
verbs have other forms apart from the base form and infinitive:
form ending in -s (wolks), a form ending in -ing (wolking), and a form
ending in -ed (wolked).
D
a
French verbs have many more forms than this, which are made up of
endings added to a stem. The stem of a verb can usually be worked out
from the infinitive.
D
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
French verb endings change, depending on who you are talking aboul je
(l), tu (you), illelle/on (he/she/one) in the singular, or nous (we), vous (you)
and ifs/elles (they) in the plural. French verbs also have different forms
depending on whether you are referring to the present, future or past.
70 Venss
) Some verbs in French do not follow the normal rules, and are called
irregular verbs. These include some very common and important verbs like
avoir (meaning to hove), €tre (meaning to be), faire (meaning to do, to
make) and aller (meaning to go). There is information on many of these
irregular verbs in the following sections.
+
For Verh tables, see supplement.
Venss
71
The present tense
What is the present tense?
The present tense is used to talk about what is true at the momenf what
happens regulady and what is happening now, for example, l'm a student,
I travel to college by train, l'm studying languoges.
D You use a verb in the present tense to talk about:
y'
Key points
French verbs have different forms depending on what noun or
pronoun they are used with, and on their tense.
( tfey are made up of a stem and an ending. The stem is usually
y'
y'
based on the infinitive.
o
things that are happening now
It! raining.
The phoneS ringing.
.
Regular verbs fit into one of three patterns or conjugations:
-er, -ir, or -re verbs.
lrregular verbs do not follow the normal rules.
o
things that happen all the time or at certain intervals, or things that you
do as a habit
It always snows in January.
I play football on Saturdays.
things that are true at the present time:
She's not very well.
It's a beautiful house.
D There is more than one way to express the present tense in English. For
exampfe, you can say either I give, I am giving, or occasionally I do give. ln
French you use the same form (e donne) for all of these!
> ln English
you can also use the present tense to talk about something that
going to happen in the near future. You can do the same in French.
Je vais en France le mois
prochain.
Nous prenons le train de dix
l'm ooino to France next month.
We_fegetling the ten o'clock train.
heures.
Ttp
Although English sometimes uses parts of the verb to be to form
present tense of other verbs (for example, I am listening, shel
talking), French NEVER uses the verb 6tre in this way.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
is
72
Vrnes
VeRes 73
The present tense: regular -er {first conjugationl verbs
)
lf an infinitive in French ends in -er, it means the verb belongs to the first
coniugation, for example, donner, aimer, parler.
)
To know which form of the verb to use in French, you need to work out
what the stem of the verb is and then add the correct ending. The stem of
-er verbs in the present tense is formed by taking the infinitive and
chopping off -er.
Infinitive
Stem (without -er)
donner (to give)
aimer (to like, to love)
parfer (to speak, to tolk)
donnatm-
parl-
Now you know how to find the stem of a verb, you can add the correct
ending. Which one you choose will depend on whether you are referring to
je, tu, il, elle, on, nous, vout ils or elles.
c
For more information on Pronouns, see poge 42.
Here are the present tense endings for -er verbs:
Pronoun
Ending
ie (i')
-e
Add to stem,
e.g. donnje donne
tu
-es
tu donnes
you grve
you are giving
il
-e
il donne
he/she/itlone gives
he/she/itlone is
giving
Meanings
I give
I
elle
on
elle donne
on donne
am giving
.nou5
-ons
nous donnons
we grve
we are giving
vous
-ez
vous donnez
you grve
you are giving
ils
elles
-ent
ils donnent
elles donnent
they give
they are giving
Marie regarde la t616.
Le train arrive d deux heures.
Marie is watching W.
The train arrives at 2 o'clock.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
rtp
je changes to j' in front of a word starting with a vowel (o, e, i,
o or u), most words starting with h, and the French word y.
il
Note that there are a few regular -er verbs that are spelled slightly
differently from the way you might expect.
Q
For more information on Spelling changes
in -er verbs,
see
y'
Verbs endins in -e,
/
present tense stem by losing the -er from the infinitive.
for -er verbs are:
uuunfil i^"itln, conlugation
lj".:j:::::"T:::"T:::,T
page 78.
and form their
74
Venes 75
Venes
The present tense: regular -ir (second conjugation)
verbs
lf an infinitive ends in -ir, it means the verb belongs to the second
conjugation, for example, finir, choisir, remplir.
)
The stem of -ir verbs in the present tense is formed by taking the infinitive,,
and chopping off -ir.
)
Infinitive
Stem (without -ir)
finir (to
fin-
finish)
choisir (to choose)
chois-
rempfir (to fill, to fill in)
rempl-
D
Now add the correct ending, depending on whether you are referring to
For more informotion on Pronouns, see page 42.
Here are the present tense endings for -ir verbs:
Pronoun
Ending
Add to stem, e.g. fin-
Meanings
ie 0')
-ts
ie finis
I finish
tu
-t5
tu finis
I am finishing
you finish
you are finishing
il
-it
elle
on
il finit
he/she/itlone
finit
on finit
finishes
we finish
we are finishing
you finish
you are finishing
elle
he/she/it/one
finishing
nous
-tssons
nous finissons
vous
-tssez
vous finissez
ils
-issent
ils finissent
elles finissent
elles
Le cours finit i onze heures.
Je finis mes devoirs.
is
they finish
they are finishing
The lesson finishes at eleven o'clock,
l'm finishing my homework.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
D The nous and vous forms of -ir verbs have an extra
(two syllobles)
tu filnis
vous
tu, il, elle, on, nous, vous, ils or elles,
+
j' in front of a word starting with a vowel, most
words starting with h, and the French word y.
je changes to
l
filnilssez
syllable.
(three syllables)
Key points
-i, u"toniiJ,i""'r"lona conjugation and form
y'
Verbs ending in
y'
their present tense stem by losing the -ir from the infinitive.
The present tense endings for -ir verbs are:
y'
-ls, -is, -it, -issons, -issez, -issent.
Remember the extra syllable in the nous and vous forms.
76
Venes 77
Vrnes
The present tense: regular -re (third coniugationl verbs
)
lf an infinitive ends in -re, it means the verb belongs to the third
coniugation, for example, attendre, vendre, entendre.
)
The stem of -re verbs in the present tense is formed by taking the infinitive
and chopping off -re.
Infinitive
Stem (without -re)
attendre (to wait)
attend-
vendre (fo sel/)
vend-
entendre (to hear)
entend-
je, tu, il, elle, on, nous, vous, ils or elles.
)
For more informqtion on Pronouns, see poge 42.
Here are the present tense endings for -re verbs:
Pronoun
Ending
Add to stem,
Meanings
e.g. attend-
je 0')
-s
i'attends
lwait
tu
-s
tu attend!
I am waiting
you wait
you are waiting
il
elle
on
il attend
elle attend
nous
-on5
on attend
nous attendons
vouS
-ez
vous attendez
ils
elles
-ent
ils attendent
elles attendent
j' in front of a word starting with a vowel, most
words starting with h, and the French word y.
Key points
y' Yerbsending in -re belonfil,Ii"'l-rtita
y'
L Now add the correct ending, depending on whether you are referring to
+
Ttp
je changes to
he/she/itlone waits
he/she/itlone is
waiting
we wait
we are waiting
you wait
you are waiting
they wait
they are waiting
J'attends ma s(Eur.
Chaque matin nous attendons
l'm waiting for my sister.
Every morning we wait for the train
le train ensemble.
together.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii,
conjugation and form
their present tense stem by losing the -re from the infinitive.
tne present tense endings for -re verbs are:
-s, -5, -, -ons, -gz, -ent.
78
Venes 79
Venas
The present tense: spelling changes in -er verbs
}
Learning the patterns shown on pages 72-73 means you can now work out
the forms of most -er verbs. A few verbs, though, involve a small spelling
change. This is usually to do with how a word is pronounced. In the tables
below the form(s) with the irregular spelling is/are underlined.
tr
>
3I
Pronoun
verbs such as appeler (meaning to col[), which end in -eler, the I
doubles before -e, -es and -ent. The double consonant (ll) affects the
pronunciation of the word. In appeler, the first e sounds like the vowel
sound at the end of the English word teacher, but in appelle the first e
sounds like the one in the English word pet.
as
le
lance
tu
lances
il
elle
on
lance
nouS
langons
vous
lancez
ils
lancent
to eot), which end in -ger, g
becomes ge before an a or an o. This is so the letter g is still pronounced
fike the s in the English word leisure.
Pronoun
Example verb: appeler
I
aopelle
tu
appelles
il
appelle
nous
appelons
vous
appelez
ils
elles
apoellent
The exceptions to this rule are geler (meaning to freeze) and peler
(meaning to peel), which change in the same way as lever (see page 81).
Verbs like this are sometimes called '1 , 2, 3, 5 verbs' because they change
in the first person singular (je), second person singular (tu), and third
person singular and plural (illelle/on and ils/elles).
Verbs ending in -ger
> With verbs such as manger (meaning
Pronoun
elle
on
Example verb: lancer
elles
l2l
> With
Verbs ending in -cer
With verbs such as lancer (meaning to throw), which end in -cer, c
becomes E before an a or an o. This is so the letter c is still pronounced
in the English word ice.
Verbs ending in -eler
Example verb; manger
je
man9e
tu
manges
il
elle
on
mange
nous
manqeons
vous
man9ez
ils
elles
mangent
4
Verbs ending in -eter
verbs such as jeter (meaning to throw),which end in -eter, the t
doubles before -e, -es and -ent. The double consonant (tt) affects the
pronunciation of the word. In jeter, the first e sounds like the vowel sound
at the end of the English word teacher, but in iette the first e sounds like
> With
the one in the English word pef.
Pronoun
Example verb: jeter
le
iette
tu
iettes
il
elle
on
iette
nous
ietons
ietez
vouS
ils
elles
For {urther explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii,
ictten!
80 Venss
L The exceptions
Vengs
to this rule include acheter (meaning to buy), which
changes in the same way as lever (see page 81).
D
Verbs like this are sometimes called'1,
tr
>
}
2.3. 6 verbs'.
Verbs ending in -yer
With verbs such as nettoyer (meaning to cleon), which end in -yer, the y
changes to i before -e, -es and -ent.
Pronoun
Example verb: nettoyer
le
tu
nettoie
nettoies
il
elle
on
nettoie
nous
nettoyons
vous
nettoyez
ils
elles
nettoient
Verbs ending in -ayer, such as payer (meaning to poy) and essayer
(meaning to try), can be spelled with either a y or an i. So je paie and
je paye, for example, are both correct.
}
Verbs like this are sometimes called
tr
"1
, 2, 3, 6 verbs'
Ghanges involving accents
> With verbs such as lever
(meaning to roise), peser (meaning to weigh) and
acheter (meaning to buy), e changes to 6 before the consonant + -e, -es
and -ent. The accent changes the pronunciation too. In lever the first e
sounds ike the vowel sound at the end of the English word teocher, but in
fdve and so on the first e sounds like the one in the English word pet.
f
Pronoun
Example verb: lever
je
live
tu
lives
il
live
elle
on
nous
levons
vous
ils
levez
livent
elles
For further explanation of grammatical
tems, please see pages viii-xii.
With verbs such as esp6rer (meaning to hope), r6gler (meaning to adjust)
and pr6f6rer (meaning to prefer),6 changes to E before the consonant +
-e, -es and -ent.
Pronoun
Example verb: esp6rer
I'
tu
esDere
il
elle
on
eSDere
esDeres
nous
esperons
vous
esperez
ils
elles
espirent
D Verbs fike this are sometimes called '1, 2. 3, 6 verbs'.
Key points
Ir*::T'i'J:,"il:
"/l'-''Tiffi
xi-unr..
itr?.'il-:,'ffi1;":::,andvousrorms
/ l:H:'iti,t llffX, una vous rorms (optionar in -ayer verbs).
I
81
82
Venes 83
Venss
The present tense: irregular verbs
)
3
Some verbs in French do not follow the normal rules. These verbs include
some very common and important verbs like avoir (meaning to hove), 6tre
(meaning to be), faire (meaning to do, to moke) and aller (meanin g to go).
The present tense of these four verbs is given in full below.
O
For Verb tables, see supplement.
tr
The present tense of avoir
Pronoun
avoll
I
al
I have
a5
you have
he/she/itlone has
tu
il
Meaning: to have
a
elle
on
nous
avonS
vous
avez
we have
you have
ils
elles
ont
they have
J'4j deux s(Durs.
I have two sisters.
ll a les yeux bleus.
He has blue eyes.
She's three.
What's the matter?
Elle a trois ans.
O,u'est-ce qu'il y a?
e
The present tense of faire
Pronoun
je
faire
tu
fais
il
elle
on
nous
fait
vous
faites
ils
elles
font
Meaning: to do, to make
ldo/make
fais
I am doinq/makinq
you do/make
you are doing/making
he/she/it/one does/makes
he/she/itlone is doing/making
we do/make
we are doinq/makinq
you do/make
vou are doinq/makinq
they do/make
they are doing/making
faisons
l'm making a cake.
What are you doing?
It's hot.
It doesn't matter.
Je fais un gdteau.
Ou'est-ce que tu fais?
ll fait chaud.
Qa ne fait rien.
l+'l
The present tense of 6tre
Pronoun
6tre
ie
suls
Meaning: fo be
tam
tu
il
es
you are
est
he/she/itlone
elle
on
nous
50mmes
vouS
6tes
ils
elles
sont
we are
you are
they are
is
l'm happy.
Je suis heureux.
Mon pdre est instituteur.
My father's a primary school
ll est deux heures.
teacher.
It's two o'clock.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii,
I
The present tense of aller
Meaning: fo go
Pronoun
aller
,e
vats
tu
vas
you 90
you are qoinq
il
va
elle
on
nous
he/she/itlone goes
he/she/it/one is going
allons
vous
allez
we go
we are qoinq
you go
vou are qoinq
ils
elles
vont
l90
I am going
Je vais
i
they go
they are going
l'm going to London.
Londres.
'Comment allez-vous?'
-'Je
'How are you?' -'l'm fine.'
vais bieni
'Comment ga va?'-'Qa va bien.' 'How are you?'
-'l'm
fine.'
84
tr
Venes 85
Venes
The imperative
lrregular -ir verbs
D Many irregular
verbs that end in -ir, such as partir (meaning to go) and
What is the imperative?
An imperative is a form of the verb used when giving orders and
rrrstructions, for example, Shut the door!; Sit down!; Don't go!
tenir (meaning to hold), have a common pattern in the singular. The je and
tu forms often end in -s, and the illelle/on form often ends in -t.
Pronoun
partir
tenir
,e
parS
tien5
tu
par!
tien5
illelle/on
pa(t
tient
Je pars demain.
Elle tient le b6b6.
+
l'm leaving tomorrow.
She is holding the baby.
t
>
r
I
In French, there are two forms of the imperative that are used to give
instructions or orders to someone. These correspond to tu and vous.
i,
>
For Verb tables, see supplement.
Using the imperative
For more information on the difference between tu
{
D
see
poge 43.
There is also a form of the imperative that corresponds to nous. This means
the same as /ef3 in English. lt is not used as often as the tu and vous forms.
2l
t'
ond vous,
Forming the present tense imperative
For regular verbs, the imperative is the same as the tu, nous and vous
forms of the present tense, except that you do not say the pronouns tu,
nous and vous. Also, in the tu form of -er verbs like donner, the final -s
is dropped.
Meaning -ir verbs:
Pronoun
-er verbs:
tu
give
finis
nouS
donner
donne
donnons
Iet's qive
finissons
vous
donnez
grve
finissez
finir
Meaning -re verbs:
attendre
finish
attends
lett finish attendons
attendez
finish
Donne-moi ga!
Finissez vos devoirs et allez
Give me that!
vous Goucher,
bed.
Attendons le bus.
Let's wait for the bus.
Meaning
wait
let's wait
wait
Finish your homework and go to
rtp
When a tu imperative comes before en or y, the final -s is kept to
make the words easier to pronounce. The s is pronounced like the z
in the English word zipi
Co on!
Vaglg!
Give some to your brother.
Donnes:gn d ton frdre.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
86
VeRes 87
Venes
Lg"l Where to put the obiect pronoun
}
4
An object pronoun is a word like la (meaning her/it), me/moi (meaning
me) or leur (meaning to them) that is used instead of a noun as the object
of a sentence. In orders and instructions, the position of these object
pronouns in the sentence changes depending on whether you are telling
someone TO DO something or NOT TO DO something.
+
For more informotion on Object
)
pronouns,
see
page 47.
lf you are telling someone NOT TO DO something, you put the oblect
pronouns BEFORE the verb.
Ne me d6range pas.
Ne leur parlons pas.
Ne le regardez pas.
L lf you are telling someone TO DO something, you put the object pronouns
the verb and join the two words with a hyphen. The word order
the same as in English.
Excusez:nng!.
Excuse me.
Aide-nous.
Help us.
Let's wait for her/it.
Attendonsi!a.
Orders and instructions telling someone to do something may contain
direct obiect and indirect obiect pronouns. When this happens, the
pronouns go in this order:
DIRECT
INDIRECT
le
moi
la
toi
BEFORE
lui
nous
les
vous
leur
Pr6te-les
moi!
Donnez-la-nous!
E)
Lend them to me! or Lend me them!
Give it to us! or Cive us it!
For imperatives using Reflexive verbs, see
For further explanation of grammatical
terml
poge 90.
please see pages viii-xii.
and vouloir (meaning to wont) have irregular imperative forms.
Pronoun
avotl
6tre
savolr
vouloir
tu
ate
sorS
sache
nouS
ayons
soyons
sachons
veuille
veuillons
vouS
ayez
soyez
sachez
veuillez
Sois sage.
Veuillez fermer la porte.
Don't disturb me.
Let's not speak to them.
Don't look at him/it.
AFTER
lmperative forms of inegular verbs
avoir (meanin g to have),6tre (meanin g to be), savoir (meaning to know)
is
Be
good.
Please shut
the door.
88
Venes 89
Vrnes
What's happening?
O,u'est-ce qui se passe?
Le soleil se ldve d cinq heures. The sun rises at five o'clock.
Sit down!
Assevez-vous!
Reflexive verbs
What is a reflexive verb?
A reflexive verb is one where the sublect and oblect are the same, and
where the action 'reflects back' on the subject. lt is used with a reflexive
pronoun such as myself, yourself and herself in English, for example, /
washed myself; He shoved himself.
tr
l
D
Using reflexive verbs
English.
Some French verbs can be used with a reflexive pronoun or without a
reflexive pronoun, for example, the verbs appeler and s'appeler, and
arr€ter and s'arr6ter. Sometimes, however, their meaning may change.
Appelle le chien.
Je m'appelle Jacques.
ll an6te le moteur.
Elle s'an6te devant une
Reflexive verbs are often used to describe things you do (to yourself) every
day or that involve a change of some sort (going to bed, sitting down,
getting angry, going to sleep). Some of the most common French reflexive
verbs are listed here:
s'amuser
s'appeler
s'arr6ter
s'asseoir
se baigner
to play, to enjoy oneself
to be called
to
to
to
to
stop
sit down
go swimming
go to bed
to hurry
to get dressed
se coucher
se d6p6cher
s'habiller
s'int6resser
vitrine.
Call the dog.
l'm called facques.
He switches off the engine.
She stops in front of a shop window.
2l Forming the present tense of reflexive verbs
se changes to s'in front of a word starting with'a vowel, most
words starting with h, and the French word y.
For
Note that se and s' are very rarely translated as himself and so on in
In French, reflexive verbs are much more common than in English, and
many are used in everyday French. They are shown in dictionaries as se
the infinitive (se means himself, herself, itself, themselves or oneself). seis
called a reflexive pronoun.
rw
)
fl
i
quelque chose
to be interested in somethinq
se laver
se lever
se passer
se promener
se rappeler
se r6veiller
to wake up
se trouver
to be (situated)
to wash, to have a wash
to get up, to rise, to stand up
to take place, to happen, to go
to go for a walk
to remember
lurther explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii,
D To use a reflexive verb in French, you need to decide which reflexive
pronoun to use. The forms shown in brackets in the table are used before
a word starting with a vowel, most words starting with h, or the French
word y.
Subject pronoun
le
Reflexive Dronoun
me (m')
tu
te (t')
il
elle
on
se (s')
Meaning
myself
yourself
himself
herself
itself
oneself
nous
nouS
ourselves
vouS
vous
ils
elles
se (s')
yourself (singulor)
vourselves (p/urol)
themselves
Je me ldve t6t.
Elle s'habille.
lls s'int6ressent beaucoup aux
animaux.
I get up early.
She's getting dressed.
They're very interested in animals.
90 Venes
) The present tense forms of a reflexive verb work in just the same way as an
Vrnes
Ttp
ordinary verb, except that the reflexive pronoun is used as well.
Reflexive forms
ie me lave
Meaning
lwash (myself)
tu te laves
you wash (yourself)
il se lave
he washes (himself)
elle se lave
she washes (herself)
on se lave
nous nous lavons
vous vous lavez
ils se lavent
elles se lavent
}
tr
BEFORE
I go to bed early.
What's your name?
When telling someone NOT TO DO something, you put the reflexive
pronoun BEFORE the verb as usual.
Ne te ldve pas.
Ne vous habillez pas.
l
a]
Don't get up.
Don't get dressed.
When telling someone TO DO something, you put the reflexive pronoun
AFTER the verb and join the two words with a hyphen.
Live-toi!
D6p6chez-vous!
Habillons-nous.
For more informotion on the Imperative, see
t'
is
poge 85.
Each otherand one another
D We use each other in English when we are talking about two people, and
one anotherwhen we are talking about three or more people. The French
reflexive pronouns nout vous and se can all mean two or more people.
les
We speak to each other every day.
jours.
In the present tense, the reflexive pronoun almost always comes
the verb.
Je me couche t6t.
Comment t'appelles-tu?
)
Nous nous parlons tous
Where to put the reflexive pronoun
)
t
Some reflexive verbs, such as s'asseoir (meaning to sit down), are irregular.
Some of these irregular verbs are shown in the Verb tables.
For Verb tables, see supplement.
t'
When you-are telling someone NOT TO DO something, te or
used, not toi.
Don't get uP.
Ne te live pas.
it washes (itself)
+
)
When you are telling someone TO DO something, te or
changes to toi.
Sit down.
Assieds-toi.
one washes (oneself)
we wash (ourselves)
you wash (yourself) (singular)
you wash (yourselves) (p/urol)
they wash (themselves)
91
Get up!
Hurry up!
Let's get dressed.
For further oxplanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
Shall we see each other tomorrow?
On se voit demain?
pays
The
three countries are really like
se ressemblent
Les trois
one another.
beaucoup.
92
VeRes 93
Venss
2l
The imperfect tense
What is the imperfect tense?
The imperfect tense is one of the verb tenses used to talk about the past,
especially in descriptions, and to say what used to happen, for example,
I used to wolk to school; lt was sunny at the weekend.
)
Forming the imperfect tense of -er verbs
To form the imperfect tense of -er verbs, you use the same stem of the verb
as for the present tense. Then you add the correct ending, depending on
whether you are referring to je, tu, il, elle, on, nous, vous, ils or elles.
Pronoun
Ending
Add to stem,
Meanings
e.g. donn-
tr
)
je (j')
Using the imperfect tense
-ars
je donnais
I gave
was giving
I used to give
I
The imperfect tense is used:
.
to describe what things were like and how people felt in the past
when she left.
It was oourino with rain.
tu
-at5
tu donnais
you gave
you were giving
you used to give
il
-ait
he/she/it/one gave
he/she/it/one was giving
he/she/it/one used to give
I was very sad
o
to
say
what used to happen or what you used to do regularly in the past
We used to get up very early in those days.
I never used to like milk.
o
nous
-rons
il donnait
elle donnait
on donnait
nous donnions
vous
-rc2
vous donniez
you gave
you were giving
you used to give
ils
elles
-aient
ils donnaient
elles donnaient
they gave
elle
on
to indicate things that were happening or something that was true when
something else took place
I was watchino TV when the phone rano.
As we were looking out of the window, we saw someone walk across
the lawn.
@
Note that if you want to talk about an event or action that took place
and was completed in the past, you use the perfeet tensc.
*
L
ll portait toujours un grand
for more informotion on the Perfect tense,
see
poge 111.
You can often recognize an imperfect tense in English because it uses
form like were looking or wos roining. The words used to also show an
imperfect tense.
rtp
Remember that you NEVER use the verb €tre to translate was ol
were in forms like was roining or were looking and so on. You change
the French verb ending instead.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
a
'
we gave
we were giving
we used to give
they were giving
they used to give
He always wore a big black hat.
chapeau noir.
We were living in Paris at that time.
Nous habitions d Paris d cette
6poque.
Pour gagner un peu d'argent, ie To earn a little money I used to
donnais des cours de frangais. give French lessons.
rrp
je changes to j' in front of a word starting with
words starting with h, and the French word y.
a vowel, most
94
tr
)
Venes 95
Vrnes
Forming the imperfect tense of -ir verbs
To form the imper-fect tense of -irverbs, you use the same stem of the verb
for the present tense. Then you add the correct ending, depending on
whether you are referring to jq tq i[ ellg on, nous, voug ils or eller
as
Pronoun
Ending
Add to stem, e.g.
ie 0')
't55at5
ie finissais
fin
Meanings
finishing
I used to finish
-t5sars
il
elle
on
-issait
nous
-rssrons
vous
-rssrez
-issaient
ils
elles
tu finissais
you finished
you were finishing
you used to finish
il finissait
elle finissait
on finissait
he/she/itlone finished
he/she/itlone was finishing
he/she/itlone used to finish
nous finissions
we finished
we were finishing
we used to finish
vous finissiez
ils finissaient
elles finissaient
ils
choisissaient une bague
de
)
Meanings
i'c')
-als
i'attendais
I
tu
-at5
il
elle
on
-ait
nouS
-lons
on attendait
nous attendions
vous
-rc2
vous attendiez
ils
elles
-aient
ils attendaient
elles attendaient
waited
waiting
I used to wait
I was
tu attendais
That afternoon they were choosing
an engagement ring.
Forming the imperfect tense of -re verbs
il attendait
elle attendait
you waited
you were waiting
you used to wait
he/she/it/one waited
he/she/it/one was waiting
he/she/itlone used to wail
we waited
we were waiting
we used to wait
you waited
you were waiting
you used to wait
they waited
they were waiting
they used to wait
Christine m'attendait tous les Christine used to wait for me every
evening at the exit.
soirs a la sortie.
I was living alone after my divorce.
Je vivais seule aprds mon
they finished
they were finishing
they used to finish
fiangailles.
tr
Add to stem,
e,g, attend-
you finished
you were finishing
you used to finish
ll finissait souvent ses devoirs He often finished his homework
before dinner.
avant le diner.
Get apris-midi-ld
Ending
I finished
I was
tu
Pronoun
divorce.
il
>
Spelling changes in -er verbs
As with the present tense, a few -erverbs change their spellings slightly
when they are used in the imperfect tense. The forms with spelling changes
have been underlined in the tables.
verbs such as lancer(meaning to throw), which end in -ce4 c
becomes g before an a or an o. This is so that the letter c is still pronounced
> With
as in the English word lce.
To form the imperfect tense of -re verbs, you use the same stem of the verb
Pronoun
Example verb: lancer
for the present tense. Then you add the correct ending, depending on
whether you are referring to ig tu, il elle, on, nous, vous, ils or elles.
These endings are the same as for -erverbs.
le
lanfais
tu
il
lanEais
as
lanEait
elle
on
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii,
nous
lancions
vouS
lanciez
ils
elles
lanEaient
96 Venes
> With verbs such as manger
becomes
ge before
an
a or
VeRes 97
rwr
(meaning to eot), which end in -ger, g
an o. This is so the letter g is still pronounced
me changes to m', te to t' and se to s' before a vowel, most
words starting with h and the French word y.
like the s in the English word leisure.
Pronoun
Example verb: manger
je
tu
il
manoeats
manoeats
/
mangeait
>
elle
on
nous
mangrons
vouS
mangiez
mangeaient
ils
elles
These verbs follow the 1.2,3,6 pattern. That is, they change in the
firs!
second and third person singular, and in the third person plural.
tr
)
Reftexive verbs in the imperfect tense
I
lrregular verbs in the imperfect tense
The only verb that is irregular in the imperfect tense is €tre.
6tre
6tais
I was
6tais
you were
il
elle
on
6tait
he/she/itlone was
nouS
6tions
we were
vouS
6tiez
you were
ils
elles
6taient
they were
The imperfect tense of reflexive verbs is formed just as for ordinary verbs,
except that you add the reflexive pronoun (me, te, se, nous, vous, se).
Subject
pronoun
Reflexive
pronoun
Example with
laver
,e
me (m')
lavais
J'6kis heureux.
Mon pdre 6tait instituteur.
Meaning
te (t')
lavais
I washed
il
elle
on
se (s')
lavait
nous
nous
lavions
vouS
vous
laviez
ils
elles
se (s')
lavaient
I used to wash
you washed
you were washing
you used to wash
he/she/itlone washed
he/she/it/one was washing
he/she/itlone used to wash
we washed
we were washing
we used to wash
you washed
you were washing
you used to wash
they washed
they were washing
they used to wash
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
I was happy.
My father was a primary school
teacher.
I was washing
tu
Meaning
Pronoun
t'
tu
/
r'
98
Vsnes
Venes
The future tense
m
What is the future tense?
The future tense is a verb tense used to talk about something that will
happen or will be true.
tr
}
Pronoun
Just as in English, you can use the present tense in French
ie 0')
to refer to
something that is going to happen in the future.
fe pfends le train de dix heures. l'm taking the ten o'clock train.
Nous allons i Paris la semaine We're going to paris next week.
prochaine.
}
In English we often use going to followed by an infinitive to talk about
something that will happen in the immediate future. You can use the
French verb aller (meaning to go) followed by an infinitive in the same way.
Tu vas tomber si tu continues. You're going to fall if you carry on.
ll va manquer le train.
He's going to miss the train.
)
see
page 82.
Add to stem, e.g.
Meanings
-45
il
elle
on
-a
nouS
-ons
vous
-ez
ils
elles
-ont
je donner4i
I
will give
je finiraj
I
will finish
j'attendraj
tu donneras
tu finiras
tu attendras
illelle/on donnera
illelle/on finira
illelle/on attendra
nous donnerqE
lwill wait
nous finirqns
nous attendrqn!
vous donnercz
vous finirez
vous attendrez
ils/elles donnerQnt
ils/elles finiren!
ils/elles attendrsnt
Elle te donnera mon adresse.
Le cours finira ir onze heures.
Nous t'attendrons devant
le cin6ma.
you will give
you will finish
you will wait
he/she/itlone will give
he/she/it/one will finish
he/she/it/one will wait
we will give
we will finish
we will wait
you will give
you will finish
you will wait
they will give
they will finish
they will wait
She'll give you my address.
The lesson will finish at eleven
o'clock.
We'll wait for you in front of the
cinema.
Forming the future tense
vowel,
ie changes to j' in front of a word starting with a
y.
word
French
the
starting with h, and
To form the future tense in French, you use:
o the infinitive of -er and -ir verbs, for example, donner, finir
o the infinitive without the final e of -re verbs: for example, attendr-
)
-al
tu
Remember that French has no direct equivalent of the word will in
verb forms like will rain or will look and so on. You change the French
verb ending instead to form the future tense.
A
Ending
ovoir,
donner-, f inir-, aftendr-
fn English the future tense is often shown by will or its shortened form ,/l
What will you do?
The weather will be warm and dry tomorrow.
He'll be here soon.
l'll give you a call.
L
Note that apart from the nous and vous forms, the endings are the
same as the Present tense of avoir.
For the present tense of
Using the future tense
99
Then add the correct ending to the stem, depending on whether you are
talking about je, tq if elle, ory nous, vous, ils or elles. The endings are
the same for -er, -ir and -re verbs.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii,
Spelling changes in'er verbs
tr
>'
with the present and imperfect tenses, a few -er verbs change their
spellings slightly in the future tense. The forms with spelling changes have
been underlined in the tables.
As
100
Venes
Venes
> With verbs such as appeler (meaning to cal[), which
With verbs such as nettoyer (meaning to clean), that end in -yer, the y
t hanges to i throughout the future tense.
end in -eler, the
I doubles throughout the future tense. The double consonant (ll) affects
the pronunciation of the word. ln appeler, the first e sounds like the vowel
sound at the end of the English word teacher, but in appellerai the first
e sounds like the one in the English word pet.
Pronoun
Example verb: appeler
t'
tu
appellerai
appelleras
il
elle
on
appellera
nous
appellerons
vouS
appellerez
ils
elles
appelleront
The exceptions to this rule are geler (meaning to freeze) and peler
(meaning to peel), which change in the same way as lever (see poge 101).
With verbs such as jeter (meaning to throw), that end in -eter, the t
doubles throughout the future tense. The double consonant (tt) affects the
pronunciation of the word. In jeter, the first e sounds like the vowel sound
at the end of the English word teocher, but in jetterai the first e sounds like
the one in the English word pet.
Pronoun
Example verb: jeter
le
tu
tstlcralt
ielterc!
il
elle
on
jctteIa
nous
ietterons
ietterez
vouS
ils
elles
101
ietteront
The exceptions to this rule include acheter (meaning to buy), which
changes in the same way as lever (see page 101).
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages vlii-xii.
>
Verbs ending in -ayer, such as payer (meaning to pay) and essayer
(meaning to try), can be spelled with either a y or an i. So ie paierai and
ie payerai, for example, are both correct.
>
With verbs such as lever (meaning to raise), peser (meaning to weigh) and
acheter (meaning to buy), e changes to E throughout the future tense. In
lever the first e sounds like the vowel sound at the end of the English
wotd teocher, but in lEverai and so on the first e sounds like the one in
the English word pef.
Pronoun
Example verb: lever
le
lEverai
tu
lEveras
it
lEvera
elle
on
nouS
liverons
vous
lEverez
ils
elles
lEveront
Venes
102
Venss
tr
Reflexive verbs in the future tense
)
il faut becomes il faudra (meaning it will be necessary to)'
il pleut becomes il pleuvra (meaning it will rain).
The future tense of reflexive verbs is formed in just the same way as for
ordinary verbs, except that you have to remember to give the reflexive
pronoun (me, se, nous, vous, se).
Subject
pronoun
Example with
laver
Reflexive
plonoun
fhis
is
the future tense of avoir:
I
aural
tu
auras
il
aura
Meaning: to have
I will have
you will have
he/she/it/one will have
nouS
aurons
we will have
vouS
aurez
you will have
ils
elles
auront
they will have
Pronoun
Meaning
je
me (m')
laverai
I
tu
te (t')
laveras
you will wash
il
elle
on
se (s')
lavera
he/she/it/one will wash
nous
nous
laverons
we will wash
vous
vous
laverez
you will wash
ils
elles
se (s')
laveront
they will wash
will wash
avolr
elle
on
>
This is the future tense of €tre:
Meaning: to be
rq
Pronoun
6tre
ie
seral
lwill
me changes to m', te to t'and se to s' before a vowel, most words
starting with h and the French word y.
tu
seras
you will be
il
sera
he/she/itlone will be
be
elle
on
tr
)
There are some verbs that do not use their infinitives as the stem for the
future tense, including avoi4 6tre, faire and aller, which are shown in full
on pages 103-104.
)
Other irregular verbs include:
Verb
devoir
Meaning le
to have
devrai
)
tu
illelle/on nous
vous
devras
devra
devrez
devrons
ils/elles
devront
to, must
pouvoir to be oble pourral
pourras
POUrra
pourrons
sauras
Saura
Saurons
saurez
sauront
tiendrons tiendrez tiendront
viendrons viendrez viendront
verrons
verrez
verront
voudrons voudrez voudront
pourrez
pourront
to, con
Savotr
to know
saural
tenir
to hold
tiendrai tiendras tiendra
viendrai viendras viendra
verral
verras
verra
voudiai voudras voudra
venrr
to come
votr
to see
vouloir to wont
For further oxplanation of grammatical
seron5
we will be
vous
Serez
you will be
ils
elles
seront
they will be
nous
lregular verbs in the future tense
tems, please see pages viii-xii,
This is the future tense of faire:
tu
feras
il
elle
on
fera
Meaning: to do, to make
I will do/make
you will do/make
he/she/it/one will do/make
Pronoun
faire
le
ferai
nous
ferons
we will do/make
vous
ferez
vou will do/make
ils
elles
feront
they will do/make
103
104
)
Venes 105
Venes
The conditional
This is the future tense of aller:
Pronoun
aller
Meaning: fo go
I
Iral
lwill go
tu
il
tras
you will go
tra
he/she/it/one will 9o
elle
on
+
nous
rrons
we will go
vouS
tfez
you will go
ils
elles
iront
they will go
For Verb tables, see supplement.
What is the conditional?
The conditional is a verb form used to talk about things that would
happen or that would be true under certain conditions, for example,
1]
Using the conditional
D You can often recognize a conditional in English by the word would or its
shortened form 'd.
I would be sad if you left.
lf you asked him, he'd helP You.
L You use the conditional
1/
y'
(
1/
y'
y'
y'
I
wpuk! help you if I could.
lt is also used to say what you would like or need, for example, Could you
youcan use a present,""l""l"oflt"?ti ro tatk about something
that will happen or be true in the future, just as in English.
You can use aHer with an infinitive to refer to things that will
happen in the immediate future.
the stem is the same as the infinitive for -er, -ir and -re verbs,
except that the final -e of -re verbs is lost.
fhe future tense endings are the same for -er, -ir and -re verbs:
-ai, -as, -a, -ons, -ez, -ont.
In verbs ending in -eler and -eter:
| - ll and t * tt throughout the future tense.
In verbs ending in -yer:
y , i throughJut the future tense (optional in -ayer verbs).
S.omeverb.s are irregular in the future tense. lt is worth learning
these in full.
for:
o
asking for something formally and politely, especially in shops
l'd like a kilo of pears, please.
.
saying what you would like
l'd like to go to the United States.
o
o
making a suggestion
I could come and pick You uP.
giving advice
You should say you're sorry.
rrp
There is no direct French translation of would in verb forms like
would be, would like, would help and so on. You change the French
verb ending instead.
l4
L
Forming the conditional
To form the conditional in French, you have
to
use:
o the infinitive of -er and -ir verbs, for example, donner-, finiro the infinitive without the final e of -re verbs, for example, attendr-
>
r)
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
Then add the correct ending to the stem, depending on whether you are
talking about je, tu, il, elle, on, nous, vous, ils or elles' The endings are
the same for all verbs. In fact, they are the same as the -er and -re endings
for the IMPERFECT TENSE, but the stem is the same as the FUTURE TENSE.
For more informotion on the Imperfect tense
92 qnd 98.
ond the Future tense,
see pqges
106
VrRes
Venss
Pronoun
Ending
Add to stem, e,g,
3
Meanings
donner-, f inir-, attendr-
ie (')
I
i'attendrais
tu
-at5
il
elle
on
-ait
nous
-tons
vous
ils
elles
-lez
-aient
>
would give
I would finish
I would wait
ie donner4iE
ie finirai5
-ats
tu donnerai!
tu finiraiE
tu attendrai!
illelle/on donnerai!
illelle/on finiraft
illelle/on attendrai!
you would give
you would finish
you would wait
nous donnerions
nous finirlo45
nous attendrienl
we would give
we would finish
we would wait
vous donnerlcz
vous finirlg;
vous attendrlcz
you would give
you would finish
you would wait
ils/elles donneraienI
ils/elles finiraient
ils/elles attendraient
they would give
they would finish
J'atmcrals aller aux Etats
he/she/it/one would give
he/she/itlone would finish
heishe/it/one would wait
they would wait
Unis. l'd like to go to the
United States.
T'P
je changes to j' in front of a word starting with a vowel, most
words starting with h, and the French word y.
a
Note that you have to be careful not to mix up the future tense and
the conditional. They look very similar.
FUTURE
CONDITIONAL
je donnerai
je finirai
je donnerais
j'attendrai
j'aimerai
je voudrai
je viendrai
je serai
je finirais
j'attendrais
j'aimerais
je voudrais
je viendrais
je serais
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii,
107
Spelling changes in -er verbs
]
with the future tense, a few -er verbs change their spellings slightly in
the conditional. The forms with spelling changes have been underlined in
the tables below.
As
> With
verbs such as appeler (meaning to cal[), which end in -eler, the I
doubles throughout the conditional. The double consonant (ll) affects the
pronunciation of the word. ln appeler, the first e sounds like the vowel
sound at the end of the English word teocher, but in appellerais the first
e sounds like the one in the English word pet.
Pronoun
Example verb: appeler
I'
appellerais
tu
aooellerais
il
aopellerait
elle
on
nouS
vouS
ils
appellerions
appelleriez
aooelleraient
elles
The exceptions to this rule are geler (meaning to freeze) and peler
(meaning to peef), which change in the same way as lever (see page 1 08).
\Mth verbs such as jeter (meaning to throw), which end in -eter, the t
doubles throughout the conditional. The double consonant (tt) affects the
pronunciation of the word. In jeter, the first e sounds like the vowel sound
at the end of the English word teocher, but in ietterais the first e sounds
like the one in the English word pet.
Pronoun
je
tu
Example verb: jeter
ietterais
ietterais
il
elle
on
ietterait
nous
icttedsns
vous
ils
elles
ietteriez
je$sdcn!
The exceptions to this rule include acheter (meaning to buy), which
changes in the same way as lever (see poge 108).
Venes
108 Vrnes
(meaning to cleon), that end in -yer, the y
changes to i throughout the conditional.
> With verbs such as nettoyer
Pronoun
Example verb: nettoyer
le
tu
nettoierais
nettoierais
iI
nettoierait
elle
on
nous
vous
ils
elles
ll_J Reflexive verbs in the conditional
>
The conditional of reflexive verbs is formed in lust the same way as for
ordinary verbs, except that you have to remember to give the reflexive
pronoun (me, te, se, nous, vous, se).
nettoierions
nettoieriez
nettoieraient
Reflexive
Example
pronoun
with laver
ie
me (m')
te (t')
laverais
lwould wash
laverais
you would wash
se (s')
laverait
he/she/it would wash
nous
nouS
laverions
we would wash
vous
vous
se (s')
laveriez
you would wash
laveraient
they would wash
il
elle
on
Verbs ending in -ayer, such as payer (meaning to poy) and essayer
(meaning to try), can be spelled with either a y or an i. So ie paierais and
ils
elles
je payerais, for example, are both correct.
With verbs such as lever (meanin g to roise), peser (meaning to weigh) and
acheter (meaning to buy), e changes to E throughout the conditional' In
lever the first e sounds like the vowel sound at the end of the English word
teocher, but in liverais and so on the first e sounds like the one in the
English word pef.
Example verb: lever
le
liverais
tu
lEverais
il
lEverait
liverions
vous
lEveriez
ils
lEveraient
me changes to m', te to t' and se to s' before a vowel, most words
starting with h and the French word y.
lil
lrregular verbs in the conditional
The same verbs that are irregular in the future tense are irregular in the
conditional, including: avoir, etre, faire, aller, devoir, pouvoir, savoir,
tenir, venir, voir, vouloir.
t
)
For more information on
lrregulor verbs in the future tense,
see
D To form the conditional of an irregular verb, use the same stem
future tense, for example:
elles
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages
Ttp
L
elle
on
nous
Meaning
Subject
pronoun
tu
Pronoun
109
avoir - aur€tre + ser-
viii-xii'
poge 102.
as
for the
VrRes 111
110 Vrnss
)
The perfect tense
Then add the usual endings for the conditional.
lnfinitive
Future
stem
Gonditional
endings
avorr
aur-
-ais, -ais,
€tre
ser-
-ait
faire
fer-
nous aurisns, vous aurlez
ils/elles auraicnl
-ais, -ais, -ait,
ie seraig tu seralg illelle/on serail
nous serions, vous serigz,
ils/elles seralco!
je fergig tu ferais illelle/on ferai!
nous ferions. vous ferlgz,
ils/elles feretcot
-ais, -ais, -ait,
-ions, -iez, -aient
aller
tr-
-ais, -ais, -ait,
-ions, -iez, -aient
J'llais si j'avais le temps.
Je voudrais un kilo de poires,
s'il vous plait.
Tu devrais t'excuser.
y'
(
y'
y'
y'
j'auralg tu aurait illelle/on aurait.
-ions, -iez, -aient
-ions, -iez, -alent
What is the perfect tense?
The perfect is one of the verb tenses used to talk about the past,
especially about actions that took place and were completed in the past.
Conditional form
!
Using the perfect tense
D You can often recognize a perfect tense in English by a form like
I gove,
I hove finished.
I gave her my phone number.
I have finished my soup.
i'iraig tu ira!5, illelle/on irail
nous irisn!, vous irlcz,
ils/elles iiaient
Ttp
lwould go if I had time.
l'd like a kilo of pears, please.
The perfect tense is the tense you will need most to talk about
that have happened or were true in the past. lt is used to talk about
actions that took place and WERE COMPLETED in the past.
Use the imperfect tense for regular events and in most descriptions.
You should say you're sorry.
*
Key points
Theconditional endings ur" ift" same for -er, -ir and -re verbs:
-ais, -ais, -ait, -ions, -iez, -alent.
Theconditional endings are the same as the endings for the
imperfect tense of -er and -re verbs, but the stem is the same as
the stem of the future tense.
In verbs ending in -eter,and. -eter:
| ' ll and t + tt throughout the conditional.
In verbs ending in -yer:
y - i throughout the conditional (optional in -ayer verbs)'
tne same verbs that are irregular in the future are irregular in the
conditional. lt is worth learning these in full.
2)
>
for more information on the lmpertect tense,
see
page 92.
Forming the perfect tense
The imperfect, future and conditional tenses in French are made up of just
one word, for example, je donne, tu finissais or il attendra. The perfect
tense has TWO parts to it:
. the ge$n! tense of the verb avoir (meaning to have) or €tre (meaning
to be)
. a part of the main verb called the past participle, like given, finished and
done in English
D ln other words, the perfect tense in French
is like the form I hove donein
English.
r
)
For more informotion on forming the present tense of
ovoir ond etre,
see
page 82.
3
>
|
Forming the past participle
To
form the past participle of regular verbs, you
verb:
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages
viii'xii.
use
the infinitive of the
112
.
Venes 113
Venes
For -er verbs, you replace the -er at the end of the infinitive with 6.
Infinitive
donner (to give)
tomber (fo foll)
o
donntomb-
donn6
Take
partir (fo leove, to go)
tomb6
off -ir
with -i.
fini
finpart-
descendre (to go down,
to come down, to get off
tr
> The perfect tense of -re verbs like attendre is formed in the same way,
except for the past participle: j'ai attendu, tu as attendu and so on.
parti
off -re
attend-
Add -u
attendu
descend-
descendu
'T,;{h
> The perfect tense of -ir verbs like finir is formed in the same way, except for
the past participle: j'ai fini, tu as fini and so on.
Add -i
Take
attendre (to wait)
Ttp
je changes to j' in front of a word starting with a vowel, most
words starting with h, and the French word y.
For -re verbs, you replace the -re at the end of the infinitive
lnfinitive
D
Add -6
For -ir verbs, you replace the -ir at the end of the infinitive
lnfinitive
finir (to finish)
.
Take off -er
with
-u.
6l avoir or 6tre?
>
MOST verbs form their perfect tense with avoir; these include donner
shown on page112.
as
> There
are two main groups of verbs which form their perfect tense with
€tre instead of avoir:
Verbs that form their perfect tense
o
with avoir
Most verbs form their perfect tense with avoir, for example donner:
t
Pronoun
avotr
Past participle
Meaning
I
al
donn6
I gave
tu
a5
donn6
you
you have given
il
elle
on
a
donn6
he/she/it/one gave
he/she/it/one has given
nous
avons
donn6
we gave
we have given
For more informqtion on Reflexive verbs, see
.
I have given
gave
)
I
all reflexive verbs
a group of verbs that are mainly used to talk about movement or a
change of some kind, including these ones:
aller
venir
arriver
partir
descendre
vouS
avez
donn6
you gave
you have given
ils
elles
ont
donn6
they gave
they have given
Elle a donn6 son num6ro de
t6l6phone i Glaude.
ll a achet6 un ord:nateur.
Je n'ai pas regard6 la t6l6 hier.
She gave Claude her phone number.
He's bought a computer.
I didn't watch
W yesterday.
monter
entrer
sortir
mourir
naitre
devenir
rester
tomber
to go
to come
to arrive, to happen
to leave, to go
to go down, to come down, to get off
to go up, to come up
to go in, to come in
to go out, to come out
to die
to be born
to become
to stay
to fall
went to the football match
Je suis all6 au match de
I
football hier.
ll est sorti acheter un journal.
yesterday.
Vous 6tes descendu d quelle
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii.xii.
page 88.
station?
He's gone out to buy a newspaper.
Which station did you get off at?
114
Venes
Venes
D Here are the perfect tense forms of tomber in full:
Gnmmar Extra!
Some of the verbs on the previous page take avoir when they are used with a direct
object for example:
descendre quelque chose
Est-ce que
bagages?
tu as descendu les
Elle a mont6 les escaliers,
Elle a sorti son pofte-monnaie de
son sac.
*
tr
F
For more information on
avotl
je
suts
es
tU
down
to go up something, to come up
something
to take something out
sortir quelque chose
Pronoun
Did you bring the bags down?
Plural
-5
Direct objects, see page 47.
Feminine
endings
Examples
tomb6
parti
-e
tomb6e
partie
est
tomb6
he/it fell,
elle
est
tomb6e
she/it fell, she/it has fallen
on
est
tomb6 (singulo)
tomb6s (mosculine plurol)
tomb6es (feminine plurol)
one fell/one has fallen,
we fell/we have fallen
nous
sommes
tomb6s (mosculine)
tomb6es (feminine)
we fell/we have fallen
vous
€tes
tomb6 (mosculine singular)
tomb6e (feminine singulor)
you fell/you have fallen
sont
tomb6s
they fell/they have fallen
elles
sont
tomb€es
they fell/they have fallen
On est arriv6s en retard.
On est rentr6es toutes les
d la m6me heure.
tomb6cs
partis
parties
descendu!i!
Did your brother go abroad?
She came with us.
They left at six o'clock.
My cousins arrived yesterday.
(The cousins are female.)
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
ils
Grammar Extra!
descenduj
frire est all6 ir
l'6tranger?
Elle est venue avec nous.
lls sont partis ir six heures.
Mes cousines sont aniv6es hier.
Est-ce ton
you fell/you have fallen
tomb,6 (mosculine)
When on means we, the past participle can agree with the subiect of the
sentence, but it is optional.
descendue
-es
fell/l have fallen
tombr6s (masculine plurol)
tomb6es (feminine plurol)
Examples
tomb6g
I
il
5he went up the stairs.
She took her purse out of her handbag:
descendu
tomb6. (mosculine)
he/it has fallen
When a verb takes €tre, the past participle ALWAYS agrees with the subject
of the verb; that is, the endings change in the ferninine and plural forms.
Singular
Meaning
tomb6e (feminine)
Verbs that form their perfect tense with 6tre
Masculine
endings
Past participle
tomb6e (feminine)
to get something down, to bring
something down, to take something
monter quelque chose
115
deux
We arrived late. (masculine)
We both came in at the same time
(feminine)
)
The perfect tense of -ir verbs like partir is formed in the same way, except
for the past participle: ie suis parti(e), tu es parti(e) and so on.
)
The perfect tense of -re verbs like descendre is formed in the same way,
except for the past participle: ie suis descendu(e), tu es descendu(e) and
so on.
116
Venes
Venes
ll
117
The perfect tense of reflexive verbs
D Here is the perfect tense of the reflexive verb se laver (meaning to wash
Grammar Ertra!
When a verb takes avoir, the past participle usually stays in the masculine singular form,
as shown in the table for donner, and does not change for the feminine or plural forms.
(oneself), to have a wosh, to get washed) in full. Remember that all reflexive
verbs take €tre, and so the past participle of reflexive verbs usually agrees
with the sublect of the sentence.
Subject
plonoun
Reflexive
Present tense Past participle
plonoun
of 6tre
In one particular case, however, the past participle of verbs with avoir does change in
the feminine and plural forms. ln the sentences above, dissertation is the direct object
of the verb finir. When the direct obiect comes AFTER the verb, as it does in the
examples above, then the past participle doesn't change. lf the direct object comes
BEFORE the verb, however, the past participle has to change to agree with that direct
object.
ie
me
suls
tu
t
es
il
s'
hier
the essay that he finished yesterday
qu'slles
dissertation
ont
finie
hier
the
essay that they finished yesterday
le
Since object pronouns usually come BEFORE the verb, the past participle changes to
agree with the pronoun.
elle
s
on
s'
ll a fini sa dissertation.
Elles ont fini leur dissertation.
He's finished his essay.
They've finished their essay.
la dissertation qu'il a finig
ll a bu son th6? - Oui, il Ia bU.
Did he drink his tea? - Yes, he's drunk it.
ll a bu sa limonade? - Oui, il Ia bue. Did he drink his lemonade? - Yes, he's
drunk it.
rtp
Meaning
1av6 (masculine)
I washed myself
you washed
yourself
est
lav6e (feminine)
lav6 (masculine)
lav6e (feminine)
lav6
est
est
lav6e
lav6 (singulor)
lav6s
he washed himself
one washed oneself
she washed herself
one washed oneself
we washed
(masculine plural)
lav6es
(feminine plurol)
ourselves
nous
nous
sommes
lav6s (masculine)
lav6es (feminine)
we washed
vous
vous
Gtes
lav6
(masculine singula)
you washed
lav6e
Remember that with verbs taking €tre, it is the sggls
subiect of
v! the verb that
tells you what ending to add to the past participle. Compare this with the rule
for verbs taking avoir that have a direct objec! in their case, it is the direct
obiect coming before the verb that tells you what ending to add to
the past participle.
(feminine singulo)
Iav6s
(mosculine plural)
lav6es
(feminine plural)
ourselves
yourself (singular)
you washed
yourselves (p/urot)
ils
5e
sont
lav6s
they washed
themselves
elles
se
sont
lav6es
they washed
themselves
rrp
When on means we, the past participle can agree with the subject
of the sentence, but it is optional.
We washed ourselves one after
On s'est lav6es l'une
the other. (feminine)
f'autre.
aprls
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii,
118
Venes 119
Venes
Grammar Extra!
Orammar Extra!
The past participle of reflexive verbs DOES NOT change if the direct object (la jambe in
the example below) FOLLOWS the verb.
Elle s'cs!_siassr6 la jambe.
tr
)
What is the pluperfect tense?
The pluperfect is a verb tense which describes something that had happened or had
been true at a point in the past, for example, I U1lgptten to finish my homework.
She's broken her leg.
lrregular verbs in the perfect tense
Some past participles are irregular. There aren't too many, so try to learn
them.
avoir (meaning to have)
devoir (meaning to hove to, must)
dire (meaning to soy, to tell)
€tre (meaning to be)
faire (meaning to do, to moke)
mettre (meaning to put)
pouvoir (meaning to be qble to, con)
prendre (meaning to take)
ravoir (meaning to know)
tenir (meaning to hold)
venir (meaning to come)
voir (meaning to see)
vouloir (meaning to want)
)
)
The pluperfect tense
\a
fallu (it
y'
y'
y
/
>
Using the pluoerfect tense
You can often recognize a pluperfect tense in English by a form like I hod arrived,
vou'd fallen.
Elle avait essav6 des douzaines
de pulls.
Nous avions d6ii commenc6 i
manger quand il est aniv6,
J'ctals-arivcc la premiire.
Mes parents s'6taient couch6s t6t.
-+ d0
+
r
dit
6t6
+ fait
+ mis
-PU
-+ pris
+su
+ tenu
+vu
-+
he arrived.
I had arrived first.
My parents had gone
to bed early.
>
the pluperfect tense in French has two parts to it:
the imperfect tense of the verb avoir (meaning to have) or €tre (meaning to be)
Like the perfect tense,
.
.
D
the past participle
lf a verb takes avoir in the perfect tense, then it will take avoir in the pluperfect too.
lf a verb takes Gtre in the perfect then it will take 6tre in the pluperfect too.
r)
For more informotion on the Impertect tense
ond the Pertect tense, see pages 92 and
111.
was necessary).
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii,
We'd already started eating when
Forming the pluperfect tense
voulu
o"r.r,ol".l,l!tLtiat happened and were
completed in the past. lt is not used for things that happened
regularly or in descriptions.
The per:fect tense is formed with the present tense of avoir or
€tre and a past participle.
Most verbs take avoir in the perfect tense. All reflexive verbs and
a small group of verbs referring to movement or change take
€tre.
ii" prut participle ends in -6 for -er verbs, in -l for -ir verbs, and
in -u for -re verbs.
VrfrtiuurU, tfrut iuLe avoir, the past participle does not usually
change. With verbs that take €tre, including reflexive verbs, the
past participle changes in the feminine and plural.
She had tried on dozens of iumpers.
l4
) venu
y' rheperrect \e
.
tl
+eu
if pleut becomes il a plq (it roined).
il faut becomes
1
lq
D
Verbs taking avoir
Here are the pluperfect tense forms of
donner (meaning to give) in full.
Pronoun
avotr
Past participle
Meaning
I
avais
tu
avats
il
avait
donn6
donn6
donn€
vou had qiven
he/she/itlone had given
I had oiven
elle
on
nouS
avtonS
vouS
avtez
ils
avaient
donn6
donn€
donn6
we had given
you had given
they had given
elles
The pluperfect tense of -ir verbs like finir (meaning to finish) is formed in the same
way, except for the past participle: j'avais fini, tu avais fini and so on.
The pluperfect tense of -re verbs like attendre (meaning to woit) is formed in the
same way, except for the past participle: i'avais attendu, tu avais attendu and so on.
120
l4
)
I
VeRes 121
Venes
ld
Verbs takinq 6tre
Here are the pluperfect tense forms of tomber (meaning to fall) in full. When a verb
€tre in the pluperfect tense, the past participle alWays agrees with the sublect
of the verb; that is, the endings change in the feminine and plural forms.
D
lrregular verbs in the pluperfect tense
lrregularpastparticiplesarethesameasfortheperfecttense(seepogellS).
takes
Ptonoun
6tre
Past participle
Meaning
I
6tais
I had fallen
tu
6tais
il
6tait
tomb6 (mosculine)
tomb6e (feminine)
tomb6 (mosculine)
tomb6e (feminine)
tomb6
elle
on
6tait
6tait
tomb6e
tomb,6 (singulor)
tomb6s (m ascu li n e pl u ro [)
tomb6es (feminine pluroD
she/it had fallen
one had fallen
we had fallen
nouS
6tions
tomb6s (mosculine)
tomb6es (feminine)
we had fallen
vous
,6tiez
tomb6 (mo scu I i n e si n g u I o r)
tomb6e (f e m i n i n e si ng u I a r)
you had fallen
I
ils
i
/
ell6s
tombds (masculine plurol)
tomb6es (feminine plurol)
tomb6s
6taient
6taient
tomb6es
you had fallen
he/it had fallen
thev had fallen
they had fallen
The pluperfect tense of -ir verbs like partir (meaning to leove, fo go) is formed in the
same way, except for the past participle: j'6tais parti(e), tu 6tais parti(e) and so on.
The pluperfect tense of -re verbs like descendre (meaning to come down, to go down,
to get offl is formed in the same way, except for the past participle: j'6tais
descendu(e), tu
descendu(e) and so on.
'6tais
rq
When on means we, the past participle can agree with the subject of the
sentence, but it is optional.
On 6tait
E
D
+
tomb6es.
We had fallen. (feminine)
Reflexive verbs in the pluperfect tense
Reflexive verbs in the pluperfect tense are formed in the same way as in the perfect
tense, but with the imperfect tense of the verb 6tre (see poge 97).
For more informotion
on the Pertect tense of reflexive verbs,
see
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii,
page 117.
ut1
122 Vrnes
.r
The passive
>
What is the passive?
The passive is a form of the verb that is used when the subject of the verb
is the person or thing that is affected by the action, for example, / wos
given, we were told, it had been mqde.
tr
}ln
l
ln English we use the verb fo bewith the past participle (wos hit, was given)
to form the passive. In French the passive is formed in exactly the same
way, using Ctre and the past participle. The past participle agrees with the
subject of the passive verb; that is, the endings change in the feminine and
olural forms.
Using the passive
Elle est encourag6e par ses
parents.
Vous 6tes tous bien pay6s.
a normal, or octive sentence, the'subject'of the verb is the person or
Les portes ont 6t6
thing that carries out the action described by the verb. The'object'of the
verb is the person or thing that the verb'happens'to.
Ryan (subject) hit (active verb) me (object).
l
Venes 123
Forming the Passive
In English, as in French, you can turn an active sentence round
passive sentence.
| (subject) was hit (possive verb) by Ryan (ogent).
to make
a
t
l,
For more information on the Past
participle,
see
poge 111.
D Here is the present tense of the -er verb aimer (meaning to like, to love)
Pronoun
in
Present tense
Past participle
Meaning
of 6tre
le
suis
aim6 (mosculine)
aim6e (feminine)
lam
tu
e5
aim6 (mosculine)
aim6e (feminine)
fou are loved
il
est
afme
he/it is
elle
est
armee
on
est
aim6 (singulor)
aim6s (m o s c u I i n e p I u ra l)
aim6es (femin in e plu ra[)
nous
sommeS
aim6s (mosculine)
aim6es (feminine)
we are loved
vouS
Ctes
aim6 (m o scu I i n e si n g u I a r)
aim6e (f e m ln i n e si n g u I a r)
aim6s (m o scu I i n e p I u ro l)
aim6es (feminine plural)
yoiu are loved
ils
sont
sont
aim6s
they are loved
aim6es
they are loved
;a
loved
fved
Tt/p
There is a very important difference between French and English
in sentences containing an indirect object. In English we can quite
easily turn a normal (active) sentence with an indirect object into a
passive sentence.
Active
Someone (subject) gave (active verb) me (indirect object) a book
(direct object).
Passive
| (subiect) was given (possive verb) a book (direct object).
In French, an indirect object can NEVER become the subject of
a
passive verb.
for more informotion on Direct and lndirect objects,
47 ond 49.
You are all well paid. ('you' refers to
more than one Person here)
The doors have been closed.
its passive form.
Very often, however, you cannot identify who is carrying out the action
indicated by the verb.
I was hit in the face.
The trees will be chopped down.
l've been chosen to represent the school.
Q
ferm6es.
She is encouraged by her parents.
see poges
elles
she/it is'fovedt
one is l9v$d
we are loved
i
I
The passive of -ir verbs is formed in the same way, except that the past
participle is different. For example, elle est remplie (meaning it is fulD.
The passive of -re verbs is formed in the same way, except that the past
participfe is different. For example, il est d6fendu (meaning it is forbidden).
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii,
Venas 125
124 Vrnes
Grammar Extra!
Grammar Extra!
When on means u/e, the past participle can agree with the subject of the sentence, but
it is optional.
monde.
On est aim6s de tout le
)
We're loved by everyone. (mosculine)
The present participle
You can form other tenses of the passive by changing the tense of the verb
What is a present participle?
The present participle is a verb form ending in -ing which is used in English to
form verb tenses, and which may be used as an adiective and a noun, for example,
€tre.
Whot are you doing?; the setting sun; Swimming is eosy!
lmperfect: j'6tais aim6(e) | was loved
Future: tu seras aim6(e) you will be loved
Perfect: il a 6t6 aim6 he has been loved
+
For more information on the lmpertect,
i1] Using the present pafticiple
> Present participles are not as common
future and pertect tenses,
in French as in English, because they are not
used to form tenses. The main uses of the present participle in French are:
see pages
o
92,98and111.
}
lrregular past participles are the same as for the perfect tense (see page
ll
E_l Avoiding the passive
D
Passives are not as common in French as in English. There are two main
ways that French speakers express the same idea.
o by using the pronoun
On m'a dit que tu ne
pas.
+
name.
o
on (meaning someone or they) with a normal,
active verb
On leur a envoy6 une
lettre.
venais
En attendant sa s(Eur, Richard
s'est endormi,
Appelle-nous en arivant
chez toi.
En aoouvant sur ce bouton, on
peut imprimer ses documents.
ll s'est bless6 en essavant de
by using a reflexive verb
Les melons se vendent 2
la pidce.
r0
euros
+
Key
; i*:::**:k*:*: :x;'"::",':
reflexive verb or the pronoun on.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii,
For more
o
y' tnepresent tense of ,r'" prrliJJit'iirr.a by using the present
"'"
While waiting for hls sister, Richard fell
asleep.
Call us when you get home.
By pressing this button, you can
print your documents.
He hurt himself trying to rescue a cat.
sauver un chat.
Melons are sold for 2 euros each.
For more informotion on Reflexive verbs, see page 88.
as a verb, after the preposition en. The present participle DOES NOT agree with
the subiect of the verb when it is used in this way. The subject of the two parts of
the sentence is always the same. en can be translated in a number of different
ways.
They were sent a letter. (literally:
Someone sent them a letter.)
I was told that you weren't coming.
(literally They told me you weren't
coming.)
For more information on Pronouns, see poge 42.
o
as a verb, on its own, corresponding to the English -ingform. lt DOES NOT agree
wlth the sublect of the verb when it is used in this way.
Living close to Paris, I go into town
Habitant prds de Paris, ie vais
quite often.
assez souvent en ville,
lls m'ont suivi, criant mon nom. They followed me, shouting my
informotion on the preposition en, see poge 158.
as an adjective, like in English. As with all adjectives in French, the ending DOES
change in the feminine and plural forms.
Ces enfrants sont 6nervants.
the setting sun
the following year
Those children are annoying.
des chaises plia$cs
folding chairs
le soleil couchant
l'ann6e suivante
126
VeRes 127
Venes
lmpersonal verbs
Ttp
The French present participle is NEVER used to translate English verb forms
fike / wos walking, we are leaving.
Q
For more information on the lmpertect tense ond the Present tense, see
pages 92 and 1 1 1.
English verbs describing movement that are followed by an adverb such as out or
down, or a preposition such as dcross or up are often translated by a verb + en +
present participle.
ll est sorti en courant.
J'ai_lraVerSe la rue en
e
)
What is an impersonal verb?
An impersonal verb is one that does not refer to a real person or thing
,rnd where the subject is represented by it, tor example, lt's going tp rain;
It's ten o'clock,
D lmpersonal verbs are only
il (meaning if) and in the infinitive.
He ran out. (literolly: He came out
running.)
boitant.
I limped across the street. (literally:
I crossed the street limping.)
Forming the present participle
-ir and -re verbs, you use the nous form
of the present tense and replace the -ons ending with -ant.
To form the present participle of regular -er,
addition to their normal meanings, for example, ifvok,
nous form of present tense
Take off -ons
Add -ant
lnfinitive
donnons
donn-
donnant
avoir + noun
langons
lang-
langant
mangeons
mange-
mangeant
Ctre + time
finissons
finiss-
finissant
partant
faire + noun
partons
Part-
attendons
attend-
attendant
descendons
descend-
descendant
falloir + noun
LqJ lrregular verbs
Three verbs have an irregular present participle:
avoir (meaning to hove) + ayant
+ 6tant
6tre (meaning to be)
savoir (meaning to know)
y'
+
ffl f;:R
tenses in French, but they can
" iil:lii{il:;,ff:::J:ilTi"T1T
fiI| j["[:;'"T?i,.n'"n
"
a
il est
il fait jour
il fait nuit
il faut
r.,l
and
Meaning
there isJslngulor)
tn"nu
it
|
u(":<iuroD
I
isi
,it's daylight
'it's
dark "
\,
we/you etc. need
it
takes
\
we/you efc. have to
manquer
paraitre
il parait que
it appears that
rester + noun
il reste
there is ... lelt(singular)
there are ...lett @lurol)
sembler
il semble que
it appears that
valoir mieux + infinitive
il vaut mieux
there is ... missing (singular)
there are ... missing (p/urol)
it seems that
sachant
present participtes are never
Expression
il v
€trf
il faut
il manque
falloir + infinitive
)
used with
They are called impersonal verbs because il does not really refer to { real
person, animal or thing, just like itand there iryEnglish in the examples
ll*
,n"y asree w,h ,he
the nous rorm or the present tense and
the -ons ending with -ant. The exceptions are avoiri €tre and
::15,..,."t
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
it seems that
ll y a quelqu'un a la porte.
ll est deux heures.
ll faut partir.
ll manoue cent euros.
ll reste du pain.
ll vaut mieux ne rien dire.
it would be better to
There's somebody at the door.
It's hrrlo o'clock.
l'vs/\Vs'vs efc. got to go.
100 euros are missing.
There's some bread left.
It would be better to say nothing.
128
l
Venes
VeRss 129
Several impersonal verbs relate to the weather.
lnfinitive
faire + adjective
faire + noun
geler
nerger
pleuvoir
Grammar Extra!
Expression
Meaning
il fait beau
il fait mauvais
il fait du vent
il fait du soleil
il gEle
il neige
il pleut
the weathert lovely
the weather's bad
The subjunctive
What is the subjunctive?
it's windy
it's sunny
The subiunctive is a verb form that is used in certain circumstances to express
some sort of feeling, or to show there is doubt about whether something will
happen or whether something is true. lt is only used occasionally in modern
English, for example, lf I were you, I wouldn't bother.; So be it.
it's freezing
it's snowing
it's rainino
l!
Grammar E><tra!
L
There is another group of useful expressions that start with an impersonal il. These are
followed by a form of the verb called the subiunctive.
il faut que
ll faut que je oarte.
il est n6cessaire que
ll est n6cessaire qu'on le
O
For more information
he won't come back.
(The subject of the first part of the sentence
sentence is'he'.)
D
fasse,
on the Subjunctive,
We have to do it
He might come.
page | 29.
is'l';
the subject of the second port of the
Sometimes, in a sentence like We want her to be happy, you use the infinitive of the
verb in English (fo be). This is NOT possible in French when there is a different
subject in the tvvo parts of the sentence (we and her).You have to use a subiunctive
for the second verb.
Nous voulons Ctre heureux. We want to be happy.
(No change of subject, so you con just use an infinitive
It's a shame you didn't see him.
see
In French the subjunctive is used after certain verbs and coniunctions when two parts
of a sentence have different subjects.
l'm afraid
l've got to go.
il est possible que
ll est possible qu'il vienne.
il est dommage que
ll est dommage que tu ne
I'gPs pas vu,
Using the subiunctive
- dtre - in French.)
Nous voulons qu'elle soit heureuse. We want her to be happy.
(Subject chonges from nous to ellg so you hove to use a subjunctive
)
soif
-
in French')
You can only use the infinitive instead of the subiunctive in French with impersonal
verbs.
ll faut que tu viennes ir l'heure.
(using subjunctive)
(
-
ll faut venir ir l'heure.
(using infinitive)
You have to come on time.
ll vaut mieux que tu restes chez toi.
n
(using subjunctive)
ll vaut mieux rester chez toi.
(using infinitive)
It's better that you stay at home.
l4
)
The subjunctive has several tenses but you are only likely to come across the present
subjunctive occasionally in your reading.
D
You may see a subjunctive after certain verbs that you use when you are:
o
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
Coming across the subiunctive
o
o
wishing something: vouloir que and d6sirer que (meaning to wish thot, to wont),
aimer que (meaning to like thot), aimer mieux que and pr6f6rer que (meaning
to prefer thot)
fearing something: avoir peur que (meaning to be ofroid thot)
giving your opinion: croire que (meaning to think that)
130 Vrnss
o saying howyou feel: regretter
Venes
que (meaning to be sorry fhof), €tre content que
(meaning to be pleased thot), €tre surpris que (meaning to be surprised that) and
so on
Je suis content que vous les
aimiez.
J'ai peur qu'il ne revienne pas.
L
l'm
4I
D
For
tr
a
pleased you like them.
l'm afraid he won't come back.
I need to speak to you.
list of some expressions requiring the subjunctive, see page
I 28.
Forminq the present subiunctive of -er verbs
L
To form the stem of
D
For -er verbs the endings are the same as for the ordinary present tense, apart from
the nous and vous forms, which have an extra i, as in the imperfect tense.
the present subjunctive you take the infinitive and chop off -er,
just as for the present tense. Then you add the correct ending, depending on
whether you are referring to ie, tu, il, elle, on, nous, vous, ils or elles.
Pronoun
Ending
Add to stem,
Meanings
e.g. donn-
je 0')
-e
le donne
I give
tu
-e5
tu donnc!
you grve
il
-e
il donng
he/she/itlone gives
elle
elle donne
on
on donng
nou5
-tons
vous
lez
ils
elles
-ent
Pronoun
Ending
-tsse
Add to stem, e.g. finje finisse
Meanings
ie (')
tu
-isses
tu finisses
you finish
il
elle
on
nous
-tsse
he/she/it/one finishes
-tsstonS
il finisse
elle finisse
on finillc
nous finissions
we finish
vous
-issiez
vous finlEligz
vou finish
ils
elles
Jrsent
ils finissent
elles finissent
they finish
ie changes to i' in front of a word starting with a vowel, most words
starting with h, and the French word y.
Forming the present subiunctive of -re verbs
lsl
D
To form the stem of the present subiunctive you take the infinitive and chop off -re,
just as for the present tense. Then you add the correct ending, depending on
whether you are referring to je, tu, il, elle, on, nous, vous, ils or elles.
Pronoun
Ending
we qve
you gve
Add to stem,
Meanings
ils donnent
elles donnea!
they give
ie (i')
-e
i'attends
lwait
tu
-es
tu attendes
you wait
il
-e
il attende
elle attende
on attendc
he/she/it/one waits
-tons
-iez
nous attendions
vous attendlg!
we wait
-ent
ils attendent
elles aftendcqt
elle
on
nous
vous
j'
in front of a word starting with a vowel, most
words starting with h, and the French word y.
ie changes to
I finish
e.g. aftend-
nous donn!g!s
vous donnlgz
ils
elles
vou wait
they wait
f i/p
je changes to j' in front of a word starting with
starting with h, and the French word y.
For further explanation of grammatical termg please see pages viii-xii.
-ir,
just as for the present tense. Then you add the correct ending, depending on
whether you are referring to to je, tu, il, elle, on, nous, vous, ils or elles.
You may see a subjunctive after certain verbal expressions starting with il, such as il
is necessary thot) and il vaut mieux que (meaningj it is better
that).
.)
Forming the present subiunctive of -ir verbs
To form the stem of the present subiunctive you take the infinitive and chop off
faut que (meaning it
ll faut que je vous oarle.
131
a
vowel, most words
132 Vrnes
E
)
VeRss 133
lrregular verbs in the subjunctive
Some important verbs have irregular subiunctive forms.
Verb
Meaning
ie (i'l
ttl
illelle/on
aller
avoir
to oo
allle
ailles
aille
to hove
ate
aies
ait
devoir
to hove
to, must
doive
doives
dire
to soyl
to tell
dise
€tre
faire
to be
pouvoir
nous
allions
vous
ils/elles
alliez
aillent
ayons
devions
ayez
deviez
aient
doive
dises
dise
dlsions
disiez
disent
50r5
sots
soit
soyons
soyez
to do,
to moke
fasse
fasses
fasse
fassions
fassiez
soient
fassent
to be oble
to, con
pur5se
puisses
purs5e
puissions
puissiez
puissent
toke
y'
r'
infinitive. The
infinitive is the form of the verb that is found in the dictionary, such as
donner (meaning to give), finir (meanin g to finish) and attendre (meaning
doivent
to
preniez I prennent
I prenne I prennes I prenne prenions
(apprend re and comprendre also behave like this - j'ag rprenne, tu rpPrennes
and so on
savotr
to know
sache
saches
sache
sachions
sachiez
sa<hent
ventr
to come
vtenne vtennes
vtenne
ventons
ventez
viennent
vouloir
to want to
veuille
veullles
veuille
voulions
voullez
veuillent
prendre
Verbs followed by an infinitive
1l Linking two verbs together
> Many verbs in French can be followed by another verb in the
to wqit).
>
There are three main ways that verbs can be linked together:
.
.
.
I
Attercertain verbs you have ,5""tJ:'ltj""ctive in French when there is a
different subject in the two clauses. These verbs mostly relate to wishing,
fearing, and saying what you think, what you feel and that you are
,.n.:qi:..1 subjunctive ii also found aftei certain verbal expressions that
start with ll.
t
)
For more information on Prepositions
ofter verbs,
2)
fhe present tense subjunctive endings for -ir verbs
are:
-isse, -isses, -lsse, -issions, -issiez and -issent.
see
Would you like to wait?
l'm learning to swim.
Try to come.
ofter odjectives, and on Prepositions
pages 1 83 qnd 1 78.
Verbs followed by an infinitive
with no preposition
D A number of verbs and groups of verbs can be followed by an infinitive
with no preposition. The following important group of verbs are all very
irregular, but they crop up so frequently that they are worth learning in full:
o devoir (to have to, must, to be due to)
y'- tne
y'
Vous voulez aftendre?
with the preposition i
J'apprends d nager.
with the preposition de
Essayez de venir.
stem of the present tense subiunctive is the same as the stem used for
1ne
the ordinary present tense.
present tense subiunctive endings for -er and -re verbs are:
-e, -es, -e, -ions, -iez and -ent.
with no linking word
o
Tu dois 6tre fatigu6e.
You must be tired.
Elle doit oartir.
Le nouveau centre commercial
doit ouvrir en mai.
The new shopping centre is due to
open in May.
pouvoir (can, moy)
Je pcux t'aideI, si tu veux.
Puls-ie venir vous voir samedi?
She has to leave.
I can help you, if you like.
May I come and see you on
Saturday?
savoir (fo know how to, con)
Tu sais conduire?
Je sais faire les omelettes.
vouloir (to wont)
Elise veut rester un iour de plus.
Ma voiture ne veut pas
Can you drive?
I know how to make omelettes.
Elise wants
to stay one more
day.
My car won't start.
d6marer.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii,
Voulez-vous boire quelque chose? Would you like something to drink?
l'd like to buy a computer.
Je voudrais acheter un
ordinateur.
134
}
Vrnss
Venes
faffoir (meaning to be
necessary) and
valoir mieux (meaning to be
better)
>
are only used in the infinitive and with il.
ll faut orendre une d6cision. We/you efc. have to make a dec
ll vaut mieux t6l6ohoner avant. lt's better to ring first.
D For more information on lmpersonal verbs, see page 127.
l The following common verbs can also be followed by an infinitive without
preposition:
adorer
to love
aimer
to like, to love
aimer mieux to prefer
d6sirer
to want
d6tester
to hate
envoyer
to send
esp6rer
to hope
faire
to make, to have something done (fhat
quelque chose)
laisser
pr6f6rer
sembler
to movement of some kind and do not have a direct
(meanin g to go) and venir (meaning to come), can be
aller
as
such
obiect,
followed by an infinitive
l'm going to see Nicolas tonight.
Je vais voir Nicolas ce soir.
Verbs that relate
3]
s'amuser ir faire quelque
J'apprends i skier.
ll a commenc6 d pleuvoir.
is,
faire faire
Some of these verbs combine with infinitives to make set phrases with a
special meaning.
aller chercher quelque chose
to go and get something
laisser tomber quelque chose
to drop something
vouloir dire quelque chose
to mean something
}
Go and get your dad!
Paul dropped the vase.
What does that mean?
Verbs that relate to seeing or hearing, such asvoir (meaning to see),
regarder (meaning to watch, to look at),6couter (meaning to listen fo) and
entendre (meaning to heor) can be followed by an infinitive.
ll nous a vus arriver.
On entend chanter les
oiseaux.
He saw us arrive.
You can hear the birds singing.
For further explanation of grammatical tems, please see pages viii-xii.
to go on doing something
to get used to doing something
l'm learning to ski.
It began to rain.
verbs can be followed by a person's name or by a noun relating to a
person, and then by ir and an infinitive. Sometimes you need to put i in
front of the person too.
to help someone do something
aider quelqu'un i faire quelque
chose
to teach someone to do
apprendre i quelqu'un ir faire
something
quelque chose
inviter quelqu'un ir faire quelque to invite someone to do
I hope to see you next week.
rire!
Don't make me laugh!
J'ai_faltfCparer mes chaussures. l've had my shoes mended.
Je pr6fdre manger d la cantine. I prefer to eat in the canteen.
to have fun doing something
to learn to do something
to begin to do something
>> Some
to seem
Va chercher ton papa!
Paul a laiss6 tomber le vase.
Ou'est-ce que ga veut dire?
chose
apprendre ir faire quelque chose
€ommencer ir faire quelque chose
continuer i faire quelque chose
s'habituer i faire quelque chose
prochaine.
Ne me fuis pas
)
Verbs followed bv d + infinitive
There are some common verbs that can be followed by ir and an infinitive.
to let
to prefer
J'espite te voir la semaine
Come and see!
Viens voir!
L
135
chose
tr
L
something
Verbs followed by de + infinitive
There are some common verbs that can be followed by de and an infinitive'
arreter de faire quelque chose,
to stop doing something
s'arr€ter de faire quelque chose
commencer de faire quelque chose to start doing something
to go on doing something
continuer de faire quelque chose
to decide to do something
d6cider de faire quelque chose
to hurry to do something
quelque
chose
faire
de
se d6p6cher
to try to do something
quelque
chose
essayer de faire
to apologize for doing something
quelque
chose
s'excuser dlavoir fait
finir de faire quelque chose
oublier de faire quelque chose
proposer de faire quelque chose
refuser de faire quelque chose
sugg6rer de faire quelque chose
to finish doing something
to forget to do something
to suggest doing something
to refuse to do something
to suggest doing something
136
Venes
Venes
J'ai-d€erd6_dc lui 6crire.
Je leur ai sugg6r6 de partir
I decided to write
de
to
her.
I suggested that they set off early.
bonne heure,
L
The following verbs meaning asking or telling are also followed by de and
an infinitive. Sometimes you need to put ir in front of the person you are
asking or telling.
i quelqu'un de faire
quelque chose
demander i quelqu'un de faire
commander
quelque chose
dire ir quelqu'un de faire
quelque
to ask someone to do something
to prevent someone from doing
quelque chose
something
remercier quelqu'un de faire
to thank someone for doing
quelque chose
something
Grammar Extra!
lf it is important to emphasize that something is going on at a particular time, you can
use the phrase €tre en train de faire quelque chose.
ll est en train de travailler. Est-ce que
vous
>
The infinitive can be used in many other ways:
.
after certain adjectives
content de happy to
pr€t i ready to
ll est touiours
Elisabeth vient de partir. Aisabeth has just left.
(
{
rf
o
J'ai besoin de changer de l'argent. I need to change some money.
o
in instructions that are aimed at the general public
-
for example, on
signs or in cookery books
Aiouter le sel et le poivre,
bien m6langer.
Conserver au frais.
et
Add the salt and pepper, and mix
well.
Keep refrigerated.
the subject or object of a sentence, when the infinitive corresponds to
the -ing form in English used as a noun
Smoking isn't good for your health.
Fumer n'est pas bon pour la
sant6.
I love reading.
J'adore lire.
as
Ttp
You can use the verb faire with an infinitive to refer to something
you are having done by someone else.
I have to get my car
Je dois faire r6oarer ma
voiture.
f
(
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
to help.
How do you get to the station?
Pour aller d la gare?
ll est parti sans dire au revoir. He left without saying goodbye.
after certain set phrases involving a verb plus a noun
avoir envie de faire quelque chose to feel like doing something
avoir besoin de faire quelque chose to need to do something
avoir peur de faire quelque chose to be frightened of doing
something
He's working. Can you call back later?
lf you want to say you have just done something, you can use the phrase venir de faire
PAST tense, but in French you use the pRESENT
tense.
He's always ready
service.
pouvez rappeler plus tard?
quelque chose. In English you use the
pttOti-re[drc
o after certain prepositions
to tell someone to do something
chose
emp€cher quelqu'un de faire
Other uses of the infinitive
to order someone to do
something
137
repaired.
Nrcnrves
>
A negative question or statement is one which contains a word such as
not, never or nothing and is used to say that something is not happening,
is not true or is absent.
139
In English, drd is often used to make a statement negative.
I went to his party. * | didn't go to his party.
We saw David at the weekend. + We didn't see David at the weekend.
Note that the French verb faire is NEVER used in this way.
fl
> non
plus is the equivalent of English neither in phrases like me neither,
neither do / and so on.
'l don't like hamburgers.'- 'Me
hamburgers.'-'Moi non plus.' neither.'
ll n'y va pas et moi non plus. He isn't going and neither am l.
'Je n'aime pas les
tr
F
Using negatives
ln Engfish we
use
words like not, no, nothing and neverto show a negative.
l'm not very pleased.
Dan never ranq me.
Nothing ever happens here!
There's no milk left.
)
Nof is often combined with certain English verbs
won't, didn't, hasn't.
He isn't iokino.
- for example, can!
)
The French word ne is missed out when negatives are used without a verb
to answer a question.
'Oui a t6l6phon67'- 'Personne.' 'Who rang?'-'Nobody.'
'Qu'est-ce que tu fais cet
'What are you doing this
afternoon?' - 'Nothing.'
aprds-midi?' - 'Bign.'
Ttp
She didn't sav.
In everyday conversation French native speakers often miss out the
word ne. Be careful about doing this yourself in formal situations.
L In French, if you want to make something negative, you generally use a pair
of words, for example, ne ... pas (meaning not). The verb goes in the
middle.
ne ... pas
not
ne ... rien
nothing, not ... anything
ne ... personne nobody, no one, not... anybody, not ... anyone
ne ... jamais
never, not .., ever
ne ... plus
no longer, no more, not... any longer, not... any more
Je ng fume oas.
Ne changez rien.
Je ne vois personne.
Elle nlanive iamais d I'heure.
ll ng travaille plus ici.
Je peux pas venir ce
ll me l'a pas dit.
I can't see anybody.
He didn't tell me.
Sometimes you will find two of these negative expressions combined.
lls ne font jamais rien d'int6ressant. They never do anything interesting.
I don't know anyone in Nice any
Je ne connais plus personne
more.
i Nice.
El
Word order with negatives
D Negative expressions in French 'sandwich' the verb in the present tense and
in other tenses that consist of lust one word. ne goes before the verb and
the other half of the exoression comes after the verb.
ll ne boit iamais d'alcool.
ll ne pleuvait pas.
For further explanation of grammatical tenns, please see pages viii-xii.
I can't come tonight.
Grammar Extra!
I don't smoke.
Don't change anything.
She never arrives on time.
He's no longer working here.
soir.
He never drinks alcohol.
It wasn't raining.
140 Necnrvrs
)
Necnrves
In the perfect tense and other tenses that consist of two or more words
such as the pluperfect there are two possibilities:
.
ne ... pas, ne ... rien, ne ... plus and ne ... jamais follow the pattern:
ne (n') + avoir or €tre + pas + past participle
Elle n'a pAS fait ses devoirs. She hasn't done her homework.
I didn't say anything.
Je n'ai rien dit.
Piene nlest pas encore aniv6. Pierre isn't here yet.
o ne ... personne
follows the pattern:
ne (n') + avoir or €tre + past participle + personne
Je n'ai vu personne.
I didn't see anybody.
+ For more informqtion on the Perfect tense, see poge 111.
) A negative sentence may also contain a pronoun such as te, le, lui and so
on that is the direct or indirect oblect of the verb, or a reflexive pronoun. lf
so, ne comes before the pronoun.
Je ne t'entends pas.
Ne lui parle pas!
Tu ng te rappelles pas de lui?
ll ne se ldve iamais avant midi.
+
)
I can't hear you.
Don't speak to him/her!
Don't you remember him?
He never gets up before midday.
For more informotion on Direct ond Indirect object pronouns and on
Reflexive pronount see pqges 47, 49 snd 89.
When a verb is in the infinitive, ne ... pas, ne ... rien, ne ... plus and ne ...
jamais come together before the infinitive.
ll essayait de ne oas rire.
J'ai peur de ne pas r6ussir.
He was trying not to laugh.
l'm afraid of not succeeding.
After these negative expressions, un, une and des (the indefinite /
arttgl$ and du, de la, de l' and des (the partlttye_arttelO change to
de.
4
for more informotion on the tndefinite article and the Portitive
orticle, see pages 1 9 and 22.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
3
I
141
non and pas
> non (meaning
no) is the usual negative answer to a question. lt can also
correspond to nof in English.
'Tu veux nous accompagner?'- 'Do you want to come with us?''Non, merci.'
'No thanks.'
Tir viens ou non?
Are you coming or not?
J'espdre que !!g_lt.
I hope not.
pas is generally used when a distinction is being made, or for emphasis.
It, too, often corresponds to not in English.
'Oui veut m'aider?'-'Pas
moi!'
'Who wants to help me?' - 'Not
me!'
'Est-il de retour?' -'Pas encore.' 'ls he back?' - 'Not yet.'
'Tu as froid?'-'Pas du tout.'
'Are you cold?' - 'Not at all.'
Pas question!
No way!
Oursnorus
OUESTIONS
E-j
)
What is a question?
A question is a sentence which is used to ask someone about something
and which normally has the verb in front of the subject. A question word
such as why, where, who, which or how is used to ask a question.
)
The basic rules
There are four ways of asking questions in French:
o by making your voice go up at the end of the sentence
o by using the phrase est-ce que
o by changing round the order of words in a sentence
o by using a question word
tr
}
question, the verb is put BEFORE the subject. This change to normal word
order is called inversion. You can do this when the subject is a pronoun
such as vous or il. When you change the word order (or invc$ in this way,
you add a hyphen (-) between the verb and the pronoun.
Vous (subiect) aimez (verb)
lf you are expecting the answer yes or no, there is a very straightforward
way of asking a question. You can keep word order just as it would be in a
normal sentence (subject then verb), but turn it into a question by making
your voice go up at the end of the sentence. 5o to turn the sentence Vous
aimez la France (meaning You like France) into a question, all you need to
do is to add a question mark and make your voice go up at the end.
Vous (sublect) aimez (verb) la
Do you like France?
France?
We're leaving right away.
C'est vrai.
C'est vrai?
Tes parents sont en vacances.
Tes parents sont en vacances?
That's that true.
ls that true?
Are we leaving right away?
The phrase est-ce que is used to ask a question. Word order stays just the
same as it would in an ordinary sentence. Est-ce que comes before the
subject and the verb comes after the subject. So to turn the sentence Tu
connais Marie (meaning You know Morie) into a question, all you need to
do is to add est-ce que.
tr Asking a question bv changing word order
) In ordinary sentences, the verb comes AFTER its subject. In this type of
Asking a question by making llour voice go up
On part tout de suite.
On part tout de suite?
Asking a question by using est-ce que
Est-ce oue tu (subject) connais Do you know Marie?
(verb)MarieT
Est-ce que vous allez en ville? Are you going into town?
Est'ce que ta [email protected] est vraiment ls your sister really happy?
heureuse?
How to ask a question in French
tl-l
18
You like France.
la France.
Aimez (verblvous (subject)
Do you like France?
la France?
ll6crit bien.
+
Ecrit-ilbien?
He writes well.
Does he write well?
On part tout de suite.
Part-on tout de suite?
We're leaving right away.
Are we leaving right away?
For more
informotion on Pronouns,
see
poge 42.
Ttp
Your parents on holiday.
Are your parents on holiday?
This is quite a formal way of asking a question.
In the perfect tense and other tenses that consist of two or more words
such as the pluperfect the part of the verb that comes from avoir or Gtre
the one that goes before the pronoun.
Ag-tu vu mon sac?
Est-elle rest6e longtemps?
+
For furthel explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
Have you seen my bag?
Did she stay long?
For more information on the Perfect tense, see
page 111.
is
144
l
Oussrolrts 145
0uesroru$
you can use est-ce que. lf you do this, the question word goes at the
START of the sentence.
you can change word order so that the verb comes before the subject.
lf you do this, the question word goes at the START of the sentence.
Vous arrivez quand?
Ouand est-ce que vous arrivez? When do you arrive?
Ouand anivez-vous?
When the verb ends in a vowel in the illglle form, -t- is inserted before the
pronoun to make the words easier to say.
Aime-t-il les chiens?
Does he like dogs?
Atelle assez d'argent?
Does she have enough money?
Ttp
Unlike English there are two ways in French of answering yes to a
question or statement. oui is the word you use to reply to an
ordinary question.
'Tu l'as
fait?'-'Oui.'
'Elle est belle, n'est-ce
'Oui.'
,
pas?'-
Ouel train est-ce que tu
Ouel train prends-tu?
'Have you done it?' - 'yes.,
'She's beautiful, isn't she?'
Grammar Extra!
You can also form a question in this way with a noun or a person's name. lf you do this,
the noun or name comes firsf then you add an extra pronoun after the verb and link
them with a hyphen.
Jean-Piene (subject)
ls Jean-Pierre there?
(pronoun) li?
est(verb)-il
La piCce dure-t-elle longtempsT Does the play last long?
In less formal French, the pronoun may come before the verb, and the noun or name
may come at the end of the sentence.
ll est li, Jean-Piere?
ls Jean-Pierre there?
Elle dure longtemps, la pilce?
Does the play last long?
Asking a question by using a question word
}
A question word is a word like when or how that is used to ask for
information. The most common French question words are listed on pages
146-150.
l
You can use a question word with one of the methods described above:
. you can make your voice go up at the end of the sentence. lf you do
this, the question word goes at the END of the sentence.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii,
prends?
lls vont ou?
Oi est-ce qu'ils vont?
-'Yes.'
si is the word you use to reply to a question or statement that
contains a negative expression like ne ... pas.
'Tu ne l'as pas fait?'-'Si.'
'Haven't you done it?' - 'Yes
(l have).'
'Elle n'est pas tris belle.''She isn't very beautiful.' 'Mais si!'
'Yes, she is!'
tr
Tu prends quel train?
What train are you getting?
Where are they going?
Oi vont-ils?
+
For more information on Negatives, see
poge | 38.
146 Oueslorus
Oursnorus 147
O,uestion words
tr
)
2I
Common question words
>
Listed below are some very common question words. que, quel, qui, quol
and lequel, are explained on pages 147-150.
o
o
vas-tu How many people are you going to
inviter?
comment?
Gomment va-t-elle?
Comment tu t'appelles?
invite?
how?
How is she?
What's your name?
In questions, qui, que and quoi are all pronouns. Which of them you
choose depends on:
o whether you are referring to people or to things
o
combien + verb? how much?, how many?
combien de + noun? how much?, how many?
Combien co0te cet ordinateur? How much does this computer
C'est combien, ce pantalon? How much are these trousers?
Tu en veux combien? Deux? How many do you want? Two?
Combien de personnes
qui?. que? and quoi?
o
t
)
whether you are referring to the subject or object of the verb (the
subject is the person or thing that is carrying out the action described
by the verb; the object is the person or thing that'receives'the action)
whether the word you use will come after a preposition such as i, de
or en
For more informqtion on Pronouns ond Prepositions, see poges
42 and 62'
> qui? and que? have longer forms, as shown in the table below. There
is a
difference in word order between the longer and shorter forms'
is used for talking about people, and means who? or whom? in English.
You can use whom? in formal English to refer to the object of verb, though
> qui?
most people use who). qui? gan be used after a preposition.
pardon
is also used to ask someone to repeat something, and is thd".
same as Pardon? in English. comment and quoi can mean the same
thing, but are informal, and are the same as Whot? in English.
oi?
Ori allez-vous?
D'or) viens-tu?
Who?
Whom?
Referring to
Subiect
qui?
Meaning
Examples
Meaning
who?
Qui vient?
Who's coming?
people
qui est-ce
where?
Where are you going?
Qui est-ce
qui vient?
qui?
Object
Where are you from?
qui?
who?
Qui vois-tu?
qui est-ce
whom?
Qui est-ce
que tu vois?
De qui est-ce
que?
rtp
qui?
After
prepositions qui est-ce
Be careful not to mix up oir, which means where, and ou (without
an accent), which means or.
pourquoi?
why?
Pourquoi est-ce qu'il ne vient
pas avec nous?
quand?
Quand est-ce gue tu pars en
Why isn't he coming with us?
que?
when?
qu'il parle?
Pour qui est ce
livre?
A qui avez-vous
6crit?
Who's he
talking about?
Who's this
book for?
Who did you write
to?, To whom did
you write?
When are you going on holiday?
rw
How long have you known him?
que changes to qu' before a vowel, most words beginning with
h, and the French word y.
vacances?
Depuis quand est-ce que vous
le connaissez?
who?
whom?
Who/Whom
can you see?
t)
For further explanation of grammatical torms, please see pages viii-xii.
For more informqtion on que ond
qui,
see
page 62.
ih',
148
} i
Ouesrolvs
Ouesrnrus
qui
is
+
quel, quelle, quels and quelles are all forms of the same word. The form
that you choose depends on whether you are referring to something that
is masculine or feminine, singular or plural.
the usual way of saying whose in questions.
A qui est ce sac?
Whose is this bag?
For more information on using
d to show possession,
see
English. que? cannot be used after a preposition; you have to use quoi?
instead.
Referring to
Masculine
Feminine
Meaning
Singular
quel?
quelle?
who?
what?
which?
Plural
quels?
quelles?
who?
what?
which?
page 165.
L que? and quoi? are used for talking about things, and mean what? in
What?
Meaning
Examples
Meaning
what?
Qu'est-ce qui se
What's
happening?
things
Subject
qu'est-ce qui?
passe?
Qu'est-ce qui
t'inquiEte?
Object
qu'est-ce que? what?
quoi?
After
prepositions
what?
Whatt worrying
you?
Qu'est-ce que
vous faites?
Que faites-vous?
What are you
doing?
A quoi pensestu?
De quoi parlezvous?
What are you
thinking about?
grammar,
Who did you write to?
Whqt ore you talking about?
It is NEVER possible to end a French sentence with a preposition.
quel?, quelle?. quels? and quelles?
For more information on Adjectives
and Pronouns,
Ouelle est ta couleur pr6f6r6e?
Ouelle heure est-il?
What's your favourite colour?
Ouels sont tes chanteurs
pr6f6r6s?
Vous jouez de quels
Who are your favourite singers?
What time is it?
What instruments do you play?
t
)
{{
For more information on how quel
What are your favourite colours?
Which shoes do you like best?
in used in exclomotions,
see
page 21
.
lequel?. laquelle?. lesquels? and lesquelles?
D In questions lequel, laquelle, lesquels and lesquelles (meaning which
one/ones?) are all forms of the same pronoun, and are used to replace
nouns. The form that you choose depends on whether you are referring to
something that is masculine or feminine, singular or plural.
quel? (meaning who?, which? or what) can be used with a noun (as an
adiective) or can replace a noun (as a pronoun). Compare this with que?
(and its longer forms) and quoi?, which also mean whot?, but are NEVER
used with nouns.
+
Who's your favourite singer?
Which wine do you recommend?
Ouelles sont tes couleurs
pr6f6r6es?
Ouelles chaussures te plaisent
le plus?
Ttp
as about or of, even though some people think this is not good
Ouel est ton chanteur pt6t6r6?
Ouel vin recommandez-vous?
instruments?
What are you
talking about?
It is possible to finish an English sentence with a preposition such
tr
149
see poges
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
25 ond 42.
Masculine
Feminine
Meaning
Singular
lequel?
laquelle?
which?
which one?
Plural
lesquels?
lesquelles?
which?
which ones?
'J'ai choisi un livre.'-'Lequel?'
'l've chosen a book.'-'Which one?'
Laouelle de ces valises est d
Bruno?
Which of these cases is Bruno's?
150
Oursrorus
Ouesnorus 151
'Tu te souviens de mes
-'Lcs_Sce!S?'
amis?'
Lesouelles de vos seurs
mari6es?
sont
'Do you remember my friends?'-
tWhich ones?'
Which of your sisters are married?
+
For more informotion on lequel, see poge 63.
tr
n'est-ce pas? and non?
}
English-speakers often use an expression like isn't it?, don't they?, weren't
we? or will you? tagged on to the end of a sentence to turn it into a
question. French uses n'est-ce pas? instead. This useful little phrase never
changes, so is very easy to use. You use it in questions when you expect
person you are talking to to agree with you.
ll fait chaud, n'est-ce
pas?
Tu parles frangais, n'est-ce
Vous n'oublierez pas,
pas?
n'est-ce
lt's warm, isn't it?
You speak French, don'tyou?
You won't forget, will you?
pas?
)
lt
common to use non (meaning no) in the same way in spoken
French. hein? means the same as eh? in English, and is only used in very
informal conversations.
is very
ll fait chaud, non?
ll fait chaud, hein?
It's warm, isn't it?
It's warm, eh?
Grammar Extra!
All the questions in the previous section are the actual words that someone uses when
they are asking a question, and so they all end with a question mark. These are called
diree! questions. When you are telling someone else about a question that is being
lrked, you use an indirect question. Indirect questions never end with a question mark,
rrrd they are always introduced by a verb such as to ask, to tell, to wonder, to know and
ro on.
He asked me what the time was. (His actual question was What is the timeT)
Tell me which way to go. frour actual question was Which way do I go)
Word order in indirect questions is generally the same as in English:
question word + subject verb.
Dites-moi quel (question word)
autobus (subject)va (verb) ila
gafe.
ll m'a demand6 combien
d'argent j'avais.
Je me demande s'il viendra
ou pas.
He asked me how much money
I had.
I
wonder if he'll come or not.
When the subiect of the question is a noun and NOT a pronoun like ie or il, the sublect
,rnd verb that come after the question word are often swapped round.
oi (question
word) sont (verb) mes cl6s (subject).
Je me demande
Demande-lui qui est
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
Tell me which bus goes to the
station.
venu.
I
wonder where my keys are.
Ask him who came.
Aovenes 153
ADVERBS
What is an adverb?
An adverb is a word usually used with verbs, adjectives or other adverbs
that gives more information about when, how, where, or in what
circumstances something happens, for example, quickly, hoppily, now.
Masculine adjective
Feminine adjective
Adverb
Meaning
heureux
heureuse
heureusement
fortunately
doux
douce
doucement
gently, slowly
seul
seule
seulement
only
The adverb ending -ment is added to the masculine not the feminine form
of the adjective if the masculine ends in -6, -i or -u.
Masculine adjective
Feminine adjective
Adverb
Meaning
How adverbs are used
d6sesp6r€
d6sesp6r6e
d6sesp6r6ment
desperately
)
vral
vrate
vraiment
truly
absolu
absolue
absolument
absolutely
ln general, adverbs are used together with:
o
verbs (act quickly. speak strongely. smile cheerfully)
adjectives (rc!fu ill, q lot better, deeply sorry)
o
. other adverbs (resWfart, bo quickly, ysrywell)
l
)
lf the adjective ends in -ant, the adverb ends in -amment. lf the adjective
ends in -ent, the adverb ends in -emment. The first vowel in the -emment
and -amment endings is pronounced in the same way in both - like the o
in the English word caf.
courant + couramment (fluently)
Adverbs can also relate to the whole sentence; they often tell you what the
speaker is thinking or feeling.
r6cent
Fortunately, Jan had already left.
Actually, I don't think l'll come.
@
)
The basic rules
tris
Elles sont
beau.
tris belles.
J'y vais souvent.
Nous y allons souvent.
@
)
He's very handsome.
They're very beautiful.
I often go there.
We often go there.
t,tote that there is one exception to this rule. The word tout changes
in certain phrases, for example, tout seul (meaning oll alone).
seul,
Elle est souvent toute seule.
ll est aniv6 tout
)
A
Adverbs in French NEVER change their form, no matter what they refer to.
ll est
r6cemment (recently)
Note that an exception to this rule is the adverb lentement
(meaning slowly), which comes from the adjective lent (meaning
slow).
How adverbs are formed
tr
*
He arrived on his own.
lrregular adverbs
There are a number of common irregular adverbs.
Adjective
Meaning
Adverb
Meaning
bon
good
bien
well
gentil
nice, kind
gentiment
nicely, kindly
mauvars
bad
mal
badly
meilleur
better, best
small
mieux
peu
better
petit
pire
worse
Pis
worse
Elle travaille bien.
She's often on her own.
Many English adverbs end in Jy, which is added to the end of the adiectivc
(quick - quickly, sad - sodlt/;, frequent - frequentQ. In French, many
adverbs end in -ment. This is usually added to the end of the feminine
singular form of the adjective.
G'est un emploi trds mal pay6.
l{
>
She works well.
It's a very badly paid job.
Adjectives used as adverbs
Certain adlectives are used as adverbs, mostly in set phrases:
o
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
little
bon good
sentir bon to smell nice
154
AoveRes 155
Aovenes
cher expensive
Comparatives and superlatives of adverbs
co0ter cher to be expensive
payer cher to pay a lot
.t I Comparative adverbs
droit straight
aller tout droit to go straight on
dur hard
travailler dur to work hard
, What is a comparative adverb?
r A comparative adverb is one which, in English, has -er on the end of it or
i more or /ess in front of it for example, eorlier, loter, soonert moreless
i frequently
>
fort loud
parler plus fort to speak up
Adverbs can be used to make comparisons in French, just as they can in
English. The comparative (more often, faster) of adverbs is formed using the
same phrases as for adjectives.
o
mauvais bad
sentir mauvais to smell
tr
)
o
Adverbs can be made up of several words instead of iust one. Here are
50me common ones:
bien
sOr
de temps en temps
en g6n6ral
en retard
tout de suite
more ... (than)
first
o
usually
from time to time
less ... (than)
Don't speak so fast! (literally
Speak
fast!)
We see each other less often than
before.
Nous nous voyons moins
souvent qu'avant.
as... as
aussi ... que
Je parle frangais aussi bien
oue
I can speak French as well as you!
toi!
usually
straight away
(que)
You walk faster than me.
She's singing louder than the others.
less
is
late
moins ...
moi.
les
Parle moins vite!
of course
that
(que)
Elle chante plus fort gue
autres.
Adverbs made up of more than one word
c'est-ir-dire
d'abord
d'habitude
plus ...
Tu marches pluS vite que
Viens aussi vite que
possible.
Come as quickly as possible.
t)
For more information on Comparative odjectives, see poge 34.
ld
Superlative adverbs
What is a superlative adverb?
A superlative adverb is one which, in English, has -esf on the end of it or
most or leostin front of it, for example, soonest, fostest, mostlleast
frequently.
L
The superlative of adverbs (the most, the fastest) is formed using the same
phrases as for adjectives, except that le NEVER changes to la or les in the
feminine and plural with adverbs as it does with adjectives.
o
o
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
t)
le plus ... (que) the most ... (that)
Marianne parle le plus vite.
Marianne speaks fastest.
le moins ... (que) the least... (tha$
G'est Gordon qui a mang6 le moins. Cordon ate the least.
For more information on Superlotive odjectives, see page 34.
156
Aovenes 157
Aovenes
tr
Adverbs with iregular comparatives and superlatives
)
Some of the most common adverbs have irregular comparative and
superlative forms.
Adverb
beaucoup
Meaning
a lot
Comparative
plus
bien
well
mieux
better
le mieux
mal
badly
pis
worse
less
little
moins
C'est lui qui danse le mieux.
D Here are some common adverbs that do not end in -ment:
alors
apris
then, so, at that time
Meaning
Superlative
Meaning
more
le plus
(the) most
(the) best
aprEs-demain the day after tomorrow
le pis
le plus mal
(the) worst
assez
aussi
le moins
(the) least
avant-hier the day before yesterday
beaucoup a lot, much
bientOt soon
cependant however
plus mal
Peu
Some common adverbs
He dances best.
afterwards
aujourd'hui todaY
dedans
dehors
d6ia
demain
depuis
derriEre
devant
encore
enfin
ensemble
ensuite
environ
hier
ici
jamais
enough, quite
also, too, as
inside
outside
already, before
tomorrow
since
behind
in front
still, even, again
at last
together
then
about
yesterday
here
never, ever
rw
jamais can sometimes be used without ne to mean never or ever.
'Est-ce que tu vas souvent au 'Do you 9o to the cinema a
lot?' - 'No, never.'
cinema?'-'Non, ian0atg.'
pdre?
Did you ever see your father
As-tu iemels revu ton
again?
Q
for more information on Negatives,
ta
For further explanation of grammatical
tems, please see pages viii-xii.
li-bas
loin
see
poge 1j8.
there, here
over there
far, far off, a long time ago
158
AoveRss
AoveRes 159
longtemps a long time
maintenant now, nowadays
m€me
moins
oir
parfois
D
people:
even
.
less
where
partout
sometimes
everywhere
peu
not much, not very
o
not to confuse peu, which means not much or not very,
o
He doesn't travel much.
troP de too much, too many
J'ai mang6 trop de fromage. l've eaten too much
She's a bit shy.
cheese.
Several of the adverbs listed on pages "157 and 158 can also be used as
prepositions: apr6s, avant, devant derriEre and depuis.
)
The question words combien (meaning how much, how mony), comment
(meaning how), pourquoi (meaning why) and quand (meaning when) are
described on page 146.
)
pas, plus and jamais are used in negative word pairs.
50
soudain
souvent
suddenly
surtout
tard
tris
especially, above all
late
early
always, still
all, very
very
trop
too much, too
vite
quick, fast soon
For more informotion on Prepositions, see
page 162.
often
+
T{,p
vite and rapide can both mean fost or quick. Remember, though,
that vite is an adverb and rapide is an adiective.
une voiture
ll roule trop
She makes a lot of mistakes.
then
si
tout
fautes.
+
sometimes
toujours
beaucoup de a lot of
Elle fait beaucoup de
perhaps
more
nearly
plus
presque
puis
quelquefois
t6t
We don't have enough time.
invit6es?
D
peut-€tre
de
o combien de how much, how many
Gombien de personnes as-tu How many people have you invited?
with un peu, which means o little or q bit.
ll voyage peu.
Elle est un peu timide.
assez de enough
Nous n'avons pas assez
temps.
Ttp
Be careful
Some of the adverbs listed on pages 157 and 158 can be followed by de
and used in front of a noun to talk about quantities or numbers of things or
rapide
vite.
a fast car
He drives too fast.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
For more informqtion on Negotives, see
poge 138.
160 Aovrnas
Aovenes
Word order with adverbs
tr
)
>
Adverbs with verbs
Some adverbs FOLLOW the past participle of verbs that consist of more
than one word. This rule covers most adverbs that tell you how or where
something is done, and a few adverbs that tell you about time.
aujourd'hui today
In English, adverbs can come in different places in a sentence.
demain
hier
loin
l'm never coming back.
D In French, the
rules are more fixed. When an adverb goes with a verb that
consists of just one word, such as a verb in the present tense or the
imperfect tense, it generally goes AFTER that verb.
janvier.
Je pensais souvent d toi.
)
tard
vite
lt always snows in January.
I often used to think about you.
When an adverb goes with a verb that consists of more than one word,
such as a verb in the pcrfeeftense, it generally comes BETWEEN the part of
the verb that comes from avoir or €tre and the past participle.
ll a trop mang6.
He's eaten too much.
lls sont d6idr patis.
They've already gone.
tomorrow
yesterday
far, far off, a long time ago
longtemps a long time
partout everywhere
quelquefois sometimes
earlv
t6t
See you soon!
Suddenlv the phone rano.
l'd reallv like to come.
ll neige touiours en
161
late
quick, fast soon
On les a vus partout.
Elle est revenue hier.
,4
l
We saw them everywhere.
She came back yesterday.
Adverbs with adiectives and other adverbs
When an adverb goes with an adjective, it generally comes iust
BEFORE
that
adjective.
+
l
For more information on the Pertect tense, see
poge 'l 11.
The rule above covers most adverbs that tell you about quantity or time
(apart from a few listed later), and some very common ones telling you
how something is done.
beaucoup
bien
bientdt
d6ie
encore
enfin
mal
mieux
a lot, much
well
soon
already, before
still, even, again
at last
badly
better
not much, not very
peu
rarement rarely
souvent often
toujours always, still
trop
too much, too
vraiment really
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
lls ont une tris belle maison. They have a very nice house.
a well-dressed woman
une femme bien habill6e
)
When an adverb goes with another adverb, it generally comes just
that adverb.
C'est troo tard.
Fatima travaille beaucoup
pluS vite.
It's too late.
Fatima works much faster.
BEFORE
PReposmorus 163
PREPOSITIONS
i,
de and en
Eit
What is a preposition?
A preposition is a word such as at, for, with, into or from, which is
usually followed by a noun, pronoun or, in English, a word ending in -ing.
Prepositions show how people and things relate to the rest of the
D
Be careful not to confuse the preposition ir with the
verb avoir: il a (meaning he hos) and so on.
rw
sentence, for example, She's at home.; a tool for cutting grass; it's from
When ir is followed by le, the two words become au. Similarly,
when i is followed by les, the two words become aux.
David.
il
Using prepositions
}
Prepositions are used in front of nouns and pronouns (such as me, him, the
mqn and so on), and show the relationship between the noun or pronoun
and the rest of the sentence. Some prepositions can be used before verb
forms ending in -ing in English.
I showed my ticket to the inspector.
! i
to the rest of the sentence.
Je suis trds contente de te voir. l'm very happy to see you.
Tu aimes jouer au tennis?
Do you like playing tennis?
)
@
see
page
can mean ot.
Les melons se vendent
i
2
Melons are selling at 2 euros each.
We were driving at 100 km an hour
I threw a stone at Chantal.
l'm at home.
Note that ir la maison can also mean to the house.
l'm going back to the house or
Je rentre d la maison.
back home.
Li
can mean rn.
Nous habitons d la campagne.
Mon pdre est d Londres.
In English it is possible to finish a sentence with a preposition such as for,
obout or on, even though some people think this is not good grammar.
You can NEVER end a French sentence with a preposition.
Restez au lit.
Jean est entr6, un livre
main.
Le caf6 au laiL c'est pour qui? Who's the white coffee for?
What are you talking about?
Qe quoi parlez-vous?
i
la
We live in the country.
My father is in London.
Stay in bed.
Jean came in with a book in his
hand.
Ttp
rtp
ir is used to mean in with the names of towns and cities, and au
(singulor) or aux (plurot) with the names of countries that are
masculine in French.
I live in Mexico.
J'habite au Mexique.
Elle est aux Etats-Unis.
She's in the States.
The French preposition is not always the direct equivalent of the
preposition that is used in English. lt is often difficult to give just one
English equivalent for French prepositions, as the way they are used
varies so much between the two languages.
i
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
for more informotion on Articles,
euros pidce.
Nous roulions i 100 km i
l'heure.
J'ai lanc6 une pierre d Chantal.
Je suis d la maison.
Come with me.
This brush is really good for cleaning shoes.
+ For more informotion on Nouns ond Pronouns, see pqges 1 and 42.
) Prepositions are also used after certain adjectives and verbs and link them
illelle/on form of the
can mean to.
Je vais au cin6ma ce soir.
Donne le ballon d ton frdre.
l'm going to the cinema tonight.
Give the ball to your brother.
164
Pneposmorus 165
Pneposmorus
.
T'P
Onyvaipied?
is used to mean to with the names of towns and cities, and au
(singulor) or aux (plurol) with the names of countries that are
masculine in French.
le trajet de Londres d Pads
La banque est ouverte de 9
heures i midi.
Je suis en vacances du 21
auSjuillet.
Li
juin
mur.
Le bureau se trouve au
au
premier
6tage.
Ou'est-ce qu'il y a ir la t6l6
soir?
ce
[J
There are two beautiful paintings
on the wall.
The office is on the first floor.
>
What's on W tonight?
Note that ir and sur can both mean on in English. sur usually means
on the top of something. sur la t6l€ means on top of the W set, buL
i fa t6f6 means broadcqst on TV. Both can be translated as on the TV
in English. sur le mur means on top of the wall, but au mur means
la femme au chapeau vert
un gargon aux yeux bleus
the woman with the green hat
a boy with blue eyes
fait
i
la main
laver d la machine
hand-made
to machine-wash
what a type of food is made of
une tarte aux poires
un sandwich au jambon
a pear tart
a ham sandwich
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
i
ir is used with times, centuries and the names of festivals.
at
in
at
at
trois heures
au vingtiime siBcle
No6l
d Piques
d
i
three o'clock
the twentieth century
Christmas
Easter
ir is used to talk about distances and rates.
La maison est d 6 kilomdtres The house is 6 kilometres from here.
d'ici.
G'est dr deux minutes de chez lt's two minutes from my place.
!
i
l'heure.
\
ows who owns sornq:th\r
Ce cahier est i Pau[
J
C'est d toi?
C'est d qui de
how something is done
a coffee cup
i
Je suis pay6
what someone looks like or is wearing
a letter box
a washing machine
ruote that une tasse caf6 means a coffee cup, but une tasse de cafd
means o cup of coffee. In the same way, un verre vin means o vvine
g/oss but un verre de vin means o gloss of wine.
moi.
ir is often used to describe:
o
ir can also show what something is used for.
une boite aux lettres
une machine d laver
une tasse d caf6
5July.
hanging on the woll.
)
D
can mean on.
ll y a deux beaux tableaux
@
Apart from i v6fo and i cheval (meaning on horseback), the
prepositions en and par are used with most other means of
transport.
the journey from London to Paris
The bank is open from 9 to 12.
l'm on holiday from 21 June !o
He came on his bike.
Ttp
Je vais assez souvent d Paris. I go to Paris quite often.
ll va aux Etats-Unis la semaine He's going to the States
prochaine.
next week.
ir is also used with de to mean from ... to ...
Shall we walk?
ll est venu i v6lo.
i
}
how you travel
de
bains?
l'rh,Raid by the hour.
s.
ours?
nettoy\la salle
Vflhose.turh'is it to clean the
bathroom?
lf you want to say where something hurts, you use
J'ai mal d la t6te.
J'ai mal aux jambes.
J'ai mal i la gorge.
i.
l've got a headache.
My legs ache.
l've got a sore throat.
166
)
PRrposmorus 167
Pneposrrorus
ir is used with certain adjectives.
Son 6criture est difficile dr lire. His/Her writing is difficult to read.
l'm ready for anything.
Je suis pr6t dr tout.
+
) i
For more information about Prepositions
is used with certain verbs.
D
For more information obout Prepositions
lTt
+
see
Finally, some common ways of saying goodbye contain
auSjuillet.
)
See
See
you Saturday!
you later!
un amide la famille
les fen6tres de la maison
la voiture de Marie-Piene
is used as part of the partitive article, whibh is usually the equivalent of
some or ony in English.
For more information on the
Psrtitive orticle,
see page
@
)
22.
de can mean from.
Je viens d'Edimbourg.
une lettre de Rachid
Je la vois de temps en temps.
the windows of the house
Marie-Pierre's car
une boite g[allumeftes
deux bouteilles de vin
two bottles of wine
une tasse de caf6
a cup of coffee
a box of matches
Note that une tasse de caf6 means a cup of coffee butune tasse ir
caf6 means a coffee cup. ln the same way, un verre i vin means o
wine glass but un verre de vin means o gloss of wine.
de can describe what material something is made of.
a cotton dress
une robe de coton
a wooden door
une porte de bois
rw
en can also be used to say what something is made of, and
used when it is important to stress the material.
a gold bracelet
un bracelet en or
When de is followed by le, the two words become du. Similarly,
when de is followed by les, the two words become des.
for more information on Articles,
a friend of the family
of in English.
Ttp
4
l'm on holiday from 21 lune to
SJuly.
D de can indicate what something contains, when it usually corresponds to
de
de
juin
the journey from London to Paris
The bank is open from 9 to I 2.
de often shows who or what something belongs to.
page 178.
i.
with ir to mean from ... to ...
heures i midi.
Je suis en vacances du 21
See you soon!
See you tomorrow!
A bient6t!
A demain!
A samedi!
A tout i l'heure!
l
after verbs,
is also used
le trajet de Londres d Pads
La banque est ouverte de 9
sfter adiectives, see page 183.
s'int6resser i quelque chose to be interested in something
penser d quelque chose
to think about something
+
D de
see
poge 12.
is
41.,
You can use de to say what something is used for.
un sac de couchage
un terrain de foot
un an6t de bus
l'm from Edinburgh.
a letter from Rachid
I see her from time to time.
de
t)
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
a sleeping bag
a football pitch
a bus stop
found after superlatives (the most..., the biggest, the least... and so on).
la plus belle ville du monde the most beautiful city in the world
le film le moins int6ressant
the least interesting film in the
festival
du festival
is
For more informotion on Superlotive odjectives, see page 34.
168
Pneposmorus 169
Pnrposrlorus
years and months, and to say how long something
will take, when it is the equivalentof in/within:
in 1923
en 1923
in lanuary
en janvier
l'll do it in three days.
Je le ferai en trois iours.
D en is used to talk about
L de is used in phrases to talk about quantities.
Elle fait beaucoup de fautes. She makes a lot of mistakes.
Combien de personnes as'tu How many people have you invi
invit6es?
)
de is used with certain adlectives.
Je suis trds surpris de te
ll est triste de partir.
t)
voir.
For more informqtion on Prepositions
l'm very surprised to see you.
He's sad to be leaving.
ofter adjectives,
see
Gmmmar Extra!
en and dans can both be used in French to talk about a length of time, but the
meaning is very different.
page 183.
Grammar hctra!
lf you want to use an adiective after quelque chose, rien, quelqu'un and personne,
you link the words with de.
someone important
quelqu'un g['important
something interesting
quelque chose d'int6ressant
rien d'amusant
)
+
de is found after certain verbs.
d6pendre de quelque chose
parler de quelque chose
For more informqtion on Prepositions
l'll do it in three days.
Je le ferai dans trois jours.
l'll do it in three days.
Je le ferai en trois iours.
Though both can be translated in the same way, the first sentence means that you'll do
it in three days, time; the second means that it will take three days for you to do it.
)
nothing funny
to depend on something
to talk about something
ofter verbs,
see
en is used with the names of the seasons, except for spring'
in summer
en 6t6
in autumn
en automne
in winter
en hiver
in sPring
BUT: au printemPs
D en is used for most means of transport.
Je suis venu en voiture'
G'est plus rapide en train'
ll est all6 en ltalie en avion.
page 178.
tren
I came by car.
lt's quicker by train.
He flew to ltaly.
Ttp
@ Note that en is never followed by an article such as le, du or des.
) en is used to talk about a place. lt can be the equivalent of the English to
The prepositions
i
and par are also used with means of transport.
or in.
Je vais en ville.
ll a un appartement en ville,
Nous allons en France cet 6t6.
Nous habitons en France.
Use en to say what language something is in.
l'm going to town.
He has a flat in town.
We're going to France this summer.
We live in France.
rrp
en is used with the names of countries that are feminine in French.
Use ir with the names of towns and cities, and au or aux with
>
en can be used to say what something is made of when you particularly
want to stress the material.
a bracelet made of gold, a gold
un bracelet en or
'
un manteau en cuir
bracelet
a coat made of leather, a leather
coat
masculine countries.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages
'
une lettre 6crite en'espagnol a letter written in Spanish
Say it in English.
Dis-le en anglais.
viii-xii'
170
Pneposmorus 171
Pneposmorus
Eome other common Prepositions
t tote that some of these words are also adverbs, for example, avant,
depuis.
{f
)
r
en often describes the situation or state that something or someone is in.
l'm on holiday.
Je suis en vacances.
La voiture est en panne.
Tu es toujours en retard!
)
>
For more information on the Adverbs, see
o lpp|5 after
aprds le d6ieuner
aprds son d6part
is found before present participles. the form of the verb that ends in
-ing in English and -ant in French.
porte.
la troisiBme maison
I do my homework while watching
For more informotion on the Present
He saw me as he came past the
door.
participle,
see
apris la
after lunch
after he had left
the third house after the town hall
mairie
After you!
Aprds vous!
TV.
la
poge 152.
The following prepositions are also frequently used in French:
en
Je fais mes devoirs en
regardant la t616.
ll m'a vu en passant devant
r)
The car's broken down.
You're always late!
I
Note that where English uses a verb in the perfect tense following
ofter, French uses the infinitive avoir or 6tre and a past participle'
[J
Nous viendrons aprds avoir
la vaisselle.
poge 125,
o
@
fait
We,|l come after we,ve done the
dishes.
3y6n1 before
ll est arriv6 avant toi.
He arrived before you.
Toumez d gauche avant la
poste.
Turn left before the Post office.
Note that where English uses a verb ending in -ing alter before,
French uses de followed by the infinitive.
Jepr6firefinirmesdevoirsIprefertofinishmyhomework
before eating.
avant de manger.
o
avec with
with my father
unechambreavecsa||edebainaroomwithitsownbathroom
avec mon pdre
Ouvre-la avec un
.
For further explanataon of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
couteau'
chez
Elle est chez Pierre.
Elle va chez Pierre.
Je reste chez moi ce weekend'
Je vais rentrer chez moi.
lls habitent pris de chez moi.
Open it with a knife'
She's at Pierre's house.
Shet going to Pierre's house,
l'm staying at home this wecletttl
l'm going home.
They live near my house.
172
l
Pneposmorus 173
Pneposmorus
T'P
chez is also used with the name of jobs or professions to indicate
a shop or place of business.
I
Je vais chez le m6decin.
l
contre against
Ne mets pas ton v6lo contre
le mur.
l'm going to the doctor's.
behind the door
devant in front of
ll est assis devant moi.
He's sitting in front of me.
entre ... et between ... and
ll est assis entre son pire et
son oncle.
Le bureau est ferm6 entre 13
Don't put your bike against the wall
i
dans in, into
He's sitting between his father and
his uncle.
The office is closed between 1 and
2 p.m.
et 14 heures.
ll est dans sa chambre.
He's in his bedroom.
Nous passons une semaine
dans les Alpes.
dans deux mois
ll est entr6 dans mon bureau.
We're spending a week in the Alps.
jusque as far as, until
l'll go with you
Je te raccompagne iusque
in two months'time
He came into my office.
Jusqu'ot vas-tu?
Jusqu'ici nous n'avons pas eu
meaning is very different.
Je le ferai dans trois iours.
l'll do it in three days.
Je le ferai en trois jours.
l'll do it in three davs.
Though both can be translated in the same way, the first sentence means that you'll do
it in three days' time; the second means that it will take three days for you to do it.
depuis since, for
Elle habite Paris depuis
Elle habite Paris depuis
ans.
@
1998.
cinq
de septembre.
'1
998
She's been living in Paris for five
years.
He's been in France since
September. (ond he is still there)
lf you are saying how long something has NOT happened for, you use
the perfect tense with depuis.
Nous ne I'avqng pas vu deouis We haven't seen him for
un mois.
a month.
Q
For more informotion on the Present tense
How far are you going?
Up to now we've had no problems.
qnd the Pertect tense,
pogesTl and111.
For further explanation of grammatical te]ms, please see pages viii-xii.
see
l'm staying until the end of the
month.
jusque changes to jusqu' before a word beginning with a vowel,
most words starting with h, and the French word y.
.
She's been living in Paris since
Note that French uses the present tense with depuis to talk about
actions that started in the past and are still going on.
ll est en France depuis le mois
far as your house.
de probldmes.
Je reste iusqu'i la fin du mois.
dans and en can both be used in French to talk about a length of time, but the
o
as
chez toi.
Grammar Extra!
l
derriEre behind
derridre la porte
par by, with, per
deux par deux
two by two
Par le train
by train
by post
by email
His name begins with H.
Take three tablets per day.
par la poste
par email
Son nom commence oar un
H.
Prenez trois cachets oar iour.
Le voyage co0te quatre cents
euros Dar personne.
The trip costs four hundred euros
per person.
Nous nous voyons une fois oar We see each other once a month.
mois.
ll est tomb6 par terre.
ll y a beaucoup de touristes
There are a lot of tourists around
He fell down.
par ici.
here.
174
sans without
rtp
The prepositions
o
Pneposmorus 175
PReposmorus
i
Elle est venue sans son frdre'
un caf6 sans sucre
un pull sans manches
and en are also used with means of transport.
pendant during, for
Qa s'est pass6 pendant l'616.
ll n'a pas pu travailler pendant
plusieurs mois.
()
-
It happened during the summer.
He couldn't work for several
.
Ecosse.
en
i
NewYork
pendant
Q
under the table
underground
Pose-le sur le bureau.
Ton sac est sur la table.
years.
Vous verrez l,hapitat sur
gauche.
un livre sur la politique
l'll be in New York for a month.
for more information on the Pertect tense,
see
Everyone's coming except him'
SUr On
We lived in Scotland for ten
votre
Put it down on the desk.
Your bag is on the table.
You'll see the hospital on your left.
a book on politics
Note that i and sur can both mean on in English. sur usually means
on the top of something. sur la t6l6 means on top of the TV set, bul
i fa t6l6 means broadcost on TV. Both can be translated as on the TV
in English. sur le mur means on top of the wall, but au mur means
m
un mois.
a sleeveless sweater
sous under
o
pendant is also used to talk about something that will happen in the
future.
Je serai
lui.
sous la table
sous terre
You can also miss out pendant.
Nous avons habit6 dix ans
sauf except
Tout le monde vient sauf
.
French uses the perfect tense with pendant to talk about actions
in the past that are completed.
Nous avons habit6 pendant dix We lived in Scotland for ten
years. (but don't any more)
ans en Ecosse.
a coffee without sugar
Note that sans can also be used before infinitives in French. In English a
verb form ending in -ing is used after without.
Elle est partie sans dire au revoir. She left without saying goodbye.
months.
Ttp
She came without her brother.
page 111
hanging on the wall.
pour for (who or what something is for, and where something or someone
is
going)
Ttp
lt's a present for you.
C'est un cadeau pour toi.
Nous voudrions une chambre We'd like a room for two nights.
oour deux nuits.
the train for Bordeaux
le train pour Bordeaux
E
Note that pour can also be used with infinitives, when
meaning of in order to.
it
and by.
one person in ten
une personne sur six
I got 14 out of 20 in maths'
quatorze
en
vingt
sur
J'ai eu
maths.
La pidce fait quatre mitres sur The room measures four metres
bY two'
deux.
has the
She's ringing to find out what time
Elle tt6l6phone pour savoir i
we'll get there.
quelle heure on arrivera.
Pour aller dr Nice, s'il vous plait? Which way is it to Nice, please?
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
With numbers and measurements sur can also mean in, out of
.
vers towards (a place), at about
ll allait vers la gare.
Je rentre chez moi vers cinq
heures.
He was going towards the station.
I go home at about 5 o'clock.
176
}
PReposmoNs 177
Pnepognorus
voici (meaning this is, here rs) and voilir (meaning there is, that rs) are two
very useful prepositions that French speakers often use to point things out.
This is my brother and that's my
Voici mon frire et voild
ma
consisting of more than one word
one.
Prepositions can also be made up of several words instead of iust
de
de
i cause de
at the edge of, at the side of
after
s(Eur.
sister.
Voici ton sac.
Here's your bag.
au bord
au bout
Le voici!
Here he/it is!
Look! There's Paul.
Have you lost your pen? Here's
another one.
There they are!
au-dessous de below
au-dessus de above
au fond de at the bottom of, at the end of
au milieu de in the middle of
Tiens!Voild Paul.
Tu as perdu ton stylo? En
un autre.
Les voildr!
voilir
i
because of
Au bout d'un moment, il s'est
endormi.
Nous ne pouvons Pas sortir
i-eeuse-dg mauvais temps.
J'ai gar6 la voiture au bord de
la route.
Mon porte-monnaie est au fond
dg mon sac.
Place le vase au milieu de la
table.
For further explanation of grammatical
toms, please sce pages vlii-xli.
After a while, he fell asleep'
We can't go out because of the bad
weather.
I parked the car bY the side of the
road.
My purse is at the bottom of mY
bag.
Put the vase in the middle of the
table.
178
Pneposnprus 179
Pneposlrrols
Prepositions after verbs
)
|> Here are some verbs taking
some French verbs can be followed by an infinitive (the fo form of the verb)
and linked to it by either de or i, or no preposition at all. This is also true ol
verbs and their obiects: the person or thing that the verb ,happens,to.
S
For more informotion
on Verbs followed by an infinitive,
see
page
croire i quelque chose
r'lnt6resser ir quelqu'un/quelque
to believe in something
to be interested in someone/
chose
something
to play something (sports, gomes)
ob6ir
rhe lists in this section concentrate on those French verbs that involve
Verbs that are followed by
i
a
jouer au tennis
jouer aux 6checs
is often the equivalent of the English word to when it is used with an
indirect object after verbs like send, give and soy.
to say something to someone
to give something to someone
to write something to someone
to send something to someone
to show something to someone
lndirect objects,
see
obey someone
think about someone/something
answer someone
phone someone
rtp
+ obiect
dire quelque chose ir quelqu'un
donner quelque chose ir quelqu'un
6crire quelque chose i quelqu'un
envoyer quelque chose ir quelqu'un
montrer quelque chose i quelqu'un
to
to
to
to
When you are using jouer to talk about sports and games, you
use i. When you are using jouer to talk about musical instruments,
you use de.
l i
For more informotion on
quelqu'un
r6pondre ir quelqu'un
t6l6phoner i quelqu'un
different construction from the one that is used in English.
+
i
penser ir quelqu'un/quelque chose
The preposition that is used in French is not always the same as the
one that is used in English. Whenever you learn a new verb, try to
learn which preposition can be used after it too.
tr
in French that have a different construction in
fouer ir quelque chose
l j3.
Ttp
l
i
[nglish.
to play tennis
to play chess
jouer de la guitare to play the guitar
jouer du piano
to play the piano
D plaire followed by i
plaire
i
is a
common way of saying you like something.
to
quelqu'un
Ton cadeau me plait beaucoup' I like your present a lot.
This film is very popular with young
Ce film plait beaucoup aux
people.
jeunes.
page 49.
Grammar
with this type of verb. In English, you can say either to give something
to someone or to give someone something; lo show something to
someone or to show someone somethinq.
You can NEVER miss out i in French in the way that you can
sometimes miss out fo in English.
please someone (literollY)
E><tra!
manquer ir works quite differently frorn its English equivalent, to miss. The English obiect
lr the French subjec! and the English subiect is the French oblect.
to be missed by someone (literolly)
manquer i quelqu'un
Tu (subject) me (object) manques. | (subject) miss you (obiect).
| (subject) miss my country @biect) very
Mon pays (subject) me (obiect)
much.
manque beaucoup.
D There are also some verbs where you can put a direct obiect before ir. The
verb demander is the most common.
demander quelque chose ir quelqu'un to ask someone something, to ask
someone for something
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages
viii-xii
t
)
For more informotion on Direct obiects, see page 47.
180
@
Pneposmorus 181
PReposmorus
ruote that demander in French does NOT mean fo demond.lt means
to osk something or to ask for something. lf you want to say demand
in French, use exiger.
Nous avons demand6 notre
chemin d un chauffeur de taxi.
J'exige des excuses!
A
)
We asked a taxi driver the wav.
| demand an apology!
Verbs that are followed by de + object
Here are some verbs taking de in French that have a different construction
in English.
changer de quelque chose to change something (one's shoes and so on)
to depend on someone/something
d6pendre de quelqu'un /
quelque chose
s'excuser de quelque chose
jouer de quelque chose
parler de quelque chose
se servir de quelque chose
se souvenir de
to apologize for something
to play something
to talk about something
to
quelqu'un/ to
use something
remember someone/something
quelque chose
I
Verbs taking a direct obiect in French but not in English
are a few verbs that are followed by for, on, in, to or ot
which, in French, are not followed by a preposition such as a or de. Here
are the most common:
attendre quelqu'un/quelque chose to wait for sb/sth
D In English there
chercher quelqu'un/quelque
quelque chose.
Je t'attends devant la
you use de.
jouer au tennis
jouer aux 6checs
Vous altez assister au
gare.
chess
phrases using avoir also contain de.
avoir besoin de quelque chose to need something
avoir envie de quelque chose to want something
avoir peur de quelque chose to be afraid of something
There are also some verbs where you can put a direct object before de.
remercier is the most common.
remercier quelqu'un de quelque chose to thank someone for something
For more informotion on Direct objects, see poge 47.
For further explanation of grammatical terms. please see pages viii-xii.
l'll wait for you in front of the
station.
concert?
Are you going to attend the
concert?
to play tennis
to play
to ask for sb/sth
to listen to sb/sth
to hope for sth
to PaY for sth
to look at sb/sth
ruote that attendre does NOT mean to ottend in English. lt means to
wqit for. lf you want to say that you attend something, use assister
When you are using jouer to talk about sports and games, you
use i. When you are using jouer to talk about musical instruments,
L Some common
chose to look for sb/sth
demander quelqu'un/quelque chose
6couter quelqu'un/quelque chose
esp6rer quelque chose
payer quelque chose
regarder quelqu'un/quelque chose
i
jouer de la guitare to play the guitar
jouer du piano
to play the piano
+
ll
@
rw
)
Grammar Ertra!
lhe verb se tromper de quelque chose is often the equivalent of to get the wrong ...
I got the wrong number.
Je me suis tromp6 de num6ro.
I got the wrong house.
Je me suis tromp6 de maison.
D habiter can be used with or without a preposition:
o habiter
is mostly used without a preposition when you are talking about
living in a house, a flat and so on
We live in a small flat in town'
Nous habitons un petit
appartement en ville.
use habiter with ir when you are talking about a town or city, and au
(singutor) or aux (plurot) with the names of countries that are masculine
in French
Nous habitons i Liverpool. We live in Liverpool.
Nous habitons aux Etats-Unis. We live in the United
use habiter
with en when you
Nous habitons en
States.
are talking about feminine countries
Espagne.
We live in Spain'
182
PRepostlotrls 183
Pneposmorus
y'
y'
Key points
French prepositions after verbs are often not the ones that are
used in English. French verbs often have a different construction
from English verbs.
> lust like verbs,
either
You can never miss out i in French in the way that you can miss
out to in English constructions like to give someone something.
i
some French adiectives can be linked to what follows by
or de.
D An adlective followed by de or ir can
French verbs are usually linked to their obfects by de, ir or
nothing at all.
U/
Prepositions after adiectives
be followed by a noun, a pronoun or
an infinitive.
D
you feel,
Some adjectives that can be followed by de are used to say how
that you are certain about something, or that it is necessary or important
to do something. These are the most common:
certain
content
d6sol6
certain
happy
sorry
enchant6 delighted
heureux
haPPY
important
imPortant
malheureux
unhaPPY
n6cessaire
sfir
triste
necessary
sure
sad
Tu es sOr de pouvoir venir?
Enchant6 de faire votre
Are you sure You can come?
Delighted to meet You.
connaissance.
ll est n6cessaire de
You have to book'
r6server.
Grammar Etctra!
)
(meaning interesting) or
Some adjectives, such asfacile (meaning eosy), int6ressanl
orde. de tends to be
eitherir
by
followed
be
can
Irnporriut" (meaning impossible),
when
u"iJ *r,"" you are saying something that is generally true. tends to be used
particular'
in
or
something
someone
about
you are saying something
i
ll est difficile de Prendre une
d6cision.
ll est difficile d connaitre.
Son accent est difficile d
comprendre.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
It's difficult
to make
He's difficult
a decision.
to get to know.
to understand.
His accent is difficult
Coru.lurucnorus 185
CONJUNCTIONS
What is a conjunction?
A conjunction is a word such as and, but, or, so, if and becouse, that links
two words or phrases of a similar type, or two parts of a sentence, for
exampfe, Diane and I have been friends for years; I Ieft becouse ! wos bored.
et
mais, ou, parce que and si
D et mais, ott parce que and si are the most common
need to know in French.
o
o
@
conjunctions that you
you and me
It's raining and it's very cold.
mais but
C'est cher mais de trds bonne
qualit6.
ouor
Tu pr6fdres le vert ou le
bleu?
Donne-moi ga sU ie me
f6che!
Do you like the green one or the
blue one?
Cive me that or l,ll get crossl
T'P
Be
careful not to confuse ou (meaning or) with
of
(meaning
where).
.
Si i'6tais d ta Place, ie ne
l'inviterais
parce que because
Je ne peux pas sortir parce que I can't go out because l've still got
j'ai encore du travail dr faire.
work to do.
For further explanation of grammatical torms, please see pages viii-xii.
I
wonder if she's lYing.
lf I were you, I wouldn't invite him'
Pas.
rw
to s'before il or ils.
Sil ne pleut pas, on mangera lf it doesn't rain' we'll
si changes
dehors.
It's expensive, but very good quality.
Note that mais is also commonly found in front of oui and si.
'Tu viens ce soir?'-'Mais oui!' 'Are you coming tonight?,
'Definitely!'
'll n'a pas encore fini?''Hasn't he finished yet?'-'He
'Mais si!'
certainly has!'
a
siif
Je me demande si elle ment'
et and
toi et moi
ll pleut et il fait tris froid.
o
outside'
'fifr,
eat
L
ili
186 Gol.lurucnolrs
Gorrr.lurucnorus 187
Some other common conjunctions
)
The conjunction que
Here are some other common French coniunctions:
o
car because
ll faut prendre un bus pour y
You need to take a bus to get there
acc6der car il est interdit d y
because cars are prohibited.
monter en voiture.
Note that car is used in formal language or in writing. The normal
@
D When que is used to join two parts of a sentence, it means fhof.
He says that he loves me.
ll dit qlLil m'aime.
She knows that you're here.
Elle sait que vous 6tes lit.
soys he loves me and He says that
he loves me, or She knows you're here and She knows thot you're here.
You can NEVER leave out que in French in the same way.
ln English you could say both He
way of saying becouse is parce que.
o
Comme
aS
Gomme il pleut, je prends la
As it's raining, l'm taking the car.
voiture.
donc so
J'ai rat6 le train, donc je serai I missed the train, so l'll be late.
'
is also used when you are comparing two things or two people. In this
case, it means os or thon.
lls n'y vont pas aussi souvent They don't go as often as us'
D que
o
en retard.
lql5qus when
que nous.
Les melons sont plus chers que Melons are more expensive than
les
o
J'allais composer ton num6ro I was about to dial your number
lorsque tu as appel6.
when you called.
quand when
Je ne sors pas quand il pleut. I don't go out when it rains.
@
t
)
D
t,tote that when quand and lorsque are used to talk about something
that will happen in the future, the French verb has to be in the future
tense even though English uses a verb in the present tense.
Ouand je serai riche, j'achdterai When l'm rich, l'll buy a nice house.
une belle maison.
+
For more informotion on the Present tense and the Future tense, see poges
I like neither lentils nor spinach.
les 6pinards.
@ Note that the ne part of this expression goes just before
o ou ... ou, ou bien ... ou bien either ... or
Ou il est malade ou il ment.
Ou bien il m'6vite ou bien il
ne me reconnait pas,
bain.
in the bath'
Note that when pendant que (meaning whi!e), quand (meaning wfien)
and forsque (meaning when) are used to talk about something that
will happ-en in the future, the French verb has to be in the future tense
even though English uses a verb in the present tense.
Pendant que ie serai en France, l'll go and visit them while l'm in
t
)
France.
For more information on the Present tense and the Future tense, see poges
71 and 98.
Grammar Extra!
the verb.
Either he's sick or he's lying.
Either het avoiding me or else he
doesn't recognize me.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
Some words which give you information about when something happens,
can also be conjunctions if you put que after them. pendant que (meaning
while) is the most common of these.
christian a t6l6phon6 pendant Christian phoned while chantal was
j'irai les voir.
ne ... ni ... ni neither ... nor
Je n'1aime ni les lentilles ni
For more informotion on Comparative odjectives, see page 34.
[J
-
French, like English, also has conjunctions which have more than one part.
Here are the most common:
o
bananas.
que Ghantal prenait son
71 and 98.
L
bananes.
tluc can replace another coniunction to avoid having to repeat it.
When you're older and You have
Ouand tu seras plus grand et
a house of your own,
que tu auras une maison
As
it's raining and I don't have an
Comme il pleut et que ie n'ai
i toi,...
pas de parapluie, ...
"'
umbrella, ...
NuMeens 189
NUMBERS
1st
2nd
3rd
1
un (une)
2
deux
3
trois
quatre
4
5
6
7
8
9
l0
11
't2
cinq
six
sept
huit
neuf
dix
onze
douze
4th
5th
6th
7th
8th
9th
1 oth
1th
1
'lzth
3th
1
14th
15th
6rh
1
14
treize
quatorze
15
quinze
16
17
18
19
seize
20
21
vingt
vingt et un (une)
22
vingt-deux
30
trente
40
50
quarante
112
cinquante
113
soixante
soixante-dix
soixante et onze
soixante-douze
213
13
60
70
71
72
80
81
90
9',l
100
101
300
301
1 000
2000
1,000,000
dix-sept
dix-huit
dix-neuf
quatre-vingts
quatre-vingt-un (-une)
quatre-vingt-dix
quatre-vingt-onze
cent
cent un (une)
trois cents
trois cent un (une)
mille
deux mille
un mlllion
17th
8th
9th
2oth
21st
22nd
3oth
't
00th
1
1
101st
1
000th
114
1ls
0.5
3.4
10o/o
100o/o
premier (1er), premiire
(1re)
-r,^\
deuxiEme (2e or 2Gme; or second(e) (2no(e)1
troisiEme (3e or 3eme;
quatriime
1+e or
4fme)
cinquidme 15e or 5eme)
sixidme 16e or 6efe)
septiEme 1Ze or 7!me)
huitiEme (8e or 8eme1
neuviEme (9e or 9e.me)
dixiEme (10e or 101t")
onziEme (11e or 11"T")
douzidme (12e or 12.et")
treiziEme (13e or tt"t:)
quatorziEme (14e or l4eme)
quinziEme (15e or l5eme)
seiziime (16e or l6eme)
dix-septiEme (17e or 17:me)
dix-huitiime (l8e or l8ele)
dix-neuviEme (19e or'l9eme)
vingtiime (2Oe or 20em1 .
vingt et unidme (21e or 2l:me)
vinit-deuxidme (22e or 22eme)
treitiEme (3oe or 3oeT")
centiime (100e or 100eme)
cent uniime (l0le or 101eme)
milliime (l0O0e or l000eme)
un demi
un tiers
deux tiers
un quart
un cinquiEme
z6ro virgule cinq (0,5)
trois virgule quatre (3,4)
dix pour cent
cent pour cent
EXEMPLES
EXAMPLES
ll habite au dix.
He lives at number ten.
on page nineteen
in chapter seven
He lives on the fifth floor.
He came in third.
d la page dix-neuf
au chapitre sePt
ll habite au cinQuidme (6tage).
ll est aniv5 troisiime'
6chelle au vingt'cinq millidme
scale one to twentY-five thousand
190
Tunenruo
Trtae aruo Dere
THEURE
THE TIME
Ouelle heure est-il?
What time is it?
ll est...
It's...
une heure
une heure dix
une heure et quart
une heure et demie
deux heures moins vingt
deux heures moins le quart
avril
mai
A quelle heure?
At what time?
ir minuit
at midnight
i midi
at midday, at noon
ir une heure (de l'aprEs-midi)
at one o'clock (in the afternoon)
i huit heures (du soir)
at eight o'clock (in the evening)
i llhl5 or
at 1 1.15 or eleven fifteen
onze heures quinze
it 2Oh45 or
at 20.45 or twenty forty-five
vingt heures quarante-cinq
THE DATE
DAYS OF THE WEEK
lundi
mardi
mercredi
jeudi
vendredi
samedi
dimanche
Ouand?
lundi
le lundi
tous les lundis
mardi dernier
vendredi prochain
samedi en huit
samedi en quinze
French.
February
March
April
May
juin
juillet
lune
ao0t
August
septembre
September
octobre
October
November
novembre
d6cembre
Ouand?
en f6vrier
le 'ler d€cembre
le premier d6cembre
en 1998
en mille neuf cent quatre-
July
December
When?
in February
on December 1st
on December first
in 1998
in nineteen ninety-eight
vingt-dix-huit
Ouel jour sommes-nous?
Nous sommes |e...
Monday
Tuesday
lundi 26 f6vrier or
lundi vingt-six f6vrier
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
Sunday
What day is it?
It's...
Monday 26 February or
Monday twenty-sixth of
February
dimanche ler octobre or
dimanche premier octobre
When?
Sunday 1st October or
Sunday the first of October
Note that months of the year are NOT written with a capital letter in
on Monday
French.
on Mondays
every Monday
last Tuesday
next Friday
a week on Saturday
two week on Saturday
a Note that days of the week are NOT written with a capital letter
.
mars
twenty to two
quarter to two
LA DATE
January
ianvier
one o'clock
ten past one
quarter past one
half past one
LES JOURS DE LA SEMAINE
MONTHS OF THE YEAR
LES MOIS
f6vrier
Dere
in
191
192 Trurnruo
Dnre
VOCABULAIRE
Quand?
aujourd'hui
ce matin
cet aprEs-midi
ce soir
Souvent?
USEFUL VOCABUTARY
When?
today
this morning
this afternoon
this evening
How often?
tous les jours
tous les deux jours
une fois par semaine
deux fois par semaine
une fois par mois
$a s'est pass6 quand?
le matin
le soir
hier
hier soir
avant-hier
every day
every other day
once a week
twice a week
once a month
demain
demain matin
aprEs-demain
dans deux jours
dans une semaine
dans quinze jours
le mois prochain
l'an prochain or l'ann6e
prochaine
ii-*ta.
lmmPle:
,
o English phrasalverbs (verbs followed
to fall down
to give back
rendre
more information on Verbs,
For
yesterday
yesterday evening
the day before yesterday
a week ago
two weeks ago
last year
bf
1%"1-"t"'"tl::,:t^:t-"tb)'
often translated by
for exampfe, to run awoy, to fall down, are
ONE word in French.
to go on
continuer
tomber
in the evening
l'an dernier or l'ann6e derniEre
E"gi:l
aT,
can't always translate French into..Enslish,
nol For
it is :::"::,*tto
often 1:T
While occasionally it is possible to do this'
When did it happen?
in the morning
il y a une semaine
il y a quinze jours
$a va se passer quand?
)ral problems
see
pages 69-1 37'
preposition in English, might
sentences which contain a verb and
French'
NOT contain a preposition in
to pay for something
payer quelque chose
to look at somebodY/something
quelqu'un/quelque
r
regarder
chose
6couter quelqu'un/quelque
When is it going to happen?
tomorrow
tomorrow morning
the day after tomorrow
in two days
to listen to somebodY/something
chose
a verb and preposition in
o
- Similarly, sentences which contain
ii"nift, tight NOT contain a preposition in English'
somebody/something
ob6ir dr quelqu'un/quelque to obey
in a week
in two weeks
next month
chose
changer de quelque chose
."nqu", de quelque chose
next year
o
into English in
The same French preposition may be translated
different waYs.
parler gle quelque chose
s0r ele quelque chose
voler quelque chose d quelqu'un
croire i quelque chose
O
For
to change something
to lack something
more informotion on Prepositions'
to talk about something
sure of something
to steal something from someone
to believe in something
see
poge 162'
194
Trps
Tlps
. a present
word which is singular in English may not be in French.
les bagages
luggage
ses cheveux
his/her hair
oA
o Similarly, a word which is singular in French may not be in
English.
un short
+
For more information
For
.
shorts
my trousers
mon pantalon
on Nouns,
see
page
+
de,
see
page 166.
French:
o to be ...-ing is translated by a verb consisting of one word.
@
He's leavlng tomorrow.
Je lisais un roman.
lwas reading a book.
on Verbs, see poges 69-1 37.
trtote that when you are talking about somebody's or something,s
physical position, you use a past participle.
Elle est assise li-bas
ll 6tait couch6 par tere.
+
D
For more informqtion on
the
She's sitting over there.
He was lving on the ground.
Past
participle,
see
page 111.
-ing can also be translated by:
r an infinitive
J'aime aller au cin6ma
I like going to the cinema.
Stop arouinq!
Before leavino...
Arr6tez de vous disouter!
Avant de oartir...
+
For more information on
lnfinitives,
For further explanation of grammatical
see
page 133.
tems, please
see pages viii-xii.
see
Skiing keeps me fit.
page
1.
when you are talking about the physical position of something, se trouver
The -ing ending in English is translated in a number of different ways in
For more information
on Nottns,
may be used,
Oir se trouve la gare?
ll part demain.
forme.
The verb to beis generally translated by €tre.
It's late.
ll est tard.
It's not possible!
possible!
pas
Ge n'est
tr =ins
+
a nOUn
to be
Specific problems
L
Being shyer'than me, she...
more informstion on the Present participle, see page 125.
For more information
1.
my brother! car
the childrenl bedroom
For more information on the preposition
moi,
Le ski me maintient en
o In English, you can use 3 to show who or what something
belongs to; in French, you have to use de.
la voiture de mon frdre
la chambre des enfants
ParticiPle
Etant plus timide que
elle...
195
I
Where3 the station?
certain set phrases which describe how you are feeling or a state you are
In, the verb avoir is used.
to be warm
avoir chaud
to be cold
avoir froid
to be hungry
avoir faim
to be thirsty
avoir soif
to be afraid
avoir Peur
avoir tort
avoir raison
to
be wrong
to be right
when you are describing what the weather is like, use the verb faire.
What's the weather like?
Ouel temps fait-il?
It! lovely.
ll faat beau.
It's miserable.
ll fait mauvais.
It! windy.
ll fait du vent.
When you are talking about someone's age, use the verb avoir'
How old are you?
Ouel 6ge as-tu?
J'ai quinze ans.
l'm fifteen.
When talking about your health, use the verb aller.
How are you?
Comment allez-vous?
Je vais trds bien.
ljm-very well.
Trps
196
Trps
E
it is. it's
)
if
is
and if3 are usually translated by il est or elle est when referring to
a
noun.
'Oi
est mon
parapluie?'-
'll€S! la, dans le coin.'
Descends la valise si elle
pas trop lourde.
)
n'CEt
What time
!5j? - lt's half past
seven.
When you are describing what the weather is like, use the verb faire.
beau.
mauvais.
ll fait du vent.
tt5 lovely.
lt's miserable.
ltt windy.
lf you want to say, for example, it is difficult to do something or it is easy to
do something, use il est.
ll est difficile de r6pondre
dr
It
is
difficult to answer this question,
cette question,
l
In ALL other phrases and constructions, use c'est.
C'est moi qui ne I'aime pas.
It's me who doesn't like him.
C'est Charles qui l'a dit.
It's Charles who said so.
C'est ici que je les ai achet6s.
It's here that I bought them.
C'est parce que la poste est
It's because the post office is closed
ferm6e que...
El
)
)
that...
there is, there are
Both there is and there are are translated by il y a.
ll y a quelqu'un i la porte.
There is someone at the door.
ll y a cinq livres sur la table. There are five books on the table.
trt
can.
to be able
lf you want to talk about someone's physical ability to do something, use
pouvoir.
Pouvez-vous faire dix
kilomitres d pied?
For further explanation of grammatical
When con is used with verbs to do with what you can see or hear, you do
use pouvoir in French.
I can't see anything.
Je ne vois rien.
ll les entendait.
He could hear them.
ta
When you are talking about the time, use il est.
ll fait
ll fait
}
ff you want to say that you know how to do something, use savoir.
She can't swim.
Elle ne sait pas nager.
heavy.
'Ouelle heure est-il?'-'ll est
sept heures et demie.'
)
Where's my umbrella? lt's there, in
the corner.
Bring the case down if it isn't too
Can you walk ten kilometres?
te]mt
please see pages vili-xii.
197
The preposition to is generally translated by it.
Cive the book to Patrick.
Donne le livre d Patrick.
For
more information on the preposition d, see page 16j.
When you are talking about the time, use moins.
five to ten
dix heures moins cinq
at a quarter to seven
dr sept heures moins le
quart
ff you want to say (in order) to, use pour.
Je I'ai fait pour vous aider'
ll va en ville pour acheter un
I did it
cadeau.
present.
ls
help you.
He's going into town to buy a
THE ALPHABET
)
The French alphabet is pronounced differently from the way it is pronounced
in English. Use the list below to help you sound out the letters.
Ava
Brb
(ah)
lql
lbel
lsel
Drd
ldel
lel
(uh)
lefl
(efO
Er€
F,t
G,g
H,h
l,i
t,i
K,k
Ll
M,r
N,h
0av)
taJl
(ash)
lil
lsil
(ee)
lkal
(ka)
lell
leml
lenl
(ell)
Prp
R,r
5,s
lpel
lkyl
lerl
(air)
lesl
(ess)
(tay)
U,U
ltel
tyl
qq
It
Vv
wrw
X,X
Y,y
Z,Z
lvel
[dubleve]
tiksl
Iigrek]
[zed]
14, sO, 57, 1 33, 1 35,
163, 167, 't7s, 178, 183
164
.,.
fe, fa, f' and les 14, 55,
nouns
ru
verbs
(u)
16
80. 101,108
'122
20,23,25
27, 29, 34, 35
followed byir/de 183
infinitive
plural
30, 35
137
by
farticiples used as125
23,2s,32,16'l
"126. 152
r
160
105
word order
25,27,39,
44,-'125
of articles 13,19
: of past
(pay)
(ku)
63,163
t 25,27,39,44,125
27
endings
like'e' in 'le'
(emm)
(enn)
(oh)
lol
82,'163
12,'t9
0ee)
o,o
79,80,96
gt
Gay)
(day)
kel
!, 6 verbs
|
like'a' in 'la'
(bay)
C,C
MAIN INDEX
44,114,116,117
like'u' in 'une'
participle
like'u' in 'une'
(vay)
(doobla-vay)
(eex)
(ee-grek)
(zed)
wrbs
't25
adjectives
39
pronouns
54
72, 74, 76, 93, 98, 1o5
123,134
41, 61
70, 82, 98, 104, 1'10, 'l'13,
132,'135
22
12,19
32
12, 19, 21, 22, 24
60, I 38
60, 1 38
50, 1 38
79,100,107
159,171
113
12
187
34
105
159
os
I for something
de
163
hdre 76,a5,95,99,106,
112, 113, 119, 126, 131, 18'l
14, 55, 63,163,164
63
For further explanation of grammatical
tems, please see pages viii-xii.
34,'t55
41
14, 55, 63,163,164
aux
63
auxquelles
63
auxquels
159
avant
16,'171
avec
avoir 16, 48, 56, 70, 87 ' 1'11 ,
113,137,160,163, I 71, 180
110
avoir: conditional
103
avoir: future tense
87
avoir: imperative
avoir: impersonal verbs 127
8
avoir: past participle
82
avoir: ptesent tense
avoir: pluperfect tense 1'19
1 1
avoir:
perfecttense
111, 113, 118
avoir: present Participle '126
132
avoir: subjunctive
123
be
20,23,29,32
beau
156,159
beaucoup (de)
29
bel
29
belle
36,153,156
bien
"17,40,165
body: parts of
20,23,32,153
bon
see ce
c'
see ce
c'
66
i"
186
iar
37,65
ce
66
ceci
66
cela
66
celle
67
celle-ci
67
celleli
66
celles
67
celles-ci
67
celleslir
66
celui
67
celui-ci
67
celui-Ih
37
ces
2'1,52,65
c€ sont
21,52,65
c'est
37
Get
65
c'€tait
37
cette
66
ceux
67
ceux-ci
67
ceux-lir
51,60
chacun
4'l
chaque
32,153
chei
171
chez
37,67
-ci
11, 164
clothinq
cofoursi adiectives 31, 32
146,159
combien (de)
186
comme
146
comment
comparative adiectives 34
comparative adverbs 155
34,52
comparisons
comparisons:
pronouns used in
52
nouns
nouns
conditional
compound
concrete
11,33
verbs
conditional: irregular
conditional: reflexive
verbs
16
105
109
I 09
69
72
74
76
coniuqations
coniuiations: first
coniulations: second
coniugations: third
confunctions '129,1U
172
contre
countries
17,163,164,169
32
105
court
.,d
dans
dates
days of the
de
57,169,172
't8,'tg'l
week
5, 1 8, 190
15, 20, 35, 56,133,'135'
140, 159, 164, 166, 171,
'r80. 183
de: with fe, fa,
I' andles 15,22,
55, 56,63
definitearticfe 12,13,16,35
demander
179
demonstrativeadiectives 37
demonstrativepronouns 65
159,172
depuis
33
deinier
"159,173
derriire
15,19,20,22,56,'166
des
descendre 1"13,114,'l'15,
120,126
describing
words
see adiectives
63
desquelles
63
desquels
159,173
devant
devenir -102,118,132,1333
devoir
118,132
dire
11
directobiect
114,116,118,
135,181
direct obiect pronouns 4Z 58. 59
151
direct
see verbs
doino
dommage:
128
il est dommage que
186
donc
'106,
72, 85, 93,99,
donner
112, 119, 126, '130
questions
words
dont
droit
du
duquel
dur
eoa
each other
6couter
either ... or
elle
64,67
153
15,22,56,'166
63
154
41, 60
91
135
186
43, 44, 51, 66, 69
52
elfe-mGme
43,45,51,69
effes
52
ef es-m€mes
52,66
emphasis
51
em'phatic pronouns
en 17,18, 56, 59,85,'125'
f
126,"168,172
200
Mnru lruoex 2O1
Mnrru lruoex
en train de
endings:
endings:
136
27
adiectives
nouns 2, 3, 7, 8,9
endings:verbs 69,72,74,76,
himself
his
52
39,54
146
how
'146
how much/many
43,5'l
93, 94, 98, 1 05, I I 4
entendre
entre
entrer
-er
1
35
173
11
3
34,155
-erverbs 72, 85, 93, 105, 112,
119,123,126,130
-erverbs: spelling changes 78,
79, 80, 81, 95, 99, 't07
81.'134
esp6rer
80, I01,108
essayer
-est
34,155
143,'144
est-ce que
'184
33,
et
€tre 48, 65, 70, 7'l , 87, 92,
1't1, 160,'t7'l
110
atre conditional
I 03
etre future tense
97
Ctre imoerfect tense
Ctre imoersonal verbs 127
passive
123
atre
8
Ctre past participle
82
Ctre Dresent tense
1'19
etrq pluperfect tense
1 1
etre perfecttense
'I1Z,
etre
present
1
11, 113,
ll8, I19
participle
Ctre subjunctive
eux
126
132
51
52
eux-mOmes
41
every
60,127
everyone
61
everything
faire 70,82,103,110, 118,
27, 2A, 32, 34, 37, 38
103,127,134
falloir
1
1
1
1
1
1
43, 44, 66, 69,127
55,^128
il
il est
il fait
il faut (que)
femininenouns'1,'13,17,19,
few: a
finir
fol
22,44,45
few
41
74, 85,94,99,106, 113,
119,126,131
29
29
folle
fort
't54
fou
29
from
from ... to
166
1 64, 167
71, 94, '174,'186
future tense: irregular verbs I 02
future tense: reflexive verbs 1 02
future
tense
geler
genoer
gentil
gentiment
grand
gros
habiter
haut
he
hein
ner
ners
herself
him
102,118,'t28,
129,130
manque
gue
il pleut
'128
'128
if
if parait
45, 103, 118
't28
il reste
128
il semble que
129
il vaut mieux (que)
ilya
56,128
43,45, 69
48.85
lls
lmperative
imperative: irregular
imperative: word
verbs
87
86
order
imperfecttense 92, "119,'l60
imperfect tense:
irregular
imperfect tense:
97
verbs
96
reflexive verbs
impersonal verbs
127
in
35,163,168,169
-ing 125, '137, '162, '171,'175
indefinite adiectives 41
indefinitearticles 12,19
indefinite article:
in negative sentences 20
2'l
indefinite article: use of
60
indeflnite pronounr
"122,178
indirect object
indirect object pronouns 58, 59
51
indirect questions
1
infinitives
48,65,72,74,76,
88,105, r11,129,130,
13't,137,140
feminine adiectives 27, 29, 34,
35
128
infinitives: after
infinitives:
adjectives
137
verb
98, 1 33
after another
infinitives:
'171,
prepositions
174,
175
after
175
in order to
137
instructions
invariable adjectlves
inversion
invert
-irverbs
2,
31
143
143
74,84,85,94,'105,
5, 1 1 9, 1 20, 23,'1 26
irregular comparative and
1
"t
11
"1
79,100,107,128
adjectives 35
irregular comparative and
'156
superlative adverbs
'153
inegular feminine ad,ectives 29
153
irregular
irregular
irregular
irregular
1,2,3
5Z
5Z
182
5Z
43, 51, 69
150
39,47,5'l
54
52
47, 5'l
superlative
verbs: conditional 1 09
verbs: future tense 102
verbs: imperative 87
verbs:
97
imperfect tense
124
irregular verbs:
irregular verbs: perfect tense 1 I 8
irreoular verbs:
pliperfect
121
irreoular verbs:
prEsent
126
passive
tense
participles
irregular verbs:
82,84
present
irregular verbs: subiunctive 1
43, 44, 47, 66, 1 ) |
t9
tense
it
its
itself
i'
iamais
je
ieter
jeune
fobs
joli
jouer
fusque
l'
la
-la
la leur
la mienne
la moins
la n6tre
fa plus
la sienne
la tienne
la v6tre
lancer
languages
faqueffe
le
fe leur
le meilleur
le mien
fe mieux
le moindre
le moins
le n6tre
le pire
le pis
fe pfus
le plus mal
fe sien
le tien
fe v6tre
leost
lent
lentement
lequef
fes
fes leurs
fes miennes
les miens
les moins
fes n6tres
fes plus
fes siennes
les siens
fes tiennes
fes tiens
fes votres
fesquelles
fesquefs
/ess
letb
feur
feurs
lever
-11
long
lorsque
l,
49,5'l
nouns:
52
nouns:
see me
39
184
nouns;
153,156
5t
78,96,126,'t27
lr
I 5/
see
128,179
25,27,28,
adiectives
'
29,30
43,61,
79,100,101
and feminine forms
3il
2l
t
1,',13, 19, 22,
179,180
32,153,154
l)
44,45
17 |
see lq h
"13,47
47, 49,89
47,51
38,67
32,36,'153
't7
5l
5
41, 52
39
118
54
35
51
36,153
34
54
54
54
54
48,5'l
52
36
34. 1 55
39
78,95,126
5, 17, 169
63, 149
'13,47,46
113,'114
54
36
54
34
5,169
34,153
113
39
36,156
.52
36
35, 156
see ne
113
54
36
156
139
iamais 20,23,138
186
ni
20,23,138,144
... pas
138
60,
...'personne
38
... blus
61, 38
--- iien
,,.
... iri ...
35,155
153
153
1
1
63,'149
'13,47
il est
r
54
54
54
39,49
39
80, 101,108
98
32
'186
128
que
21,23,138
20
de after
word order
35
63,"149
34
85
adiectives
:
156
54
54
54
63,149
8
32
vowels
34,156
54
34
54
54
54
54
54
see nouns
words
a'!rt-ce pas
Itlttoyer
llrer
D0
longer
Nmore
''DOne
,t&odY
||On
non plus
nol
flot
Qothlng
notre
muns
nouns: abstract
139
128
186
150
80,101,108
138
138
138
60, 1 38
60, I 38
140,150
139
39
138
50, 1 38
39
1, 13
't6
coJnpounds 1 l,
petlt
20, 23, 32, 'l53
153, 156, 158
beu
36,153
bire
153
brs
179
bfaire
103,'128
bfeuvoir
119,139
ifuperfecttense
pluperfect tense:
' irr'eoular verbs
12O
Dluperfect tense:
'l2o
' reilexive verbs
9,11
olural
'plus
34, 155
67,167
iossession
bossessive adiectlveJ 39
54
bossessive Pronouns
possible: il est Possible que 28
/+
|
Pour
146
bourquoi
bouv,iir +8, 1o2, 118,'132, 133
81 134
br6f6rer
' 32
bremier
118,132
brendre
33
16
conirete
endinqs 2, 3, 7, 8, 9
nouns: Enqlis6, used in French 5
nouns: feminine 1,2, 3, 5, 13'
17,19,22,44,45
nouns: masculine 1,2,3, 5,13,
19,22,44,45
plural ''t,9, 14, 19, 23
nouns: iinqular
nous 42, ql, qg, 5'1,69,85,
89' 9'l
52
nous-m€mes
29,32
nouveau
29
nouvel
29
nouveffe
75,190
numbers
122,147
obiect
obiect pronouns 47,58, 59
86
order
word
obiect bronouns:
11
eit
167,'175
of
43,45,51,69,124
on
164
on
43,69
one
91
one onother
39
one's
51,52
oneself
nouns:
1
1
irepositions 47, 51, 67,126,
147.162
verbs
infinitive
orders and instructions 48, 50, 85
orders and instructions:
87
irregular
orders and instructions:
verbs
order 50,57,A6'90
41
othet
184
ou
'146'184
oir
186
ou... ou
186
ou bien... ou bien
144,184
oui
39
out
54
ours
5'1,52
ourselves
173
par
127
baraftre
194
que
iarce
17
barlerpast 44, 48, 111 '
iarticipfes:
'
word
1"14.119,120,123,171
participles: Present 55, 125,170
'Dartir 84, 113,115, 120' 126
article 12,22, 56
body 17, 40,165
l4l
Das
45,122
iassive
124
bassive: irreqular verbs
iartitive
barts of the
bastpa*ici-pl"s
44,48,1'11'
114, 119, 120, 123, 171
past ParticiPles:
'
8
irreiular verbs
80,101, 108
oav6.
79,100,107
beiet
'174,187
bendant (que)
111,139,143'
ierfecttenie
'
"160"i.74
Derfect tense: irreqular verbs
berfect tense: reflixive verbs
11
1 1
8
11
7
42
pronouns
60,168
bersonnd
6'l
bersonne de
80,101
ierer
bersonal
prepositions: after adiectives 1 83
'i,78
prepositions: after
preposruons:
'
137
foilowed bv
present particiPles 55, 125,'17 O
present participles:
' irreoulir
verbs
126
pres6nttense
71,72,74,76,
'
98.160. 186
present tense: inegulai verbs 82
bresent tense: reflexive
tense:
oresent
'
soellinq
orices aid
verbs
E9
78
chanqes
rate-s I 8, 65
33
prochain
21 172
irofessions
'
42,140
i:ronouns
pronouns:
' reffexive 89,96,'102,1O9
Dronouns: word order 50,86
7, 10, 14, 19, 28'
'bronunciation
30, 39, 57,78,79,80,85,
1
100, 107, 144
32
propre
see que
qu'
146,186
duand
quantities
22,168
34,62,67,147,187
riue
21,'148'"149
riuef
'148, 149
duefle
148,149
duelfes
60, 68
tiuelque chose
61
de
dueldue chose
60,168
dueldu'un
61
dueldu'un de
148,149
duefs que
i48
ou'est-ce
148
riu'est-ce dui
ouestionw6rds 65,'144'"146
21,142
questions
151
duestions: indirect
qui
62,67,147
148
dui est-ce que/qui
146' 147
duoi
159
ripide
1
202
Mnrru lruoex
re
verbs 76, 85, 105, 112, 115,
11 9,'t 20, 1 23,'t 26, 1 31
reffexive pronouns a9, 96, 102,
109
reflexive pronouns: word order
90
reflexive
verbs
84,124
verbs: present tense 89
verbs: conditional 1 09
verbs: future tense 1 02
verbs:
96
imperfect tense
reflexive verbs:
orders and instructions 90
reflexive verbs: perfect tense 1 1 7
reflexive verbs:
12Q
pluperfect t€nse
ie-q:i iit ;l
135
69
regurar verps
reflexive
reflexive
reflexive
reflexive
8i
r6.1rlerr
relative pronouns
62
't13, 128
!tiI
1e I
'ici1 i:!e
-3
!:!'i5
60,168
47,49,89
44,102,118
i;E:
i6,il il
tense
tenses: future
tenses: imperfect
tenses:perfect
tenses: pluperfect
there
these
they
this
\e
39
TO:
sdme
41
ro!'rrit
16,175
i0ri!hei
r'a:t,loir
90
175
1i:Ui
87,102,118,126,'t32,
.t00
17
school subjects
88, 89, 91
lri
seasons
5,18,169
r,ri;rer
90,102,109,117
jsi i!iit!':rL
. ir,.i" ,.
:E'
128
,.,
181
39
43, 51, 69
she
144,184
rit
singular adjectives 25, 27, 30
,l
singular nouns
:tQi
5.1
52
ir4ir+
some 12, 19, 20, 22, 24, 41
60
somebody
45,60
someone
ioi
60
39
something
.!r'iri
113,114
:oIirL
.oili
175
spelling changes in -,:r verbs 78,
79, 80, 81, 95, 99, 107
17
sports
stems 69,72,74,76,93,94,
98, ',l 05
stressed pronouns
see emphatic pronouns
subiect
122,147
subiect pronouns
subiunctive
subiunctive: irregular
suggestions
superfativeadjectives
superlative
43
129
32
i 05
34, 167
155
s7, 175
verbs
adverbs
1
l'
see i:e
':t
39
57,127
37, 67
43,45, 51, 69
this one/these
67
:t;ii i:,
fi1
119
tenses: present 71, 72, 74, 76, 98
I;1:,
39
34,187
than
37, 62, 66, 67
that
67
thot one/those ones
't2
the
66
one
the
39
tnetr
54
theirs
47, 51
them
52
themselves
those
time
to
61
69
71, 98
92
ones
67
37,67
45,169,172
'163, 168
51
52
le
1't3, 1't5, 120
:{.ii
39
61,152
r'OXr5
41,61,'t52
Itlt:
152
ll0il;,-rl
,i
37,66,67
61,'t52
!1rrr::::,
5'l
i:tul: il r 'ntr,.ir:
towns and cities 163,164,169
transport
165,169
i:ioi f,tll i
'159
tu
Lin
;i
40,43, 69,85
19
't9
mf
U[-t
us
.t58
li]!.r
'/4[i]if tri{ill
ye:nir. 102,
rcnr i-!
47, 5'l
128,134
1'13, 118, 132, '135
verbs
'136
69
verbs: 1, 2, 3, 6 type 79, 80, 96
122
verbs: active
'105
verbs: conditional
verbs:endings 69,72,74,76,
93, 94, 98, 105, .l'114
35
verbs: followed by i
verbs;
followed by an infinitive 133
1 35
verbs: followed by rne
verbs: infinitives 48, 65, 72, 74,
'129,
130,
76, 88, 10s, 111,
't31,137,140
verbs:
verbs:
verbs:
verbs:
verbs:
plural
69
prepositions after 135,137
69
regular
69
singular
stems 69, 72,74,76,93,
94,98,105
tigif
29
vie ll l;
,o
iteLit,
.ri tf;
29,32
voice: in questions
i59
142,144
,r*iri
voij:
vc'ir
1
102, '118,
,,
1,,
|
VERBTABLES
;
/0ti
iJif,i:r:.
venlrjr
48,87, 102,118, 1 i.'
rrtu,: 40,
lr
43, 47, 49, 51 , 69, 8"
89, ') I
ilCiJt- | i.' '!l'l
trt l Is-irri:tl r::
1.'
43, 45, 51, 6
WC
weatner
weights and measures
what
what (o)
...!
when
where
which
which one(s)
who
whom
whose
why
with
within
will
lntroduction
'
.1"
146,14t"
)
14r
14t
62, 63, 14')
14')
62,11,
62,'14,
64,14t'
14t'
17
'l
{,'t
9fi
word order: with adverbs 16(l
word order:
1 5
in indirect questions
word order: in negatives I 3(l
woro oroer:
in orders and instructions 8('
woro oroer:
143,141
in questions
word order: with adjectives 3)
word order: with,.:t and,r 5Z 5(r
word order:
with object pronouns 48,50, 511
woro oroer:
I
with reflexive pronouns 9t)
10lJ
would
57, 59, 85
r
years
169
yes
144
.tt:)).:
1I
you
43, 46, 47, 51, 69
39
your
yours
54
yourself
51, 52
yourselves
52
llre Verb Tables in the following section contain 93 tables of French verbs
(rOme regular and some irregular) in alphabetical order. Each table shows you
ttrc follo-wing forms: Present, Perfect, Future, subiunctive, lmperfect,
conditional, lmperative and the Present and Past Participles. For more
and so
Ilf ormation on these tenses, how they are formed, when they are used
{)lr,
you shoufd look at the section on verbs in the main text on pages 69-137.
there are also
lrr order to help you use the verbs shown in Verb Tables correctly,
the verb as
show
page
to
of
each
bottom
the
at
phrases
eximple
of
,r number
rt is used in context.
rules) and
lrr French there are both regular verbs (their forms follow the normal
lrregular verbs (their formi do not follow the normal rules). The regular verbs
[r
these tables are:
,rf verb, Verb Table 29)
'loriri,irl (regular
trnrr (regular il verb, Verb Table 39)
,rll
I
,ij,,ril.;.
(regular','i verb, Verb Table 8)
he irregular verbs are shown in full.
each of
he Verb Index at the end of this section contains over 2000 verbs,
which is cross-referred to one of the verbs given in the Verb Tables. The table
rhows the patterns that the verb listed in the index follows'
I
VrRg Taelrs
Vrne Taeles
F aehster (to buy)
p$?H$ffintIT
r
tu
illelle/on
nouS
vou5
ils/elles
flF{fr s Hx\t"T' $ Li ff
achbtes
achdte
achetons
achetez
achEtent
PHRFHCT
I
tu
il/elle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
I
nous
vous
ils/elles
ff
r{*"fi vffi
achdtes
il/elle/on achEte
nous achetions
vous achetiez
j'
tu
ai achet6
a achet6
avons achet6
avez achet6
ont achet6
achetais
achetais
illelle/on achetait
nous achetions
vous achetiez
ils/elles achetaient
Sf}lUffilTfSFiiAt"
achdterai
achbteras
achbtera
achEterons
achdterez
achEteront
IMPERATIVE
achite / achetons / achetez
,'
tu
j'
tu
achet6
tlvttlHRr'HCl'
PERFHfr'T
,
tu
ar acqurs
as acquis
illelle/on a acquis
nous avons acquis
vous avez acquts
ils/elles ont acquis
j'
tu
acquerras
ils/elles acquerront
/
acqu6rons
I acquf.rez
achetant
acquerant
EXANIPLE FfftrASES
EXA Jtf ,s*i,s' pFf ffA i;F
gdteaux d lo pdtisserie. I bought some cakes at the cake shop.
Qu est-ce que tu lui as ochetd pour son anniversaire? What did you buy him for his
EIle
ils/elles acqu6raient
acquerrais
acquerrals
illelle/on acquerrait
nous acquerrions
vous acquerriez
ils/elles acquerraient
'r;$c J brJ{r.lTl.t.,1F3 .(:l
IMPEffiAFI\1L
PRESFISI PAffiTifiBPLtr
des
acqu6rais
acqu6rais
ilielle/on acqu6rait
nous acquenons
vous acqu6riez
I
tu
acquerrai
illelle/on acquerra
nous acquerrons
vous acquerrez
acquiers
l'
tu
{j[][tDtTtofltAt
FUTTJftF
PRFSEI\IT PARTISIPTE
I'ai ochet|
acquiEres
ils/elles acquidrent
achEterais
p$,$?TE,fri$*l1t-ta
acquibre
ils/elles acquidrent
ils/elles achdteraient
PAST
i'
tu
acquiers
acquiers
illelle/on acquiEre
nous acqu6rions
vous acquenez
achdterais
illelle/on achdterait
nous achdterions
vous achEteriez
g&tT $ ti HJs".!ilucrfi wE
illelle/on acquiert
nous acquerons
vous acqu6rez
ils/elles achEtent
as achet6
pffi E$
PRE$EIST
achbte
IMPERFiiCT
FUTUNE
tu
il/elle/on
i'
tu
achdte
,"r
acquis
s
a acquis Ia nqtionqlitd frangaise en 2003.She acquired French nationality in 2003.
birthdav?
Je
n'achdte jamois de chips. I never buy crisps.
ielj'=11u=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we yeus=you ils/elles=they
le/j'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
VrRe TnsLes
Vene Tneles
[r.
ilidii$$.ri
(to go)
$!tti:$[i\rT
l
l;'i;Li;i:)i;E'l
je
tu
I
tu
vais
vas
va
{"1
ffi "jF.f
vous allez
illelle/on aille
nous allions
vous alliez
ils/elles vont
ils/elles aillent
suis all6(e)
es all6(e)
illelle/on est all6(e)
nous sommes all6(e)s
vous 6tes all6(e)(s)
ils/elles sont all6(e)s
lf;
r,i
l il'!,
C' i],1,r
f
ii,r
:ii"
i
[.
"a
irais
irais
ill
all6
;1;,;;
nous
vous
ils/elles
vor.rs appeliez
ils/elles appellent
ai aPPel6
as appel6
a appel6
avons appel6
avez appel6
ont appel6
i'
tu
appelais
appelais
illelle/on appelait
nous appelions
vous appeliez
ils/elles appelaient
c{.}&*m5T$ffi[\td\i..
FUTt![1ffi;
i'
tu
i'
tu
aPPellerai
appelleras
illelle/on appellera
nous appellerons
vous appellerez
ils/elles appelleront
/
appelles
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
FIA,S']fi
0\1rf,:
appelons
/
appellerais
appellerais
appellerait
appellerions
appelleriez
appelleraient
p-,e$4,
aPPelez
? { e ! p [. [r
appel6
PRFSHtr,fi'fi FiA$l1'iil(l$F-t.E
;,r;-lt;
appelant
allant
'r,,".
illelle/on
appelle
apPelle
!hIiCFfifiqF'H{:T
i'
tu
IMPHF{&fl
$q,!ffi.j[.rr,,ieT'ivff
illelle/on appelle
nous appelions
ils/elles appellent
ils/elles allaient
*o*"n ***u'.rr,u,'o*
:
j'
tu
aPPelle
appelles
il/elle/on appelle
nous appelons
vous appelez
ils/elles iraient
valallonslallez
!:'$:;!i.$
allais
illelle/on irait
nous irions
vous iriez
ils/elles iront
i'
tu
allars
illelle/on allait
nous allions
vous alliez
j'
tu
irai
iras
ira
illelle/on
nous irons
vous irez
i],r
I
tu
phEH$ffi [\['tr
I'NE5HftJT
PERr'f r:1:
fr$[\igStTfifsr'JAi-
j,
tu
iiij
['\rf
ifr4FFFlFEfi?
lr
je
tu
i;t ! i:tjtt
i\lc
atile
ailles
illelle/on
nous allons
ir!tktii:ti;.i,;
i
:q
:
j ;.
I ,:'
Vous ollez qu cindmci? Are you going to the cinema?
le suis o116 a Londres. I went to London.
Est-ce que tu es ddjd attd en Attemagne? Haveyou ever been
EXA
{Vl pt b.
p*rytrdi$jl
:i
s oppel| Ie mddecin. She called the doctor.
t'oi
apyitd Richard d Londres. I called Richard in London.
'Comment
Elle
to Germany?
tu t'oppelles? What's your name?
fi
ie/l'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous-we vous=you ils/elles=they
See poges
88-91 for information on howtoform the reflexiveverb s'appeler'
le/i'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vou$=you ile/elles=thev
ti
.1r
irri'i
i,
i'
tu
-
.
;:.;r.,t ii. ti:.r,;r :,
I
arrive
arrives
tU
illelle/on arrive
nous arrivons
vous arrivez
illelle/on
ils/elles arrivent
ils/elles
r 'i.:: ,li il
I
.
i
je
tu
suis arriv6(e)
es arriv6(e)
ils/elles sontarriv6(e)s
r
il
arriverai
arriveras
illelle/on arrivera
nous arriverons
vous arriverez
ils/elles arriveront
ti
I
j 'h
r:r
li
li
arrive
rr..i
vous
i
irr,l
nouS
VOU5
ils/elles
,
t , ,, , ; tit
i
ir .;it
r:ll i
je
tu
arrives
m'assieds/m'assois
t'assieds/t'assois
illelle/on s'assied/s'assoit
arrive
arrivions
arriviez
nous nous asseyons/nous assoyons
vous vous asseyez/vous assoyez
r, .. I
irt:rri
i
|
tu
::
!i;, ll'ilij
assis(e)
nous nous sommes assis(es)
vous vous €tes assis(e(s))
arrivions
arriviez
arrivaient
s'asseyent
.'ii
il:i
je
tu
t'es assis(e)
illelle/on s'est
arrivait
nous asseyions
vous asseyiez
vou5
ils/elles
ye me suis assis(e)
arrivais
arrivais
s'asseye
nous
ils/elles s'asseyent/s'assoient
arrivent
m'asseye
t'asseyes
Je
tu
illelle/on
illelle/on
nous nous asseyions
vous vous asseyiez
ils/elles s'asseyaient
ils/elles se sont assis(es)
....,i
m'asseyais
t'asseyais
s'asseyait
,
,:i
i
i
,
..r'i
ir: : ii:i
,!t,
i-
i
j'
tu
je
tu
arriverais
arriverais
illelle/on
nous
vous vous
illelle/on arriverait
nous arriverions
vous arriveriez
je
tu
m'assi6rai
t'assieras
s'assi6ra
nous assi6rons
illelle/on
nous
vous vous
assi6rez
assi6riez
ils/elles s'assi6raient
ils/elles s'assi6ront
ils/elles arriveraient
m'assi6rais
t'assi6rais
s'assi6rait
nous assi6rions
Inirr '
arrivons
l.,a:trii
'.,:
arnve
i'.rtr il,.;r:'
/
l'll
I
tu
illelle/on
..
ir r'i::
tt,
I
',
i.,;:r:1,,.
j'
tu
nouS
,il
illelle/on estarriv6(e)
nous sommes arriv6(e)s
vous 6tes arriv6(e)(s)
rr
(to sit down)
(to arrive)
i l ;l.:i::i:ri ,l
ll
v5nerlgyg
Vene Tneles
I
arrivez
arnve
li,
arrivant
assieds-toi
Qu'est-ce qui est orriv6 d Aurdliel What happened to Aur6lie?
jelj'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles-thev
asseyons-nous
/
asseyez-vous
a5sr5
llh{ i.'ij,:,. ' I
s'asseyant
I
l'srrive d I'6cole d huit heures. I arrive at school at 8 o'clock.
Le prof n'est pqs encore arriv6.fhe teacher hasn't arrived yet.
/
"ri.r::ri:.1
',
:
r:i :'r .rr
.irl r.i,r :
Assieds-toi, Nicole. Sit down Nicole.
Asseyez-vous, Ies enfants.Sit down children.
le peux m'sssoir? May I sit down?
Je'me suis qssise sur un chewing-gum! l've sat on some chewing gum!
jeli,=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
VrneTAsLEs
VeRe TneLes
M m&*mrxdre tto wait)
FF{F.$E$$"r', $
PHtrSH!,{T
i'
tu
i'
tu
attends
attends
nous attendons
vous attendez
ffi
attende
attendes
rMsPHffit-f;s-r
FHFIFHfiT
.i'
tu
ai attendu
as
attendu
illelle/on a attendu
nous avons attendu
vous avez attendu
ils/elles ont attendu
attendais
attendais
illelle/on attendait
nous attendions
vous attendiez
i'
tu
attendrai
attendras
illelle/on attendra
nous attendrons
vous attendrez
ils/elles attendront
attendez
$
Attend s- moi! W ait f or me!
Tu ottends depuis longtempsT Have you been waiting long?
le l'ai sttendu d lo poste. I waited for him at the post office.
'le
m'aftends d ce rju'it soit en retord. I expect he'll be late.
$
see
i.;
iilr:'
f i]'Jh':
aie
aies
avez
nous
vous
ayons
ayez
ils/elles aient
ont
i ;uq ir' 1,,.;L1::t:{,1 {"
I
l'
tu
ai eu
tu
illelle/on
a5 eu
illelle/on avait
nous avions
vous aviez
aeu
avons eu
nous
vous
avez eu
ont eu
ils/elles
ils/elles avaient
(;tl,.l llr,
Ft_j'! i.iF,,i,,
I
illelle/on
nous aurions
vous auriez
ils/elles auraient
auront
ii::
;i i l;r',r:r
i,r:r!: ':
i l; . lir'it !:
eu
aielayons/ayez
PRfil'li:i:r,l'ri
aurais
aurais
iUelle/on aurait
aurons
aurez
nous
vous
ils/elles
[jii"i;]il.L'lilr i.
i'
tu
aurai
auras
aura
tU
avais
avais
):'r
ayant
attendant
Jtrgpc"f Ff{0#-{$fi
avonS
vouS
r-,1,
i:iLi f:,i.i
il/elle/on ait
nous
[ai,!1f!
l,i
i'
tu
as
a
pi:[,tiiil,r;.1"
lffi
ii.:,i.i ii:ii
ai
ils/elles
ils/elles attendraient
Pffig$Ei\dT pd\HfieiP[-ffi
#x4
I
illelle/on attendrait
nous attendrions
vous attendriez
attendu
lir'I
ii'
tu
illelle/on
attendrais
attendrais
ps.$T trld\{q{un[PLE
In4FHi\Ar['qdffi
/ attendons /
Pltiirilr':ri'iit
ils/elles attendaient
&#rup5T[ffi[\lA[-
I-UTL!NH
attends
rl\f
ils/elles attendent
ils/elles attendent
i'
tu
ri-}t-r ffi fr
illelle/on attende
nous attendions
vous attendiez
il/elle/on attend
j'
tu
L$
F,Y.qt ll,lll"
ll
a
les
f .
i:' ir'fil,,r
.,'li
lrr
.: :,rl
got blue eyes.
os-tul How old are You?
yeux bleus. He's
Quel dge
ll s eu un accident. He's had an accident'
l'avois foim. I was hungry.
ll y o beaucoup de monde. There are lots of people'
poges 88-91 for informotion on how to form the reflexive verb s'ottendre.
jeli'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous:we v6u5=lou ils/elles=they
le/i'=ltu-you il=he/it etle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
Vrne TneLes
Vsne TheLes
ts battre
(to beat)
PRESENT SUBJUI\ICTIVE
PRESENT
je
tu
bats
bats
illelle/on bat
nous battons
vous battez
ils/elles battent
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
ai battu
as battu
a battu
avons battu
avez battu
ont battu
battes
illelle/on batte
nous battions
vous battiez
ils/elles battent
je
tu
battrai
battras
illelle/on battait
nous battions
vous battiez
ils/elles battaient
illelle/on battra
nous battrons
vous battrez
ils/elles battront
IMPERATIVE
bats/battons/battez
je
tu
le
tu
battrais
battrais
illelle/on battrait
nous battrions
vous battriez
ils/elles battraient
PAST PARTIEIPLF
battu
bois
bois
il/elle/on boit
nous buvons
vous buvez
ils/elles boivent
i'
tu
boive
boives
il/elle/on boive
nous buvions
vous buviez
ils/elles boivent
ai bu
as bu
illelleion a bu
nous avons bu
vous avez bu
ils/elles ont bu
ie
tu
buvais
buvais
il/elle/on buvait
nous buvions
vous buviez
ils/elles buvaient
coNDIT!01\Al-
FUTT.'[48
je
tu
boirai
boiras
il/elle/on boira
nous boirons
vous boirez
ils/elles boiront
IMPEffiA !VH
bois/buvons lbuvez
ie
tu
boirais
boirais
illelle/on boirait
nous boirions
vous boiriez
ils/elles boiraient
FIAST PARTICIPI.E
bu
fld..+?'r lo jd'ii"Fi
PRESEhi'l
battant
buvant
EXAMPLE PHRA.9FS
EXA4i{qLE pf-fffills&,$
On les a bottus deux d un. We beat them 2-1 .
l'oi le ceur qul bafl My-heart's beating (fast)l
ArrQtez de vous bottre! Stop fighting!
tu veux boire? Whatwould you.like to drink?
ne
boit
Ii
iamqis d'alcoal. He never drinks alcohol'
l'ai bu ui litre d'eau. I drank a litre of water.
See
STIVF
je
tu
PRESENT PARTICIPLE
fi
[lfi
i[vlPHFtFF]CT
PERFEfr'$'
battais
battais
CONDITIONAL
FUTURE
je
tu
batte
IMPERFECT
PFRFECT
j'
tu
je
tu
PRE$EI\I"T' SU BJU
PRESET{T
Qu'est-ce que
poges 88-91 for informotion on how to form the reflexive verb se bqttre.
ieli'=ltu=you il-he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
ielj,=|tu=youi|=he/ite||e=she/iton=We/onenou$=Wevous=youi|s/e||es=they
Vens Tneles
Vrne TneLes
&'
hmsxfrfiH$"r
(to noit)
i3li{Fj$,iEtl,l?' c:.{i *l,.rl["]
r":tf ,$EhiT
ie
tu
je
tu
bous
bous
t3 r*r
"i-
i
.!
fli
!n$$]KffiFlHcll"
ai bouilli
as bouilli
a bouilli
avons bouilli
avez bouilli
ont bouilli
f
je
tu
bouilliras
bouillais
bouillais
illelle/on bouillait
nous bouillions
vous bouilliez
ils/elles bouillaient
lH
$,!
"ii
ilr {3 [\1r\ !'"
je
tu
bouillirai
ils/elles bouilliront
bouillirais
bouillirais
il/elle/on bouillirait
nous bouillirions
vous bouilliriez
ils/elles bouilliraient
prfl|lr;'r: PF, i:i
FMIP$l$TAT,V;
Pffi
je
tu
# ft
il/elle/on bouillira
nous bouillirons
vous bouillirez
bous
bouilles
ils/elles bouillent
$ERf fiL;{
ils/elles
bouille
nous bouillions
vous bouilliez
ils/elles bouillent
illelle/on
nous
vous
r
il/elle/on bouille
illelle/on bout
nous bouillons
vous bouillez
i'
tu
F\rj,i..:-i'ir,r
/ bouillons /
bouillez
[ifid [iL,H
bouilli
H$*ir\|T; i14'1iI{T'l&iIPf..ffi
rf,.lf-#pi{"f;
+rltil r l;,:
L'eau bout.The
Tu
commence
commences
,l/elle/on commence
nous commencions
vous commenciez
ils/elles commencent
ils/elles commencent
iitr: l)iili'rr;f
PFRt fld"{
nous
vous
ils/elles
ai commenc6
as commenc6
a commenc6
avons commenc6
avez commenc6
ont commenc6
commencerai
commenceras
il/elle/on commencera
nous commenceronS
vous commencerez
/
ils/elles commenEaient
PRE$|.;','t
:)i")t,rr !.:'"i'r'r.l-
"r'
commencerais
commencerals
nous commencerions
vous commenceriez
ils/elles commenceraient
: /\i
commengons
commenEais
commenqais
il/elle/on commencerait
ils/elles commenceront
commence
ll'
illelle/on commengait
nous commencions
vous commenclez
ie
tu
je
tu
'
Ii:'li
je
tu
.
FUTt!${FJ
lMPFFir:t'r
ji"d,i{"tr IULiT'gVffi
il/elle/on commence
nous commentons
vous commencez
illelle/on
$t
ie commence
tu commences
je
tu
i'
tu
i"i[.]"{:iH[,,,T
/ commencez
"
?:r'ti-t | -:[t{ €
commence
'
commenqant
bouillant
A-i
f
Put tlHi[\]T
-q;
watert boiling.
peux mettre de I'eau d bouillirT Can you boil some water?
Exdfl,f.pii-t:
it #i{, i:"i-':,l;
ll a commenc| a pleuvoir.lt started to rain'
io.^rhcent d neuf heures' Lessons start at 9 o'clock'
trt exqmens? Have you started revising for the
de
7i
tiiiuit
it iiii i"iienc1
*itri pii,
e*ams?
ie/j'=ltu=you il=he/it elle-she/it on=we/one nous:we vous=you ils/elles=they
vous=you ils/elles=they
ie/i'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we
VeRB Tnsles
Vens Tneles
(to know)
(to conclude)
;. f
je
tu
ri;j:iijii,il 1' ri I il.t:,.li,iii;ili
je
tu
illelle/on conclut
nous concluons
vous concluez
conclue
conclues
illelle/on conclue
nous concluions
vous concluiez
ils/elles concluent
ils/elles concluent
conclus
conclus
l'
ft
[
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
ai conclu
as conclu
a conclu
avons conclu
avez conclu
ont conclu
.:l'l
je
tu
je
tu
je
tu
conclurai
concluras
il/elle/on conclura
nous conclurons
vous conclurez
r:i(-.: , . ,i.trli',r
t"'
/
concluons
/
concluez
rilt;;!,
,'
conclu
concluant
ont conclu un mqrch6. They concluded a deal.
J'en oi conclu qu'il 6tait porti. I concluded that he had gone.
le conclurai par ces mots...lwill conclude with these words...
r.li.i
j'
]
connais
/
P['{fiir.]
',1
i
I
rt
l:
f".i:
i,l,i r :
connaitrais
connaitrais
illelle/on connaitrait
nous connaitrions
vous connaitriez
ils/elles connaitraient
il':r;,
I ir l
connaissons
rrrll'1.r,
je
tu
ils/elles connaitront
r:',
connaissais
connaissais
ils/elles connaissaient
connaitrai
connaitras
il/elle/on connaitra
nous connaitrons
vous connaitrez
lN'lF[ri:;
i,'[.
illelle/on connaissait
nous connaissions
vous connaissiez
je
tu
/
l','.:' t::rli
i:r f
:r-
li.)r,
'r i
connaissez
li
connaissant
:: r.i,,,.i r, ,.
:,
tout cette rdgion. I don't know.the area at all'
connaisiez M Amiot? Do you know Mr Amiot?
ll n'a pas connu son grond-pirb' He never.knew his granddad'
tls se iont connus d Rouen. They first met in Rouen'
le ne connais pqs du
Vous
t
iery=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
connu
iiirrli;:
f.A','i.!1i1.1,,,r1,
lls
as
ils/elles ont connu
ils/elles concluraient
tt I
connaisse
connaisses
connaisse
je
tu
ai connu
nous avons connu
vous avez connu
conclurais
conclurais
i,!i:
il rrr,:.i-:.i I ti
il/elle/on a connu
FtII
ii
ilr,
r'
i'
tu
illelle/on conclurait
nous conclurion5
vous concluriez
ils/elles concluront
conclus
lrij',iif,ir'jill
:.il;1"
ils/elles connaissent
ils/elles connaissent
ils/elles concluaient
:.i r
illelle/on
nous connaissions
vous connaissiez
nous connaissons
vous connaissez
illelle/on concluait
nous concluions
vous concluiez
r:..i I irrr
je
tu
connais
connais
illelle/on connait
concluais
concluais
ll
:]
je
tu
Pfrtiiirirl.'
i'
tu
,: i.li:.:r.,,1::r:ti
;;r,l;:!'ti
)
see
pages 88-91 far information on how to form the reflexive verb se connaitre'
|e4,=|tu=youi|=he/ite||e=she/iton=we/onenous=Wevous=youi|$/e||es=they
VrRa Theles
Vene TneLes
p' cOflrdre
(to sew)
PRFS gtUT
PFIf;SENT
ie
tu
couds
couds
illelle/on coud
nous cousons
vous
cousez
ils/elles cousent
PERFEGT
i'
tu
je
tu
{ruS"ir"'f{cfl vE
couse
couses
couse
illelle/on
nous cousions
vous cousiez
ils/elles cousent
I[UPE$TFfrfiT
ai cousu
as cousu
illelle/on a cousu
nous avons cousu
vous avez cousu
ils/elles ont cousu
FT.'TUHH
ie
tu
coudrai
coudras
illelle/on coudra
nous coudrons
vous coudrez
ils/elles coudront
IIMPERATIVE
je
tu
cousais
cousais
illelle/on cousait
nous cousions
vous coustez
ils/elles cousaient
c0ru$tT'!CIru,AL
je
tu
coudrais
coudrais
illelle/on coudrait
nous coudrions
vor.rs coudriez
ils/elles coudraient
PAST PAffi"{"H*IPLM
PlqHrinnv"t" $if;"iF-iJ{.!hn6 i"[\t+i
PRESHTU"T
ie
courS
tu
illelle/on
courS
je
ru
coure
coures
illelle/on coure
nous courions
vous couriez
court
vous
courons
courez
ils/elles
courent
nouS
ils/elles courent
lilfllrtir Iri!;!] f. I
PERFF*"d"
I
je
tu
ai couru
tu
illelle/on
as
couru
a couru
avons couru
avez couru
ont couru
nous
vou5
ils/elles
le
courrai
tu
illelle/on
courraS
vouS
ils/elles
;*/.\ii;ll
cours/couronslcourez
PRHSENT PARTIEIPLH
PR E$ H fd'fi
cousant
courant
EXAfrIIPLE Pf{RA$gS
EXA tl/fp{
Tu sais
Elle
o
cousu ette-mAme son costume. She
made her costume herself.
jelj'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
'hi]
i14,{
fl
."
courrais
courrais
ils/elles courraient
IMPEFtATiVF,
-[,il{ !.1 i'lt"li1 i:t
[:lE'fl
nous courrions
vous courriez
courront
'
0\8
illelle/on courrait
couds/cousons/cousez
coudrel Can you sew?
ils/elles couraient
je
tu
courra
courrons
courrez
nouS
courais
courais
illelle/on courait
nous courions
vous couriez
C{,}
FUTI.'Hfi
f
Fift tir,iTfl 'd.]!|rr! .i::
[.ii"
$.i,t}FLFri.{1"$i.r.itj
le ne cours pas tris vite. I can't run very fast.
f.lle est sortie en couront. She ran out.
Ne courez pas dons le couloir. Don't run in the corridor.
l'oi couru jusqu'd l'6cole, I ran all the way to school'
leii,-ltu-you il=he/it elle=she/it on-we/one nou$=we y6u5=lou ils/ell63=they
,.,i.;,
V5ne
Tlalrs
:,.r
.,'
I
: .,, (tO
Vene TleLrs
riii (to create)
fgaf)
t'til:ii
r
je
tu
,e
tu
crains
crains
il/elle/on craint
nous craignons
vous craignez
cratgne
craignes
illelle/on craigne
nous craignions
vous craigniez
ils/elles craignent
ils/elles craignent
l.
rir 1r:
: r:: :' r'
j'
tu
il/elle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
'r t'1,'
ai craint
as craint
a craint
avons craint
avez craint
ont craint
je
tu
craindrai
craindras
iUelle/on craindra
nous craindrons
vous craindrez
ils/elles craindront
ir 'lll
'
r,.1
I i; ;,
je
tu
-:'rr
vous
j'
tu
illelle/on craindrait
nous craindrions
vous craindriez
, ..i:'l ,l
il/elle/on
c16era
ils/elles craindraient
!'
craint
cr,-aeras
cr6aient
i.
tl
' ;'l- ',.;t
je
c16erais
tu
illelle/on
cr6erais
c16erait
nous
vous
cr6eronS
cr6erez
ils/elles
ils/elles cr6eront
cr6erions
cr6eriez
cr6eraient
ilr:'i.i'
IMPpN:t rr: itli:fl
cr66
cr6e/cr6ons I cr6ez
Pftfil:ii:i;r''i
c16iez
vou5
ils/elles
ils/elles ont cr66
cr6erai
cr6ais
c16ait
c16ions
nous
nous avons cr66
vous avez cr6.6
je
tu
c16ais
tu
illelle/on
as cr66
nous
vous
.
je
ai cr66
rl/elle/on a cr66
craindrais
craindrais
cr€ent
ils/elles
l':'
i.;i'
cr6es
cr6e
c16ions
crEiez
nouS
ilfIt.!lii:i;il
r:
,'il
ai]rir,l:,
I,
rrI
.'u1"1
craignant
IX4,{li'ri1r.'1'
Tu n'os rien d crsindre. You've got
le crains le pire. I fear the worst'
tu
il/elle/on
,,,.
craignais
craignais
il,i
'r.lr 'lr'
]li
I
c16e
le
cr6e
cr6es
,1,'r'lle/on cf6e
notrs cr6ons
vous creez
ils/elles cr6ent
I'l
l
ils/elles craignaient
/ craignons I craignez
,' a,::.,1'
:'
illelle/on craignait
nous craignions
vous craigniez
._,,,.1i.tr,,
crains
i:,
je
tu
,t
l:
''t- i.r I
je
tu
i:it
l::i
!qil
nothing to fear.
ieli'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one noua=we vou$=you ils/elles=they
t]
:'i'
r'i"
:'. i')t.: \'
a
tt o cr66 une nouvelle invention. He's created
't;;;;;,ra iit Jinitrtta'iiit
tt ,onde
new invention'
entier. This virus is creating difficulties all
over the world.
Leoouvernementcrfueradeuxmilleemploissuppllmentaires'Thegovernmentwill
cieate an extra 2000 lobs.
vous=you ils/elles=they
iefi'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one n6g5=w€
VeRs Tneles
Vene Tnsles
nr- .'" I ,",r I (to shout)
''.;:-.'il
!rilii[:rit:fi41:'
je
tu
vous criez
illelle/on crie
nous cntons
vous cntez
ils/elles crient
ils/elles crient
iUelle/on crie
nous crions
i
,e crle
tu cries
crie
cries
lr]ii.I itl.l: iirrNstii:'li
lgt4pt'dit[:'iefi''s
I'
tu
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
al crle
as cri6
a cri6
avons cri6
avez cri6
ont cri6
je
tu
fe
vous criiez
ils/elles criaient
tu
je
tu
crieras
illelle/on criera
nous crierons
vous crierez
j.,.i'
.i
nous crierions
vous cnenez
ils/elles crieraient
lt{lii'li
crie/crions/criez
i3i:it:illPr[ii't
crlerals
crierais
il/elle/on crierait
ils/elles crieront
,lj.
Ji'll iJ L i i,: /[,.1.+,irir,
crierai
|,lj!.l,'i l tr'.:liPfl-ifr
cne
il,..:ri1il'l{;,}fl Pf" Fl
fltl
1;[::liU'd'
je
tu
(to believe)
t'i,1i :it;iiirt',f"i
crois
crois
tl/elle/on croit
nous croyons
vous qoyez
ils/elles croient
PI Rt .,..
-
i'
tu
il/elle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
le
tu
je
tu
croirai
croiras
il/elle/on croira
nous croirons
vous croirez
ils/elles croiront
IMPF:l!'li!'i-lii
ir:
croies
ils/elles croient
;li:ri.
le
tu
:
'l
croyars
croyais
illelle/on croyait
nous croyions
vous croyiez
ils/elles croyaient
ii .::,.'lr
FUT[,i14t::
crote
illelle/on croie
nous croyions
vous croyiez
r,ir i' ' i:l
ai cru
as cru
a cru
avons cru
avez cru
ont cru
t illl:i'r
l\ l I
Iir
'1r 'ii
je
tu
ir-ll i\ij. 'l'l!
i
croirais
croirais
il/elle/on croirait
nous croirions
vous croiriez
ils/elles croiraient
i,lrti
ljar
f::'ii,
i;r
i
l
i
l
rl
i:i;l
.
i!
crois/croyonslcloyez
PREI',
"
j
croyant
criant
l::r)iii:i,il;ii,ir'',{,,L:'
C$.4,.?i:lail
criais
criais
illelle/on criait
nous criions
r.ii
,.r1:il::i:
>
li f ir',i1iil.!jj'x!iii
Ne crie pas comme Eol Don't shoutl
Elle q cri6 au secours. She cried for help.
" Attention! ", cri a-t- il.'Watch out! " he shouted.
je/j'=ltu-you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we v6g5=lou ilslelle$=they
6Xl,'::;
le ne te crois pas. I don't believe you.
'l'oi
cru que tu n'ollqis pqs venir. I thought you weren't going to come'
'Elle
croyoit encore ou pi:re Nod/. She still believed in Santa'
il3/elles=they
le/i'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you
VeneTeeLEs
VrRs Tnelrs
(to grow)
je
tu
je
tu
crois
crois
iUelle/on croit
nous
vous
croissons
croissez
ils/elles croissent
;
I 1
, l,,ir .l;ii'
i',,
ill,i
t,
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles croissent
je
tu
ai crO
as crO
ils/elles ont crO
croitrai
croitras
il/elle/on croitra
nous croitrons
vous croitrez
ils/elles croitront
croissais
croissais
illelle/on croissait
nous croissions
vous croissiez
ils/elles croissaient
:.')
,ll'
je
tu
,,
f":J'-il
[,:.ll',i
je
tu
croissons
/
croissez
croitrais
croitrais
illelle/on croitrait
nous croitrions
vous croitriez
ils/elles croitraient
crO
r
je
je
tu
cueille
tu
il/elle/on
cueilles
nous
vou5
ils/elles
,.r ''
rr
I
je
tu
ai cueilli
as cueilli
a cueilli
avons cueilli
avez cueilli
ont cueilli
tu
il/elle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
il/elle/on cueillait
nous cueillions
vous cueilliez
ils/elles cueillaient
ii,:'i.:j.,i
nouS
vouS
ils/elles
croissant
PRffii'-.r :if
ventes croissent de 60/0 par an. Sales are growing by 60/o per year.
C'est une plonte qui croit dans les pays chouds. This plant grows in hot countries.
ie/j'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vou$=you ils/elles=they
il/elle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
cueilleront
cueillerais
cueillerais
cueillerait
cueillerions
cueilleriez
cueilleraient
i!:i,
cueillons
Itr
;,'lii,,l
r
/ cueillez
',,,,ti
, L
cueilli
,
cueillant
EX,A.ii#'r
Les
je
tu
cueillerai
cueilleras
cueillera
cueillerons
cueillerez
ie
/
cueillais
cueillais
i .' :iril-,r: :l t;i..iill':i.:-
tu
illelle/on
cueille
cueilles
ils/elles cueillent
cueillent
IMFH'rriIt,i
(N8: crue, crus, crues)
cueille
illelle/on cueille
nous cueillions
vous cueilliez
cueille
cueillons
cueillez
FU"n't f flii'l
:,t
ir'il
:.
/
I'll
PEiiFii;t.
illelle/on a crO
nous avons crO
vous avez crO
crois
croisse
croisses
croisse
croissions
croissiez
r:
j'
tu
t
i
i;
,'!i,.,r l-:i,.:,lri
i
garden.
cueilli quelques fraises dons Ie iardin.l've. picked a few strawberries in the
pick
to
forbidden
lt's
montogne'
ta
ditns
iauvages
fleurs
est interdit di cueitlh des
wild flowers in the mountains.
l,oi
'tl
ils/elles=they
io/i'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you
Vene
Tnelrs
Vene TnBLrs
(to cook)
r' ;.',,;:r.
je
tu
ils/elles cuisent
ils/elles cuisent
i ,i I. r':
r;'
ils/elles ont cuit
'r
;,.
I
je
tu
cuirai
cuiras
;r'
cuirais
cuirais
illelle/on cuirait
nous cuirions
vous cuiriez
illelle/on cuira
nous cuirons
vous cuirez
ils/elles cuiraient
ils/elles cuiront
rirr,,lr.
cuisais
cuisais
illelle/on cuisait
nous cuisions
vous cuisiez
,
je
descends
descends
tu
il/elle/on
descend
descendons
descendez
descendent
nou5
vouS
ils/elles
.l :, ri, l',llr
je
suis descendu(e)
es descendu(e)
est descendu(e)
tu
iilelle/on
sommes descendu(e)s
6tes descendu(e)(s)
sont descendu(e)s
nous
vouS
ils/elles
descendrai
Je
tu
illelle/on
descendras
descendra
descendrons
descendrez
descendront
nou5
vouS
ils/elles
descendes
nous descendions
vous descendiez
ils/elles descendent
:
I
je
tu
descendais
descendais
illelle/on descendait
nous descendions
vous descendiez
ils/elles descendaient
.',1:, i1.,,
i:
ie
tu
:,
.
:
, ,'
descendrais
descendrais
il/elle/on descendrait
nous descendrions
vous descendriez
ils/elles descendraient
IMFF;t"-ii., i"1,,:r
cuis/cuisons/cuisez
cuit
descends
/ descendons / descendez
ir : ri. : ir,il ,: I i.:,.,. I : i,: I,:,
PRff*:ii:if!l
i
cuisant
descendant
i.;t..rli'.,; t, ,' .. .'! ''
descende
il/elle/on descende
i i,
Pg-f"{.lii'irl
:i.
le
tu
i,;',
t'Elt$:[:i,'i
ils/elles cuisaient
1
je
tu
l'
je
tu
as
nous avons cuit
vous avez cuit
',..1
i':'
ai cuit
cuit
illelle/on a cuit
i
cuise
cuises
cuise
illelle/on
nous cuisions
vous cuisiez
illelle/on cuit
nous cuisons
vous cuisez
j'
tu
r:
I'II[:;;ii',.1':1'
i
|e cuis
tu cuis
'r'li'
(to go down)
'i
le les oi cuits au beurre. I cooked them in butter.
En g4n6ra[ je cuis les l4gumes d lo vopeur. I usually steam vegetables.
Ce gdteau prend environ une heure d cuire. This cake takes about an hour to bake.
i
EXy'nfi.'r'rli'i-u:''1r':
i:'r'l
r':r"{1
Descendez Io rue jusqu'ou rond-point. Co down the street to the roundabout.
* l'm coming down!
Reste en bos: je descendsl Stay downstairs
Nous sommes descendus d lci stotion Trocoddro. We got off at the Trocad6ro station'
Vous pouvez descendre mo valise, s'i! vous plcitT Can you get my suitcase down,
please?
[J
jeli'=ltu-you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
descendu
Note that descendre takes avoir in the perfect tense when it is used with a
direct obiec! see page 1 14.
lelj'=ltu-you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous-we vous=you ils/elles=they
Vrns TaeLes
Vrne TnsLes
(to become)
(to have to; to owe)
pJ11,il,i:1, ri
je
tu
je
tu
devienne
deviennes
illelle/on devienne
nous devenions
vous deveniez
deviens
deviens
illelle/on devient
nous devenons
vous devenez
ils/elles deviennent
ils/elles deviennent
]',
je
tu
suis devenu(e)
es devenu(e)
illelle/on est devenu(e)
nous sommes devenu(e)s
vous 6tes devenu(e)(s)
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
devenais
devenais
devenait
devenions
deveniez
devenaient
.i
i
je
tu
deviendrai
deviendras
illelle/on deviendra
nous deviendrons
vous deviendrez
ils/elles deviendront
i
/
nouS
vouS
ils/elles
I
tu
illelle/on
nouS
vous
ils/elles
Fll!'lr'i.Ii
je
tu
deviendrais
deviendrais
illelle/on deviendrait
nous deviendrions
vor.rs deviendriez
ils/elles deviendraient
.
devenons
/
devenez
devenu
.
devenant
doit
devons
devez
doivent
devenu mddecin. He became a doctor.
devient de plus en plus difficile. lt's becoming more and more difficult'
Qu'est-ce qu'elle est devenueT What has become of her?
est
Q.o
jelj'=ltu=you it=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we v6us=lou ils/elles=thev
ai d0
as d0
ad0
avons d0
avez d0
ont d0
je
tu
doive
doives
il/elle/on doive
nous devions
vous deviez
ils/elles doivent
je
devrai
devras
nouS
vou5
ils/elles
je
tu
devra
devrons
devrez
devront
ils/elles devaient
,'
je
tu
l
devrais
devrais
illelle/on devrait
nous devrions
vous devriez
ils/elles devraient
r''
dois/devonsldevez
PI"lfirLr
devais
devais
illelle/on devait
nous devions
vous deviez
,l ,l ;
tu
illelle/on
d0 (NB: due, dus, dues)
I
devant
[-Xliiir,ri'.r
ll
dois
dois
:
lMPiiri'r,. ,
.,
deviens
Je
tu
illelle/on
[)[]:l:ihilt.i, .
je
tu
ils/elles sont devenu(e)s
i
".
i ,.]':'
Je dois aller fqire les courses ce mqtin. I have to do the
A quetle heure est-ce que tu dois paftir? What time do
shopping this morning.
you have to.leave?
ll ;t d0 faire ses devoirs hier soir. He had to do his homework last night'
ll devoit prendre le troin pour aller trovoiller He had to go to work by train.
le/i,=ltu=you it=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you
ilsr/elles=they
Vrne Tnslrs
VrRe TneLts
':
lil:r.'::t,
je
tu
i,.,1..,,,
je
tu
dis
dis
illelle/on dit
nous disons
vous dites
ils/elles disent
i'
tu
l i.t:l
dirai
diras
illelle/on dira
nous dirons
vous direz
ils/elles diront
ils/elles donnent
disais
disais
illelle/on disait
nous disions
vous disiez
i'
tu
t
..
.r-..
dirais
dirais
illelle/on dirait
nous dirions
vous diriez
ils/elles diraient
as
vous avez donn6
ils/elles ont donn6
t11
dit
,rr'
.i
'rl1:
le
tu
donnerais
donnerais
illelle/on donnerait
nous donnerions
vous donneriez
illelle/on donnera
nous donnerons
vous donnerez
ils/elles donneraient
ils/elles donneront
i::r. , :
donne/donnons/donnez
r1;'r ri ' rii'
PRFir'ii:i:i r
donnais
donnais
ils/elles donnaient
donnerai
donneras
l
ilielle/on donnait
nous donnions
vous donniez
i,
1-1',i!1rl::
ie
tu
je
tu
ai donn6
donn6
illelle/on a donn6
nous avons donn6
ils/elles disaient
I
ri
:r
I
donn6
.i
donnant
disant
:
'..
.
dit?What is she saying?
"Bonjour!", q-t-il dit. "Hello!" he said.
tls m"ont dit que te film 6tqit nuL They told me that the film was rubbish.
Comment ga se dit en anglois? How do you say that in English?
Qu'est-ce qu'elle
See
ils/elles donnent
l
,.,r.t;,,.,i
fi
donnes
,1r, I
I
je
tu
donne
illelle/on donne
nous donnions
vous donniez
lMPflilli.'' r, ' ,/
dis/disons/dites
:\'j
donnes
ils/elles disent
je
tu
je
tu
donne
il/elle/on donne
.,,,,i.i
,
le
tu
nous donnons
vous donnez
i!lr:i:
je
tu
1,...
l
nous disions
vous disiez
ai dit
as dit
illelle/on a dit
nous avons dit
vous avez dit
ils/elles ont dit
l)llFr{:i:S'li:i
dise
dises
illelle/on dise
i,r'.t]I
l'
(to give)
t,
(to say)
I:.\l{fiirr:,,
1
1"',
:) :
'
Donne-moi la main. Give me your hand'
tst-ie aue ie t'ai donn| mon adresse? Did I give you my address?
t'apportement donne sur Ia ploce.The flat overlook the square'
poges 88-91 for information on how to form the reflexive verb se dire'
ielj,=11.,=you il-he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
ils/elles=they
le/i'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nou$=we vous=you
I
I
I
t-
vene
i
Trers
Vene
:,:,., (to sleep)
L
I
I
I
]
]
I
i,
;,ni'i:,,ri:l\,j?
ie dors
i" ;;;;
itl"tt"/on ;il
nous Jortont
vous Jorrnur
ils/elles Jor1n"nt
dormi
dormi
illelle/on
'
"-Oriri
nous uuont
Jotai
vous avez dormi
ils/elles ont dormi
ai
as
I
je dormirai
tu dormiras
illelle/on dormira
nous dormirons
vous dormirez
""' "'l:::.
ils/elles dormiront
'llu
le dormais
tu dormais
il/eile/on dormait
nous dormions
vous dormiez
ils/elles dormaient
(1.;i! llll I i,i,li
ii;i",r11"$"i'|ti::
i
le dorme
i, dormes
illelle/on dorme
nous dormions
vous dormiez
ils/elles dorment
liiildl'a:iFllfili:l;'i
ii.rl:lil,iiir!!ll:1'l'
i,
tu
i:!ir!i:i:rir:ii:i:ii1f'j'
il,:'.I..
ie dormirais
tu dormirais
illelle/on dormirait
nous dormirions
vous dormiriez
ils/elles ;;;;;';:^'
".,.u.. dormiraient
i' 6cris
tu 6cris
illelle/on 6crit
nous 6crivons
vous 6crivez
ils/elles 6crivent
6crit
6crit
il/elle/on a 6crit
nous avons 6crit
vous avez 6crit
ils/elles ont 6crit
Fl-,i'l-D-;,
.."
ai
as
.
ils/elles 6criront
6crives
nous 6crivions
vous 6criviez
ils/elles Ecrivent
.:, ''r
j'
tu
i
6crivais
6crivais
illelle/on 6crivait
nous 6crivions
vous 6criviez
ils/elles 6crivaient
rf
i' 6crirai
tu 6criras
illelle/on 6crira
nous 6crirons
vous 6crirez
6crive
il/elle/on 6crive
r'ii .r'li: .:
PF['iFlri]i:l'il'
i'
tu
i'
tu
ii'"ili
ri"
";"irrrii'rrLr
j'
tu
6crirais
6crirais
illdle/on 6crirait
nous 6cririons
vous 6cririez
ils/elles 6criraient
I i r'ir''i.i rifts-
dors
/ dormons /
dormez
lliLi,o::rti,ill.ilr"'j tl:ir,iil'i'!1'[]:ilt'ril
dormi
[!
6cris
/
6crivons
/
6crivez
l
i'
l"rrir'rl.
PRFr,i:i;r'ir;,,rr'
dormant
6crivant
i:,,i,riltli +.i: r.t',i'lllir,hiii$
E,Yl,:,
dormi? Did you sleep well?
Nous dormons dans la m€me chombre. We sleep in the same bedroom.
A heures, it dormait d1id. He was already asleep by nine.
Elte
Tu os bien
t
Tu
jelj'=ltu-you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we voua:you ils/elles=thev
i'
as 6crit d to correspondonte rdcemment? Have you written to your penfriend lately?
icrit des romans. She writes novels.
Ciriirt
fi
,r]r,' ,
qa
s'6crit, "brouillard"? How do you spell "brouillard"?
see pages
88-91
for informqtion on
how to form the reflexive verb s'Ecrire.
le/i,=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
Vene TneLrs
Vene TnsLrs
(to move)
l,:'
:
rl[t::,rir:il,]
ii"
j'
tu
11'
r:i 11fl, i:i
i'!i-il
i,l
iL-r
l,;, i
i
l
11{
illelle/on 6meut
nous 6mouvons
vous 6mouvez
6meuve
6meuves
illelle/on 6meuve
nous 6mouvions
vous 6mouviez
ils/elles 6meuvent
ils/elles 6meuvent
il,,lli:i:' 1,:
ai 6mu
as 6mu
a 6mu
avons 6mu
avez 6mu
ont 6mu
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
ir;ir,ii'lr iilt/,::
6mouvrai
6mouvras
illelle/on 6mouvra
nous 6mouvrons
vous 6mouvrez
ils/elles 6mouvront
lilrlritii
/ 6mouvons /
!',jrLl.::i;,1.,i'rii
i
j'
tu
6mouvez
nous sommes entr6(e)s
vous 6tes entr6(e)(s)
ils/elles sontentr6(e)s
entrerai
entreras
ll/elle/on entrera
nous entrerons
vous entrerez
illelle/on 6mouvrait
nous 6mouvrions
vous 6mouvriez
PRESEruT
: l.rl,iii'i rt t:itj,'lr i:
;rX
4
;i
il
\l
[.:
i';:.ri'
entrais
entrais
ils/elles entraient
il,li i"l1[:rlrii;lrir
entrerais
entrerais
it-
!.:llioilt'j'[l;lir
i].,
.
entr6
i?'A.hi. ir it;iqlii-L'j
cntrant
6mouvant
t XAM| t
o 6mu.This film moved us.
Cette histoire m'6meut touiours beaucoup. This story always moves me to tears.
Ce film nous
ie/i'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you
q"tr
nous entrions
vous entriez
l,i{',lti
cntre/entrons/entrez
6mu
p
ils/elles entreraient
rMPER,B',f,$\dil;
l:.
11.
illelle/on entrerait
nous entrerions
vous entreriez
ils/elles entreront
ils/elles 6mouvraient
;
il/elle/on entrait
j'
tu
i'
tu
€mouvrais
6mouvrais
:i
i'
tu
riilfrl
I U TURf:
ii_
lt;)],.;rr.l I l,r:t:illll_
suis entr6(e)
es entr6(e)
rl/elle/on estentr6(e)
ils/elles 6mouvaient
i .ri' :t iri.;,liitil
itiiirlit:;ll:11;'l it
T
je
tu
6mouvais
6mouvais
i' t,
ils/elles entrent
ils/elles entrent
PERFEC
i\\l
entre
entres
illelle/on entre
nous entrions
votrs entriez
nous entronS
vous enlrez
l"ii
Fr
j'
tu
entre
entres
rl/elle/on entre
tu
ilielle/on 6mouvait
nous 6mouvions
vous 6mouviez
tlril:t',,t
ii:i:.rii ii':l'llii;:
6meus
i'
tu
i,.i.rrrrr,,l
i'
tu
"i:-l:.'t
frill:.r'li
f,8[sH|\dT
i'
i'
tu
6meus
6meus
j'
tu
r.; r'i \i'rit
ile/elles=thev
*
s
*: r,.J',,r
di;
:
:
Can I come in?
I ssuie-toi les pieds en entrqnt. \Mpe your feet as you come in.
lls sont tous'entAs dans Ia moison. They all went into the house'
le peux entrer?
lr{,=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nqus=w€ vous=you ils/elles=they
Vrne Tneles
VEneTAeLrs
iu,n {::}iiilUI'.j,ili\,llri:iii' (tO Send }
rrr1.1t'r,f
i:rlltxriii:iiii$'i'
j'
tu
ii: iri.
I'
::irI lll:1.'rir.;
ii:i i-r:
i'
tu
envoie
envoies
illelle/on envoie
nous envoyons
vous envoyez
envoie
envoies
illelle/on envoie
nous envoyions
vous envoyiez
ils/elles envoient
ils/elles envoient
i)fiiiiifiil.j:ijT
li:r,lill
i'
tu
ai envoyd
as envoy6
a envoy6
avons envoy6
avez envoy6
ont envoy6
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
i'
tu
r
ils/elles envoyaient
lr-l[ | i, -.i',L,li li
i'
tu
enverrai
enverras
nous enverrons
vous enverrez
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles enverront
ils/elles
il/elle/on enverra
li\lt1'lilir,irr,i
envoie
/
;rr$i tiri.il []1,'.i
ii
'!rr,'l.r
:/, r::
envoyons
jt'
tr:41
I envoyez
envoyais
envoyais
enverrais
enverrait
enverrions
enverriez
enverraient
:: ii:lt ir i,i:;ii.ll..i
il,
:r
envoy€
lj:i
ils/elles esp6reront
I
i
I
i'!llf
lr
it''i,' I l
esp6rez
.
esp6rais
esp6rais
nous esp6rions
vous esp6riez
ils/elles esp6raient
.iir
iiili1..1['i]
ii-ll
i'
tu
iir.,lrli,
ir ,
esp6rerais
esp6rerais
illelle/on esp6rerait
nous esp6rerions
vous esp6reriez
ils/elles esp6reraient
iiriir'r;'r;
IMPF${,q:["Etrlir
i,,,u,lhi1,j,
ii tr l,':.
il/elle/on esp6rait
t
esp6rerai
esp6reras
illelle/on esp6rera
nous esp6rerons
vous esp6rerez
i;,l !,
l'
tu
ai esp6r6
i'
tu
PRE$Hi$"1,
envoyant
ii."ii:i.ii'i4iii!j-'l
irii,iiir;ilrl':l
/ esp6rons /
:ii;
ils/elles espdrent
as esp6r6
illelle/on a esp6r6
nous avons esp6r6
vous avez esp6r6
ils/elles ont esp6r6
espEre
i
nous esp6rions
vous esp6riez
FUTU$qH
enverrais
it l
espdre
espdres
illelle/on espbre
espdre
esperes
il/elle/on espEre
nous esp6rons
vous esp6rez
j'
tu
tir
j'
tu
i'
tu
PEHFg(;i'
illelle/on envoyait
nous envoyions
vous envoyiez
rriir,i
i'i :lilili
PRE$fifl\f1'
ils/elles espdrent
::r!;rt:rr'1'' I
i'
tu
il. i.
ii.;qi1-il1-fi:iiir
i'l:r,:i
l
il'1lr'
.l
r;'ir"ili;r; ;;
esp616
l{:! i;,t.,t,
esp6rant
it ijri
l i.
l,rl
jr:,,,r,
l'ai envoy| une corte postole d ma fonte. I sent my aunt a postcard.
Envoie-moi un e-moil. Send me an email.
le t'enverrai ton cadeau par la poste. l'll send you your present by post.
ie/i'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vou$=you lls/elles=thev
EXAMFT;'{.;ri'
l'espire que tu vqs bien. I hope you're well.
tl esp4roit pouvoir venir. He was hoping he'd be able to come.
tu penses nlussir tes exomens? - J'espdre bien! Do you think you'll pass your exams?
- | hope so!
lr4'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vsss=fou ils/elles=they
VeRe TaeLEs
Vrne Tnelrs
(to do; to make)
(to be)
It{;rl i:
le
tu
illelle/on
nous
vor:s
Suls
es
est
Sommes
€tes
ils/elles sont
le
tu
sots
sois
illellelon soit
nous soyon5
vous soyez
ie
tu
il/elle/on
iUelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
ai 6t6
as 6t6
a 6t6
avons 6t6
avez 6t6
ont 6t6
i'
tu
r:ii:
I
illelle/on
nous
vous
serai
seras
sera
serons
serez
ils/elles seront
j
l
sois/soyons
I soyez
6t6
nous ferions
vous feriez
ils/elles feraient
fait
r,r
i
faisant
t,,'..'
)
Qu'est-ce que tu faisT What are you doin-g? .
What
Qu'est-ce Qu'it a foit? What has he done? or
did he do?
a cake'
Jiai fait un gdteau. l've made a cake or I made
tl s'est fsit iouper les cheveux' He's had his hair cut'
r
ielj,=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on-we/one nous=we y6us=you ils/elles=they
ferais
',. ,:
f_:ff,li,iii, .,'
Mon pire est professeur. My father's a teacher.
Quelie heure est-il7 - tl est dix heures. \Nhat time is it? - lt's 1 0 o'clock
lls ne sont pos encore qniv6s. They haven't arrived yet.
ferais
il/elle/on ferait
fais/faisons/faites
PPfil,,:,
6tant
le
tu
feras
ils/elles feront
l|Vliti:r:r
faisions
faisiez
ils/elles faisaient
ferai
nous ferons
vous ferez
ils/elles seraient
nous
vous
lr't
illelle/on fera
illelle/on serait
nous serions
vous seriez
faisais
faisais
illelle/on faisait
'
je
tu
serais
serais
i
as
ils/elles ont fait
ils/elles 6taient
je
tu
je
tu
ai fait
nous avons fait
vous avez fait
Ft1,l:l"'
je
tu
fassions
fassiez
ils/elles fassent
fait
illelle/on a fait
illelle/on 6tait
nous 6tions
vous 6tiez
fasse
fasses
fasse
nous
vous
faites
i'
tu
6tais
6tais
il/elle/on
faisons
font
ils/elles
ils/elles soient
je
tu
fais
fais
fait
nous
vous
llr.
j'
tu
1:1,
i) See poges 88-91 for informotion
on how to form the reflexive verb se faire.
le/i'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vsse=you ils/elles=they
VERS
Vrne TleLrs
Tasles
> fnn'l:rii (to finish)
Ei. *lr:li{imli' (to be necessary}
It) t:i i:r {:i
ii:,ili'!'
il
iti iir' Nril; Ll
l'
$rt
it
faut
t. I hrl,
.:,.:;
i
L[ lti] {.;:rJ \i{
fl
l:
pRH$fii,,,1r..x"
le
tu
faille
ilrtiJ l:.,]j;
il
l: l?
i;,i
l!{":'
it
a fallu
f
'
nous finissions
vous finissiez
ils/elles finissent
,*pg:Sr:)"{.
i'
tu
fallait
,i i
as
il
i'j i:lr!
-r,,
il
faudra
ii
!,} {dpti I -
(::r!iirili!f,]rl
ie
tu
finiras
nous finirions
vous finiriez
ils/elles finiraient
ils/elles finiront
irr;i\r'.;
t.tij;!iil".{:
fallu
not used
,'r'lii,hrj,[::Li'!
i l,t,rri.l
i'
i1-1!]i!:;
ii;ri:lijii i,,li;
Mrli;1
n:i,{.";['ii 1/
.:Rri;]i'
li
finis / finissons / finissez
PR}ili ?1[\.T l ]'+l"r'lr'ir': :'l"ll.
[jli1
]i
i'ili-;li
i!.,
a'r
fini
u:,r
finissant
not used
',lri!/l,,ii'i,ii't
I
.
illelle/on finirait
nous finirons
vous finirez
P.n*;1L'|'i xlEii
Tit ) liii'*,i
le ltnrralS
tu finirais
finirai
il/elle/on finira
1i1166r
finissais
finissais
ils/elles finissaient
FLrTt"jfi[i
faudrait
FrjIi l;:r"'.' ;
nous finissions
vous finissiez
ils/elles ont fini
j1
ri') li.i
illelle/on finissait
nous avons fini
vous avez fini
'a,l'r
lil
je
tu
ai fini
fini
illelle/on a fini
ir:tl liii,li:iial
ir';l ri:i [:
finisse
finisses
il/elle/on finisse
ils/elles finissent
!,i
liri"
tu
finis
nous finissons
vous finissez
I [i,rd
1j i.lj N:l i i.i
|e
finis
illelle/on finit
l-";,ilii'[,'.i
:, 1 i
li:
ldl #rri,{ ai
tllr
.;,i
ll fsut se d€pdcher!We have to hurry up!
ll me falloit de l'argent. I needed money.
ll faudrs que tu sois ld d 8 heures. You'll have to be there at 8.
je/j'=ltu-you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous*you il$/ellos=they
ExAlirliatrti,: f?fi[,,llrr
l:;]ii',:,:
Finis to soupel Finish Your souP!
fini! l've finished!
l'ai
'!e
finirai
mes devoirs
demain.l'll finish my homework tomorrow'
jelj'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
Tnslrs
Vene
p
'i
fanEr (to ftee)
pffiF$E$\tT
je
tu
il/elle/on
PRESEIV"$' SU
fuis
fuis
je
tu
fuit
illelle/on fuie
vouS
ils/elles
J
t' $\ICTIVE
fuies
ils/elles fuient
fuient
PHMFfrC'
IMPERF:ECT'
I
je
tu
ai fui
tu
illelle/on
as
fui
illelle/on fuyait
a fui
nou5
avons fui
vous
avez fui
nous fuyions
vous fuyiez
ils/elles fuyaient
ont fui
ils/elles
fuyais
fuyais
CffiniiDlTl0lUAt
FT,!TUffiN
je
tu
je fuirais
tu fuirais
fuirai
fuiras
il/elle/on fuira
iUelle/on fuirait
nous fuirions
vous fuiriez
ils/elles fuiraient
nous fuirons
vous fuirez
ils/elles fuiront
PA$IT PAIBTfldiJIPLE
ii\npffimAx-tvE
fuis/fuyons lfuyez
fui
xliF,'iffi
PRESH['dT
ie
tu
fuie
nous fuyions
vous fuyiez
fuyons
fuyez
nouS
ffi
le
tu
hais
hais
ils/elles
,\L{\r .i-
vous
hairas
nous hairions
vous hairiez
ils/elles haiiaient
ils/elles hairont
F*q$f tr/&lq]
IMPHffiATIVH
/
haissez
fuyant
haissant
lls ont fui leur pays. They
Le robinet fuit.The tap is
fled their country,
dripping.
PFr,ry,41'$iii
fi{l$Pt"hi
hai
$
te hoisll hate you!
le
'Etle
hdissait tout'le monde, She hated everyone.
lls se hdissent. They hate each other.
Q
je{'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
hairais
hairais
il/elle/on hairait
vous hdirez
ExAdbf P'd.tr
haissiez
flS$\t,r{fi-
le
tu
hairai
PRE$H!\t"I' pd\FtrTiiCl!f'[.tri]
g pfd,ffil{s&q
haissais
haissais
ils/elles haissaient
URHSEt\[T pAmT"lfl | pt-E
tr x:Afyi,F*
l. l. /:':,
*$ft!flit"'f
haissons
harssiez
noLrs haissions
illelle/on haira
nous hairons
/
hatsstons
il/elle/on haissait
FUTTJFl$:
hais
i
je
tu
ai hai
as hai
a hai
avons hai
avez hai
ont hai
ie
tu
ftlil"T'['dffi
ils/elles harssent
PERFECT
illelleion
nous
vous
m,{q",
haisse
haisses
nous
vous
haissez
ils/elles haissent
j'
tu
$R-J
il/elle/on l'ru.':t:
illelle/on hait
nous harisons
vous
$jundT
See
poges 88-91 for informotion on how to form the reflexive verb se hqir.
ls/i'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nou$=we vous=you ils/olles=they
VgRe Tneles
VrRe TneLes
(to join)
(to throw)
lrlif r. ltrr,
je
tu
iette
jettes
illelle/on jette
nous jetons
vous jetez
ils/elles jettent
je
tu
tu
illelle/on
jettes
illelle/on jette
Irl
l
j'
tu
ai jet6
as jete
illelle/on a jet6
nous avons jet6
vous avez jet6
ilVelles ont jet6
le
tu
i ,r,
tu
illelle/on
illelle/on jetait
nous
vous
nous jetions
vous jetiez
ils/elles
ils/elles jetaient
jetterai
jetteras
illelle/on jettera
nous jetterons
vous jetterez
ils/elles jetteront
je
tu
:r';
as joint
a joint
avons joint
avez joint
ont ioint
joindrai
joindras
nous joindrons
vous joindrez
nous jetterions
vous jetteriez
ils/elles joindront
ils/elles jetteraient
ils/elles joignent
je
tu
joignais
joignais
illelle/on joignait
nous joignions
vous loigniez
ils/elles joignaient
rr
,,,i
illelle/on joindra
illelle/on jetterait
nous joignions
vous joigniez
ai ioint
,r :
je
tu
jetterais
jetterais
joignes
' i'
i'
jetais
jetais
l:l .' ,i i
je
tu
joignons
joignez
joignent
ils/elles
ils/elles lettent
joigne
illelle/on joigne
joint
nous
vous
nous jetions
vous jetiez
je
tu
joins
joins
je
jette
je
tu
l
joindrais
joindrais
il/elle/on joindrait
nous ioindrions
vous joindriez
ils/elles loindraient
lM{Fi::irl 'ir r'r
jette/jetons/jetez
joins
jet6
/ joignons / joignez
Pltii-r::
.
'
joignant
jetant
[X;:illr"';'. ,
Ne jette pas tes vQtements par terre. Don't throw your clothes on the floor.
Elle o jett son chewing-gum par lo fen1tre. She threw her chewing gum out
Oi
of the
est-ce
'
qu'on peut te ioindre ce week-end? Where can we contact you this weekend?
les deux tqbles. We put the two tables together'
On a joini
window
lls
ne jettent jamqis rien. They never throw anything away.
jelj'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
|e/j,=|tu=youi|=he/ite||e=she/iton=we/onenous=wevous=youi|s/e|les=they
Vena TneLps
Vene TneLEs
i,i.' [+;rtt*rr (to lift)
!rii
$.tr}iIli]i^t\.i'r'
je
tu
illelle/on
nouS
vous
ils/elles
1e
ie
tu
ri; i.l:i:,i1,ltIl
je
tu
illelle/on
nous
vous
ie
tu
ldverai
ldveras
l6vera
lEverons
ldverez
ui
ift H F:ir{i_"tj
fii,i:.ll ti
fdve/levons llevez
ij)f1
I-jSi"iti'i
rrj:rtrli,;
tl
See
ffi BX"n-
Ex,itr illf p*4"
.
Li4le b ftte. Lift your head up.
Levez Iq main! Put your hand up!
le me live tous les jours d sept heures. I get up at 7 every day.
S
liras
lira
it'd\ffi
lirais
lirais
illelle/on lirait
nous lirions
vous liriez
ils/elles liraient
iit!,&liT l'#.: !:ll"lil;l !' t' i :
lu
lis/lisons/lisez
PRE$
lisions
lisiez
{'l{il
!i' [,
[r
lisant
i,.;...'"jt.!f . t.. : :.: i,. ...
i
je
tu
lirai
IMPEffiATIVK.
Fr
lisais
lisais
ils/elles lisaient
ils/elles liront
levant
i
nous
vous
illelle/on
nous lirons
vous lirez
!i:;;Ii]I.L:
r
{jtil}l'ri Dl1-!iI{,rr*AL
ie
tu
ldverais
lisions
lisiez
il/elle/on lisait
FUTLIA{F
lev6
i|i.: Il:i l
as lu
a lu
ils/elles ont lu
liverais
ir;rirlilii ;
le
tu
ai lu
illelle/on
nous avons lu
vous avez lu
1.
lise
lises
lise
!lv-tFPiiFir'irl:t]
i'
tu
levais
levais
ir:
ils/elles lisent
PERFH{;T
ils/elles ldveraient
i',i F
illelle/on
nous
vous
lisons
lisez
ils/elles lisent
illelle/on ldverait
nous ldverions
vous ldveriez
ils/elles lEveront
li f
nous
vous
i: il
ili.'il\if:i
je
tu
lis
lis
iUelle/on lit
ils/elles levaient
ont lev6
ili:i!:ri'iitril.lT [5] l[','jili!!lri;'rj'i!i
PRESHf;ST
le
tu
illelle/on levait
nous levions
vous leviez
ii:ilLi ;,'iiJi;Xi..
l
[; l::i4i.
{l:l'llJii;
ldve
ldves
ils/elles lbvent
avons lev6
avez lev6
iiilr
. t i..L ir!,l
ldvent
ai lev6
as lev6
a lev6
nous
vous
ils/elles
t i; iii
ilielle/on lEve
nous levions
vous leviez
tu
1igiif:irl+;
I
it )
ldve
ldves
l6ve
levons
levez
Ftr!'1t$;f:r(:lli
tu
illelle/on
[: fir]
ii:,i:i,
g
pr-dsi,A $id,r;
Vous ovez lu "Mqdame Bovary"? Have you read
le Ie liroi dans I'avion. l'll read it on the plane.
Elle
"Madame Bovary"?
lui lisoit une histoire. She was reading him a story.
pages 88-91 for informqtion on how to form the reflexive verb se lever.
jelj'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you
als/elles=they
le/j,=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one noua=we voua=you ils/elles=they
Vene TneLes
VeRe Tneles
I
{to eat)
lt
mange
manges
illelle/on mange
nous mangions
vous mangiez
mange
manges
iUelle/on mange
nous mangeons
vous mangez
ils/elles mangent
ils/elles mangent
,
t"
tu
le
tu
as mang6
illelle/on a mang6
nous avons mange
vous avez mange
tl
ils/elles ont mang6
nous maudissions
vous maudissiez
maudissons
maudissez
ils/elles maudissent
ils/elles maudissent
ffvlpHH$-HsT
mangeais
mangeais
i'
tu
illelle/on mangeait
nous mangions
vous mangiez
il/elle/on
ai mang6
ils/elles mangeaient
IVfi T'&Vffi
maudisse
maudisses
il/elle/on maudisse
il/elle/on maudit
nous
vous
ffi .} L.'
je
tu
maudis
maudis
PERFECT
l
l
je
tu
,e
tu
le
tu
i
PRHSE[\I'T' $U
PRESENT
l.
nous
vous
ils/elles
ai maudit
as maudit
a maudit
avons maudit
avez maudit
ont maudit
je
tu
maudissais
maudissais
illelle/on maudissait
nous maudissions
vous maudissiez
ils/elles maudissaient
l
le
tu
mangerai
mangeras
iUelle/on mangera
nous man9eronS
vous mangerez
li
i
ils/elles mangeront
l
je
tu
s{}[\xmn'rlst\cA!-
FUTURE
.
mangerais
mangerais
il/elle/on mangerait
nous mangerions
vous mangeriez
je
tu
1e maudirai
tu
maudiras
illelle/on maudira
nous maudirons
vous maudirez
ils/elles mangeraient
iUelle/on maudirait
nous maudirions
vous maudiriez
ils/elles maudiraient
ils/elles maudiront
r*A$T
IMPERATIVE
]i
mange
/
mangeons
/
mangez
mange
maudls
/
maudissons
maudirais
maudirais
/
maudissez
FlAffi"flB{T[$][-ffi
maudit
PRESET{T PARTIEIPTE
maudissant
mangeant
EXATfiPLE P'L'ffiASES
ll
Nous ne mqngeons pos souvent ensemble' We don't
Tu ss assez iang6? Haveyou had enough to eat?
Je
often eat together'
lls moudissent leurs ennemis. They curse their enemies'
mqudit stvlo ne marche pqs/ fhis blasted pen doesn't work!
Ce
mangerai plus tard. l'll eat later on'
i
ie/i,=|tu=youi|=he/itel|e=she/iton_we/onenous=wevous=youi|s/6||es=they
ils/olles=they
ieli'=ltu=you il=he/it elle-she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you
Vens TnnLEs
Vene TneLes
s"
fr?'.jff$'f,ttg'#$
(to put)
,,i,liriirrjtl-l
FiljqHSHrl\{T ${"lH.i[-tillff
IitrLi$i&i$',:1T'
ie
tu
mets
mets
illelle/on met
nous mettons
vous mettez
ils/elles mettent
ai mis
as mis
illelle/on a mis
nous avons mis
vous avez mis
ils/elles ont mis
je
tu
mettrai
mettras
ilielle/on mettra
nous mettrons
vous mettrez
ils/elles mettront
['i i iT-iil/
f:
monte
mettes
montes
tr]!,{\Fi
illelle/on mettait
nous mettions
vous mettiez
je
tu
mettrais
mettrais
illelle/on mettrait
nous mettrions
vous mettriez
See
ils/elles
le
tu
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
je
tu
illelle/on
ij]
fr
*fi !Ft'E
mis
I.dCiF[.t:
montent
it:'i1
suis mont6(e)
es mont6(e)
est mont6(e)
sommes mont6(e)s
€tes mont6(e)(s)
sont mont6(e)s
ils/elles
monteront
monte/montons/montez
[r
montais
montais
il/elle/on montait
nous montions
vous montiez
ils/elles montaient
ii
\4
f,i' I :f
i# tu{it\t
je
tu
monterais
monterais
illelle/on monterait
nous monterions
vous monteriez
ils/elles monteraient
;tAi\I.j
lMptr$tA\TI\f!:
.lii
montes
ie
tu
monterai
IU"i' F/n rtrilif
monte
it:'l:i t ii;trt:',.,' !
Itr,.]
nous
vous
ffi
lillbJffi
vous montiez
ils/elles montent
monrez
monteras
montera
monterons
monterez
PRA$
"-',Lt"j.".!.q_lr$j{:i
illelle/on monte
nous montions
monte
montons
FUTLIi[.?E
ils/elles mettraient
:' i'jn\r;':,i
li,i]i;li i.lrl
mont6
I r:
montant
F! l,t?.4$s:?1:
Mets ton manteau! Put your coat on!
Oi est-ce que tu os mis les cl6s? tffhere have you put the keys?
l'ai mis Ie livre sur la tqble. I put the book on the table.
Elle s'est mise d pleurer. She started crying.
r)
nous
vous
ils/elles mettaient
mettant
fi'-{,r4fhf.'f+d",,f
illelle/on
[::,td'f
je
tu
PERd-H#T"
mettais
mettais
tr,*,&$T fll.,f;{
mets/mettons/mettez
F[:tfi l.]lf.rB\["f
je
IU
iUelle/on mette
nous mettions
vous mettiez
ils/elles mettent
je
tu
PRE$HT"iT'
mette
$mi'ti{3[TXSF\jl\*-
ir,I l"li't..l]*:iii
i l-htl fri hl
$1"V8
!fTSPffimFfl:CT
ii't:rFi[:F;fl.'f
i'
tu
je
tu
fi
pages 88-91 for informqtion on how to form the reflexive verb se mettre.
je/j'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one noua-we vous=you ils/elles=they
EXd{
f
l4trl #t"ff t?li.':tl] i:il
de Io tour. I went all the way up the tov'rer'
la voiture, ie t'emmdne. Cet into the car, l'll take.you tl't"t"' .
going up
ll s,est tordu lo cheville en montqnt d une 6chelle. He twisted his ankle
suis mont1e taut en hsut
le
'Monte
dans
a ladder.
[7]
-
Note that monter takes avoir in the perfect tense when it is used with a direct
objecq see Page 114.
ie/j'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
Vene TneLrs
Vene TaeLes
i,iririi'ri,ji;'lr (tO
,
l:.r : :.r l:
,,t
ii:i :,::i i,,,
i
je
mords
mords
tu
illelle/on
mord
mordons
nouS
mordez
vous
mordent
ils/elles
!:'',ilit
ii
r:a:-i-
'
ai mordu
as mordu
a mordu
tu
illelle/on
ont mordu
ils/elles
Jli; ii l ;lirI
mordrai
tu
il/elle/on
mordras
mordra
nouS
vou5
mordrons
mordrez
ils/el les
mordront
:liir.lil il:ri,
li!,'
il.
!'
mords/mordons lmordez
,t
i
:-
r:r1.
. t\.i
il
i;al.
mordes
-i
je
tu
illelle/on
nous
VOUS
ils/elles
mordais
mordais
mordait
mordions
mordiez
mordaient
rl,t ir t., ;'it,,i,.ri
je
tu
. ::\ | :
t:i
t :' .l:
Le chien
r''1,::ii", i;: rit i ri,,,;i:r",1ir.i,1lt
[: i-; F.:ft!'f
t
je
tu
il/elle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
moulent
tu
illelle/on
moud
vous
moulons
moulez
ils/elles
moulent
nouS
moule
moules
moule
moulions
mouliez
ie
mouds
mouds
|,l
I'ER$-iiHET
'
il
I
tu
illelle/on
nous
vouS
ils/elles
ai moulu
as moulu
a moulu
avons moulu
avez moulu
ont moulu
mordrais
mordrais
illelle/on mordrait
nous mordrions
vous mordriez
le
tu
il/elle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
ils/elles mordraient
1,,.,r:
mordu
I rl lr',1:i.;lli
je
tu
illelle/on
nouS
vous
ils/elles
ii
FUTUfllLri
moudrai
moudras
moudra
moudronS
moudrez
moudront
moulais
moulais
moulait
moulions
mouliez
moulaient
;i"iij\lt []ili:i ii',..1il{lll ,,i.
ie
tu
moudrais
moudrais
il/elle/on moudrait
nous moudrions
vous moudriez
ils/elles moudraient
,
lMl$38ffiP;fl'ri'F:
mouds/moulons/moulez
l'rll,riil''
-1
moulu
PFtESi::Id'i i';li;i l'ii ii Fi ii:
moulant
mordant
.- : i
l'l
morde
,ii
r'i-llir:
ltt',:.,r,li
ils/elles mordent
.-,1
je
tlltrr;. iil irt,:il
illelle/on morde
nous mordions
vous mordiez
avons mordu
avez mordu
nous
vous
I
je
tu
l,riti.'r':
'
I
:il
bite)
il:,il.rri:|
:i :,'i:'1,;
m'q mordue. The dog bit me.
[:
xA ft4fry_,L
jair,]ij.il4
J'ai moulu du
caf,6
iili: !r
tomorrow
pour demain motin' l've ground some coffee for
ll ne va pos te mordrel He won't bite!
morning.
je/i'=ltu-you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we v6u5=lou ils/elles=they
nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
ie/i'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one
Vens Tnelrs
Vene Tneles
&"
$sBqle$ffi8$"
(to die)
FF?[:$fiS]T ${"i ffi,i ["i fdCTf
FXifi$!::ttlT
Je
je
tu
illelle/on meurt
nous mouronS
vous mourez
meure
meures
illelle/on meure
nous mourions
vous mouriez
ils/elles meurent
ils/elles meurent
tu
meurs
meurs
F!fill#SdjT
je
tu
je
tu
suis mort(e)
es mort(e)
nous sommes mort(e)s
vous €tes mort(e)(s)
ils/elles mouraient
fi
XfrL!TqJffiE
mourais
mourais
illelle/on mourait
nous mourions
vous mouriez
ils/elles sontmort(e)s
{-l}
ii|
h..}
H
Til C} FilA
le
tu
mourrai
mourras
l-
mourrals
mourrais
illelle/on mourrait
nous mourrions
vous mourriez
illelle/on mourra
nous mourrons
vous mourrez
ils/elles mourraient
ils/elles mourront
F,j{$.;,
trfl,riF3ffi$-id"\'[i\rFi
F;;{
Ftr
I"$iilfi I] U_H
meurs/mourons lmourez
13 ii".jl
Fi$ fi
nlT FA iil-fl"$d":t
P{.
f,
,{'/{
r1,{$A
je
tu
je
tu
nais
nais
il/elle/on nait
nous naissons
vous
naissez
ils/elles naissent
je
tu
suis n6(e)
es n6(e)
est n6(e)
ils/elles sont n6(e)s
naitras
ils/elles naitront
naissons
H
naissais
naissais
illelle/on
nous
vous
naissait
naissions
naissiez
ils/elles naissaient
je
tu
naitrais
naitrais
illelle/on naitrait
nous naitrions
vous naitriez
ils/elles naitraient
PA$T PA${T'ICIPE"Sl
IMPERATIVE
PRE$
je
tu
naitrai
il/elle/on naitra
nous naitrons
vous naitrez
/
naissions
naissiez
ils/elles naissent
vous
COI\IDIT!MNAL
FUTURE
nais
naisse
naisses
naisse
[&fipgttFHcT
illelle/on
nous sommes n6(e)s
vous €tes n6(e)(s)
je
tu
illelle/on
nous
$tiffiJuNeflvn
/
ne
naissez
[\lT pAffi-{"fi*0pLH
naissant
mourant
fr
pRF$F[\lT
PRESEFJT
PERFECT
!IVNPilffiFffCT
il/elle/on est mort(e)
je
tu
'{i K
,* Fd.{q,4,{i*r5
morte en 1998.She died in 1998.
lls sont morts. They're dead.
On meurt de froid icy' We're freezino to death in here!
EIle est
je/j'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous-we vous=you ils/€lles=they
EX+\MP|-E P,t-ffiA$b")
I was born on 12 February'
1
,- . e.- rMarch'
in i^Delphine naitra en mors' Delphine is going to have a baby
Quand est-ce que tu es n6?When were you born/
suis n6e Ie 2 fdvrier'
le
'[r-AiAi
i,
.
vous=you ils/elles=they
ie/i'=ltu=you il=he/it ells=she/it on=we/one nous=we
Vene TneLes
Vene TaeLes
i,iu l''itil)'ffili]l? {,!iii (to clean)
iir|i i::llili:lrrr-[
je
tu
F'tCff
6tri\{T
je
tu
nettoie
nettoies
}; Ll
ffii"l
LtmS"$ {'idfr
nettoies
illelle/on nettoie
nous nettoyions
vous nettoyiez
ils/elles nettoient
ils/elles nettoient
liiHiiit:Hfl"i
IfMFi:,mF$t#]"
j'
tu
je
tu
ai nettoy6
as nettoy6
illelle/on a nettoy6
nous avons nettoy6
vous avez nettoy6
ils/elles ont nettoy6
!,r(
irt.!ii!r:
il/elle/on nettoyait
nous nettoyions
vous nettoyiez
je
tu
vous nettoiefez
ils/elles nettoieront
ifrilltieliAiii'iil:
nettoie
/
f,ftF,..;::i,,i
; t1 i 1?
/
1,,:ii:!
nettoyez
nettoierais
nettoierais
nous nettoierions
vous nettoieriez
'
p,s, $q"r ii -{:
I F} f-"
n
nettoy6
.it:-1
nettoyant
r'f
,{rii ilrlif
)'i,
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
ai offert
offert
a offert
avons offert
avez offert
ont offert
as
offrais
offrais
illelle/on offrait
nous off rions
vous offriez
ils/elles offraient
i'
tu
offrirai
offriras
il/elle/on offrira
nous offrirons
ils/elles offriraient
rj+\li.!- l,,in1ii !(:ri 'i
tMpHFilt!l\l'f:l
offre/offrons loffrez
il Pi'r\ltl
offrirais
offrirais
illelle/on offrirait
nous offririons
vous offririez
vous offtirez
ils/elles offriront
f$"
j'
tu
fi*niF:]tTfi(.?htAt-
j'
tu
PHfi $fl
llf [:
lr.
offert
lriif[']'Lr fr
offrant
L- .FT'fj?r:ri.i'irt,l-i
Richard o nettoy0 tout I'opportemenf. Richard has cleaned the whole flat.
EIle nettoyait le sol en 1coutant lq rqdio. She was cleaning the floor while listening
to the radio.
le ne nettoie
j'
tu
ils/elles nettoieraient
i\iii.:'i
il$.-thjH*81[lfi"tr
FUTtIF{ffi
il/elle/on nettoierait
F-1,1,$"fr
nettoyons
i'
je
tu
!
ils/elles offrent
ils/elles offrent
ils/elles nettoyaient
ll,}.i [
offre
offres
illelle/on offre
nous offrions
vous offriez
offres
illelle/on offre
nous offrons
vous offrez
nettoyais
nettoyais
ff
j'
tu
offre
PE$TFH{:T'
c#nqff$TN{JF,pdil"
nettoierai
nettoieras
illelle/on nettoiera
nous nettoieronS
i'
tu
nettoie
illelle/on nettoie
nous nettoyons
vous nettoyez
Piri t:jl.1i:lri,l"I i;
PRH$FNi"$'
pqs
souvent mes lunettes. I don't clean my glasses very often.
Exd&fp,t F
_,$,j:r
s;
poste de secr^taire. They offered her a secreterial post.
Offre-tui des fleurs. Cive her some flowers.
Viens, je t'offre d bolre. Come on, l'll buy you a drink'
pen'
le me suk offert un nouveou stylo. I treated myself to a new
on lui s offert un
*
jelj'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we yqus=loU ils/elles=they
Fi?lt.,rri
see poges 88-91 for infarmotion on how to form the reflexive verb s'offrir'
je/i'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/ellos=they
.,:1"
Vrne TleLrs
PRESENT
PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE
i'
tu
ouvre
ouvres
illelle/on ouvre
nous ouvrons
vous ouvrez
ils/elles ouvrent
-
PERFECT
--
j'
tu
Vens
i'
tu
as ouvert
iUelle/on a ouvert
nous avons ouvert
vous avez ouvert
ils/elles ont ouvert
FUTURE
i'
tu
ouvrirai
ouvriras
illelle/on ouvrira
nous ouvrirons
vous ouvrirez
ils/elles ouvriront
IMPERATIVE
ouvre/ouvrons louvrez
je
tu
parais
parais
illelle/on ouvre
nous ouvrions
vous ouvriez
illelle/on parait
nous paraissons
ils/elles ouvrent
ils/elles paraissent
IMPERFECT
ai ouvert
le
tu
ouvres
i'
tu
ils/elles ouvraient
CONDITIONAL
OUVrrrars
ouvrirais
illelle/on ouvrirait
nous ouvririons
vous ouvririez
ils/elles ouvriraient
PAST PAHTICIPLE
ouvert
paraissez
i'
tu
as paru
nous avons paru
vous avez paru
ils/elles ont paru
je
tu
paraitrai
paraitras
illelle/on paraitra
nous paraitrons
vous paraitrez
ils/elles paraitront
paraissons
/
paraissez
PRESENT PARTICIPLE
ouvrant
paraissant
EXAMPLE PHRASES
EXAMPLE PHBASES
a ouvert Iq porfe. She opened the door.
Est-ce que tu pourrois ouvrir la fen1tre? Could you open the window?
le me suis coupd en ouvront une boite de consbrve. I cut myself openinq a tin.
Lo porte s'est ouverte. The door opened.
fi
See
paraissais
paraissais
illelle/on
nous
vous
paraissait
paraissions
paraissiez
ils/elles paraissaient
je
tu
paraitrais
paraitrais
illelle/on paraitrait
nous paraitrions
vous paraitriez
ils/elles paraitraient
PAST PARTICIPLE
IMPERATIVE
PRESENT PARTICIPLE
Elle
paraisse
paraissions
paraissiez
ils/elles paraissent
CONDITIONAL
FUTURE
/
illelle/on
nous
vous
je
tu
ai paru
il/elle/on a paru
parais
paraisse
paraisses
IMPERFECT
PERFECT
ouvrais
ouvrais
illelle/on ouvrait
nous ouvnons
vous ouvriez
I
tu
vous
;;{it:.
:,;*;-,1
PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE
PRESENT
ouvre
Tneles
paru
paraissoit fatiguie. She seemed tired.
porait plus jeune que son rige. Cisdle doesn't look her age...
tt pordit qu'il"foit chaud toute I'anni6e /d-bos. Apparently it's hot all year round over
EIle
Cisdle
there.
poges 88-91 for informqtion on how to form the reflexive verb s,ouvrin
jeli'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on*we/one nous=we vous=you ils/olles=they
ielj'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vqu5=lou il$/elles=they
VrnsTeeLrs
Vene Tnnles
p- $.Sffiff'efrfi' (to go; to leave)
pffi n:s
[!f:iF'$f;'tufT"
je
tu
ffi
nd'T $
ie
tu
pars
pars
r*"t
c.j
u fiufrT'tvE
illelle/on part
nous partons
vous partez
illelle/on parte
nous partions
vous partiez
ils/elles partent
ils/elles partent
rru$tF$q:T
ie
tu
je
tu
illelle/on estparti(e)
nous sommes parti(e)s
vous €tes parti(e)(s)
ils/elles sontparti(e)s
rjLi "it.rmE:
illelle/on partait
nous partions
vous partiez
ils/elles partaient
je
tu
partirai
partiras
il/elle/on partira
nous partirons
vous partirez
partirais
partirais
illelle/on partirait
nous partirions
vous partiriez
ils/elles partiront
pilgi t"
$.'1.{
pars/partonslpartez
ffiifi ff
I
$3Lffi
Parti
illelle/on
nous
vous
l'
tu
ai
ie
tu
Pass6
as pass6
ils/elles ont pass6
nous
vous
illelle/on
nous
vous
tr',J ! !
f*(
;'Y
I
v {r
passe
passes
passe
passion5
passiez
fr
lL.
passerais
passerais
passerait
passerions
passeriez
ils/elles passeraient
passerez
i'+5:ifl
lMFtr[tAffli;rF
ilrr,ti:l i"di.lrti'!. [']
pass6
passe/passons/Passez
r:l
passiez
il/elle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles passeront
Iplii ii.i'l' i;i
passait
passions
il l.{', [\,l,A
le
tu
passerai
passeras
passera
passeronS
passais
passais
ils/elles passaient
{t;ri-} fr'* [J
FUTUffiE
il/elle/on
i
llViP'F-rhlF{:C:i
illelle/on a pass6
nous avons pa55e
vous avez pass6
ie
tu
g;q
ils/elles passent
ils/elles passent
PRH$m8\Jii
n[\q".d- r]Arq-x{.1:E$-}ff "F:
ir']i i.
passant
partant
:: ",:lfifir{ !. I+! :i
vous
ils/elles partiraient
Iii,{PFrRlriTl'11ii.
Brg+H
partais
partais
c-$t\t&?[r[0rudit
je
tu
illelle/on
nous
le
tu
passe
passes
passe
passon5
passez
PERFE#'il"
ItsrtPFffiFffiCT
suis parti(e)
es parti(e)
ie
tu
parte
partes
litfilalsfii\i"il-
PRESfrPdT
h.t::
[
rx,A
{',
On port en vacances le 1 5 aoAL We're going on holiday
Ne partez pos sans moi! Don't leave without me!
Elle est partie t6t ce matin.She left early this morning.
on 1 5 August.
nfdFd"a:,F#{lc/4.5 ii:
;i
Les mois ont possA. Months passed. . .
ll a ooss€ soi exqmen en iuin. He took his exam In June'
'1r",5;";;;;;;i;;;;;;,;A;A;;
' at mv orandparents' house'
tii
es(
mii siiaiSs'parents"t'm eoins to spend the holidavs
p'iiiiei'me dire boniour. She came by to say hello'
ti posse au MexiQue' The story takes plate in Mexico'
t:ii{{u[e
[t
Q
ieli'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
trtote that passer can also take €tre in the perfect tense; see page
1 1
4'
pages 88-91 for information on how to form the reflexive verb se pqsser.
je/j'=ltu-you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
See
Vrne TaeLEs
Vens TneLes
t,.
:
i'r
F pmfratc$n'm (to paint)
ir!itliiirl-'ti,i'
i)i;
je
ru
l:],
i
iI
Ii
je
tu
paye
payes
;:;
!.,1
i::;. i
I ij ii.ii tj-Il i.iF
ils/elles payent
',
iliii.:iili-,: rl;:iij i:
ils/elles ont pay6
i'l.jliji'lf:
ils/elles payaient
payera
payerons
payerez
ils/elles
payeront
[1[=l f '\: [':"i:4'
iii
l"4i
[i
f
rl'r,ir*r.:t
payerais
payerais
illelle/on payerait
nous payerions
vous payeriez
ils/elles payeraient
.t..,f
PaYe/payonslpayez
ii
je
tu
payeras
nous
vous
!lfii:i;[-rl!i!
illelle/on payait
nous payions
vous payiez
payerai
Je
i
., i
:,,
' i. : i i,i' tii:,r[ [::
pay6
iir ;;;.:1r,11:
payanr
,rKll,iiliiri. 5
F:
$"{l"
{
i$ [-f ii?"] iri
ff
ils/elles peignent
ils/elles peignent
petns
peins
IrvnPF.FtF']rHS]l'
PEMFHOT
i'
tu
je
tu
ai peint
as peint
illelle/on a peint
nous avons peint
vous avez peint
ils/elles ont peint
je
tu
peindrai
peindras
illelle/on peindra
nous peindrons
vous peindrez
ils/elles peindront
IMFH["rJs,
/
PRHSffi
ils/elles peignaient
peignons
f'{}
/
peignez
[i14\i:rrll'ti':li
hq n} B"1"!t?
je
tu
[\Jltl-
peindrais
peindrais
illelle/on peindrait
nous peindrions
vous peindriez
ils/elles peindraient
li+i
;
peignais
peignais
illelle/on peignait
nous peignions
vous peigniez
C{J
Fi"rT{-lmr
peins
](.:'ili \'rE
le
tu
illelle/on peint
nous peignons
vous peignez
Je
tu
payais
payais
i l! )it:tl: tl'it lli
tu
illelle/on
ii
rr':
le
tu
ai pay6
as pay6
illelle/on a pay6
nous avons pay6
vous avez pay6
i:r{.r:
vous payiez
S
peigne
peignes
illelle/on peigne
nous peignions
vous peigniez
paye
ils/elles payent
p[i f
PRffi$f;fdT
payes
illelle/on paye
nous payions
i'
tu
F
rl::
illelle/on paye
nous payons
vous payez
i'[:iliii:j[:rl,';
I il.iil
i
L,:;
.r r;4,
it:i"!-
!
{:i i:
it
.i:,
Peint
ji|.,ir:
peignant
l: il i,f .,i.t4 i:irlir:.f i
l'as pay4 combien? How much did you pay for it?
Mo potronne me paiero demqin. My boss will pay me tomorrow.
Les 4tudionts poyent moiti( prix. StJdents pay iralf price.
Tu
jeli'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=tnev
€,Y,4 jWP*
*i
Pd'dfr'./'! i:,il]i l:i
On o peint l'entrde en bleu clair. We painted the hall light blue.
Ce tqbleau a 6tt peint en 1913. This picture was painted in 191 3
ie/i,=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
tll,lllllilillill!ii!l;;i
t,':
VeRe TleLEs
Vene Tnsles
ri'
,i,
@ p#trffitrffi (to lose)
PHF$EilUT
$:rFq[1,$ffi!\f;T
je
${".I
ffiJI,JN'ETIVE
le
tu
PRESHNT SUEJUIUCTIVE
PRESENT
ie
tu
je
tu
plais
plais
vous
perds
perds
perd
perdons
perdez
perde
perdes
il/elle/on perde
nous perdions
vous perdiez
il/elle/on plait
nous plaisons
vous plaisez
ils/elles
perdent
ils/elles perdent
ils/elles plaisent
IU
illelle/on
nou5
I
tu
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
as perdu
a perdu
avons perdu
avez perdu
ont perdu
IU
illelle/on
nouS
vou5
ils/elles
perdrai
perdras
perdra
perdrons
perdrez
perdront
nfritPH$qp\T'nvE
perds/perdons/perdez
r:|f{H,$
E t\9"$-
perdais
perdais
illelle/on perdait
nous perdions
vous perdiez
ils/elles perdaient
c{)ff\tf}tTt&t\tAt"
F{.}TUTEE
je
le
tu
ai perdu
|e
tu
perdrais
perdrais
illelle/on perdrait
nous perdrions
vous perdriez
i'
tu
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
P,A m T'&S}[
Pl-H
perdu
pA ffix"t 0l *'x-ffi,
plairai
plairas
ils/elles plairont
/
plalsons
/
plalsez
plaisant
trxAMf,f-s'dpffffiAsFs
EXAMPLE PI{'?ASSS
J'ai perdu mon porte-monnoie dqns le mdtro. I lost my purse on the underground.
L'ltolie o perdu un d zdro. ltaly lost one-nil.
Si tu te perds, appelle-moi. Call me if you get lost.
Le menu ne
\ee poges 88-91 for informotion on how to form the reflexive verb se perdre.
ie/j'=11,r=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we v6qs=lou ils/elles=they
plaisais
plaisais
illelle/on plaisait
nous plaisions
vous ptatsrez
ils/elles plaisaient
le
tu
plarrars
plairais
illelle/on plairait
nous plairions
vous plairiez
ils/elles plairaient
plu
PRE$EIUT T'AHTIfr[P''g
perdant
t')
je
tu
PAST PARTICIPTE
IMPTRATE\IH
plais
ils/elles plaisent
CO[\IDITIONAL
il/elle/on plaira
nous plairons
vous plairez
ils/elles perdraient
PS-{Ii'I'
ai plu
as plu
a plu
avons plu
avez plu
ont plu
FUTURE
je
tu
nous plaisions
vous plaisiez
IMPERFICT
PERFECT
IMIPERFAST
PffiFTFE#T
plaise
plaises
il/elle/on plaise
me plait 'dpos. I don't like the menu.
te ploirait diqtter lo mer? Would yo,u like to 90 to the seaside?
film?
Qa t'a plu, Ie film7 Did you like the
Q.o
s'il te ploit please
s'il vous ploit please
jelj,=ltu=you il=he/it elle=shelit on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
veReTngles
Vsne Tneles
''
'
I
PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE
PRESENT
il
pleut
tr
pteuve
PRESENT SUB.JUNCTIVE
PRESENT
ie
tu
peux
peux
il/elle/on peut
nous pouvons
vous pouvez
tls/eiles peuvent
IMPERFECT
PERFECT
il
a plu
il
pleuvait
ai pu
as pu
illelle/on a pu
nous avons pu
vous avez pu
ils/elles ont pu
CONDITIONAI.
FUTURE
il
pleuvra
il
pleuvrait
FUTURE
je
tu
pourrai
pourras
illelle/on pourra
nous pourrons
vous pourrez
ils/elles pourront
IMPERATIVE
PAST PARTICIPLE
puisses
il/elle/on puisse
nous
vous
put55tons
puissiez
ils/elles puissent
IMPERATIVE
le
tu
pouvats
pouvais
illelle/on pouvait
nous pouvtonS
vous pouvtez
ils/elles pouvaient
CONDITIOI\AL
je
tu
pourrais
pourrais
illelle/on pourrait
nous pourrions
vous pourriez
ils/elles pourraient
PAST PI\NTICIPLE
not used
not used
PRE$ENT PARTICIPLE
PRESENT PARTICIPLE
pleuvant
pouvant
EXAMPLE PHRASES
EXAMPLE PHRA$ES
ll a plu toute la journde. lt rained all day long.
ll pleut beaucoup d Glosgow. lt rains a lot in Clasgow.
I'espire qu'il ne pleuvra pas demqin. I hope it won't be raining tomorrow.
peux t'oide4 si tu veux. l can help you if you like.
le
'J'rii
fait tout ce que j'oi pu. I did all I iould.
le ne pourroi pis ienir samedi. I won't be able to come
ie/i'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/onB nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
puisse
IMPERFECT
PERFECT
j'
tu
le
tu
pu
on Saturday.
lc/i,=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous-you ils/elles=they
VeRe
VrRe Tneles
Tlgles
p. prffifl'Bdre
(to take)
pn€$FtilT
F'ffi
H$fi fdT $ U m"J Uf\{{:"{'NVH
je
tu
prends
prends
illelle/on prend
nous prenons
vous prenez
le
tU
illelle/on
nous
ils/elles prennent
PITFEfiT
i'
tu
vou5
ils/elles
illelle/on protdge
nous prot6gions
vous prot6giez
prennent
ils/elles protdgent
ils/elles protdgent
le
prenars
tu
illelle/on
prenais
je
tu
prendrai
prendras
illelle/on prendra
nous prendrons
vous prendrez
ils/elles prendront
/
prenons
nouS
vouS
ils/elles
EIA$"F
NIWPF:ffiAfCVH
prends
,e
tu
illelle/on
/
prenez
g:hp,
i'
tu
illelle/on
nous
vous
prenait
prenions
preniez
prenaient
fif![\i[]fiT$CI[ss,!""
FLJTC-Iffig
ils/elles
n
pris
/
prot6geons
p&s]
I
pmE$E[sT rrARTn{}l6:]l-'*
PRESENT PAHTICIPLE
prenant
prot6geant
trft
,4 fvrpd"tr-
pd-rffiAstr$
J'oi prk plein de photos. I took lots of pictures.
N'oublie pas de prendre ton passeport. Don't forget to take your passport.
ll prendro le troin de 8h20. He'll take the 8.20 train.
Pour qui est-ce qu'il se prendT Who does he think he is?
r)
See
prot6gerais
prot6gerais
ils/elles prot6geraient
IMPERATIVE
protdge
ils/elles prot6geaient
illelle/on prot6gerait
nous prot6gerions
vous prot6geriez
ils/elles prot6geront
prendraient
prot6geais
prot6geais
illelle/on prot6geait
nous prot5gions
vous prot6giez
je
tu
prot6gerai
prot6geras
il/elle/on prot6gera
nous prot6gerons
vous prot6gerez
prendrions
prendriez
je
tu
cffirun!"$'flssiAL
le
tu
prendrait
s i] [-. E
ai prot6g6
as prot6g6
a prot6g6.
,
avons protege
avez prot6g6
ont prot6g6
FUTURE
prendrais
prendrais
[q'T'fl
ItVNPFftFEfiT
PERFECT
as pris
illelle/on a pris
ils/elles ont pris
protEge
protdges
protdge
prot6ges
illelle/on protdge
nous prot6geons
vous prot6gez
ai pris
nous
vous
ils/elles
je
tu
ie
tu
prenne
prennes
prenne
prenions
preniez
fi[t/[[:!HRFfi:e"t-
nous avons pns
vous avez pris
irmH$HtvT $!.j mJ{J l\ig"n{vH
PRESENT
prot6gez
[:]AFi
],
[{][F]i..il
prot6g6
EXAMPLE PF'ffiASSS
protige so petite seur o l'6cole. He protects his little sister at school.
Protige ton livre de la pluie. Protect your book from the rain.
I e champ est prot6g6 du vent par la colline. The field is sheltered from the wind
by the hill.
ll
poges 88-91 for information on how to form the reflexive verb se prendre.
ielj'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=the\
lo/i'=l1u=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/ollos=they
Vene TneLes
Vene Theles
h"
trffitrm\'{d'}b$"
(to receive)
FffiH$trfldT $UEJUNETIVE
P${Si"$fifttT'
je
tu
illelle/on
nous
vous
le
tu
reqois
reEois
je
je
rentre
IU
rentreS
reEoit
recevonS
recevez
illelle/on
nous recevions
vous receviez
il/elle/on
VOUS
rentre
rentrons
rentrez
ils/elles reqoivent
ils/elles regoivent
ils/elles
rentrent
PtrFNFFfll'
j'
tu
as regu
ils/elles ont
reEU
fltiffifl
illelle/on
nous
vous
recevrai
recevras
recevra
recevronS
recevrez
ils/elles recevront
illelle/on recevait
nous recevions
vous receviez
ils/elles recevaient
recevons
je
tu
/
recevez
recevrais
recevrais
illelle/on recevrait
nous recevrions
vous recevriez
ils/elles recevraient
F..r"l$l
I[\IEPHffiA;I"IVF:
/
recevais
recevais
#{.}6rumFTt0zuA["
je
tu
reEois
je
tu
ai regu
F-J{
[;]
s-[
ffi
nous
|
FI-H
re9u
le
tu
illelle/on
nouS
vous
ils/elles
nous
vouS
ils/elles
je
tu
illelle/on
/
rentre
rentreS
rentre
rentrions
rentriez
rentrent
vouS
ils/elles
rentrais
rentrais
rentrait
rentrions
rentriez
rentraient
nous
vous
ils/elles
iir',.Eliiq
rentrerais
rentrerais
rentrerait
rentrerions
rentreriez
rentreraient
fr:/r,$'l' Ir,ilifiit
/
rentrez
l' lli ..ili:r'l
r.-'1.;.,,"'
.' :
$t
li
[i'il. S,
rentr6
rl
'
Ne rentre pos trop tard. Don't come home too late.
Ils sont rentr4s dons le mogosin. They went into the shop.
A quelte heure est-ce qu'elle est rentrdeT What time did she get in?
le rentre ddjeuner d midi. I go home for lunch.
tt a ddjd rmtr{ ta voiture dqns Ie garage. He's already brought the car into the garage'
@
je/i'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
nous
le
rentreront
rentrons
EXeM&tt-t
le
tu
illelle/on
tu
illelle/on
!MPffiH"!i;!'iri'l:1
rentrant
o regu une lettre de Chqrlotte. She received a letter from Charlotte.
le ne regois jamqis de courrier. I never get any mail.
Elle recevrq une r,lponse la semaine prochaine. She'll get an answer next week.
rentrerai
rentreras
rentrera
rentrerez
rentre
1.[\itr
{l,tJ!\!ffff fiQrulAL
vouS
recevant
Elle
est rentr6(e)
sommes rentr6(e)s
€tes rent16(e)(s)
sont rentr6(e)s
rentreronS
Pmm$fi fili't'
# f) idfA$trq
suis rentr6(e)
es rentr6(e)
nouS
ils/elles
16il-th]JilIF\1il
il['{'gfFHffi!i'f]]{; !
FIJTT"IFiH
pffi *"s,fi t\tT' elAffi'T'tqh pL.ffi
C-k,S,l/lF1
tu
il/elle/on
PERFM*T
IMPHRSrfii{:T
illelle/on a reEu
nous avons retu
vous avez regu
r.Lf
regoive
reEoives
regoive
prlHlili[\t"fi.
PRHSfr[\iT
ruote that rentrer takes avoir in the perfect tense when it is used with a direct
obiec!
see page
1
14.
je/i.=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=w€ vous=you ils/elles=they
Vene TneLrs
VeRe Tneles
i.
..
.
ili-iri5i
,,.q
,.
(to answer)
iriiili-r;:i{'rfr'lrl
$ili1("i-
je
je
tu
li,j',i. f ,ti6"il:'ii'Ulir,
F ffi
nous
vous
illelle/on
nous r6pondions
vous 16pondiez
ils/elles
16pondent
ils/elles 16pondent
ils/elles r6solvent
i,iii lrrt;
t
ai r6pondu
tu
illelle/on
as r6pondu
VOUS
ils/elles
!:';:.i,'ii
le
tu
a repondu
avons r6pondu
avez rEpondu
ont r6pondu
nous
iti
i=t,i"fiiljffiiI
illelle/on 16pondait
nous 16pondions
vous r6pondiez
ils/elles 16pondaient
je
tu
repondrai
16pondras
16pondra
illelle/on
nous 16pondrons
vous 16pondrez
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles 16pondront
ils/elles
r6ponds
16pondais
16pondais
1'.i,;i1, 1.|:i'I iil.fi i:\j:iirr._
je
tu
flrll [riE i;.t,l
r6ponde
16pondes
16ponde
il
i
/
ld [::
l,::.'j,
r6pondons
PIf trrii;i1t\ij"4' t:rtri.[i'i''i]i;:ii'rl.
/
r6pondez
:rrt
I
:
r6pondrais
16pondrait
16pondrions
r6pondriez
16pondraient
r'ii ii r'tiilft il-rll,i:.
16pondu
lt:r
16pondant
.:.{}c.tf':ri, . i -,
r6solvais
r6solvais
illelle/on r6solvait
nous r6solvions
vous r6solviez
ils/elles r6solvaient
*on$Dl'tri]0cil/4i-
je
tu
je
tu
r6soudrai
r6soudras
illelle/on r6soudra
nous r6soudrons
vous r6soudrez
PRA$Eh\!"fi'
!",4\lX
il/elle/on
nous r6soudrions
vous r6soudriez
ft4$
tMPRFIA'ifiilil:
r6solvons
/
r6solvez
p:-It-;1!-1&
r6soudrais
r6soudrais
16soudrait
ils/elles 16soudraient
ils/elles r6soudront
/
le
tu
ai r6solu
FUT[.JRH
r6sous
tq*'f S L! ffi "! q.r' hlCTl"vf E
qlvnF!EffiF&i{':'n"
as r6solu
illelle/on a r6solu
nous avons r65olu
vous avez r6solu
ils/elles ont r6solu
16pondrais
m
r6solve
r6solves
illelle/on r6solve
nous r6solvions
vous r6solviez
ils/elles 16solvent
PERFE$T
i'
tu
H$
je
tu
je
tu
r6sous
r6sous
il/elle/on 16sout
nous r6solvons
vous r6solvez
P*ifif:r,'iril;i'
.':
l'ltFSfilnXT
16ponds
16ponds
16pond
16pondons
16pondez
tu
illelle/on
il
li l;i.i
"il'
F,ri tt:i i-i{,;i
ir}..1.
i-:
16solu
r:
r6solvant
.1.'"
Lisez le texte et rhpondez aux questions. Read
the text and answer the questions.
C'est elle qui o rdpandu ou tdl4phone. She answered the phone.
Qo ne rhpond pos. There's no reply.
je/j'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we voug=you ils/elles=thev
ExAlblfsf g F'ffIqE
"5d;*'l
J'ai r4solu le probldme. l've solved the problem.
La violence ne rlsout rien. Violence doesn't solve anything.
ielj,=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we y6u5=lou ils/elles=they
Ill!l
ll
Vrne TneLes
VeRe TeBLes
Fi:" f.'tsifi*.}r'
*-liil[:ij
rtij.$
(to remain)
]'
Fri hi$'{: f',i'l' $
je
tu
reste
restes
il/elle/on reste
nous restions
vous restiez
p'Ii.lrF],'dT
$tvH$i$ifnFFfi"fl'
illelle/on estrest6(e)
nous sommes rest6(e)s
vous €tes rest6(e)(s)
ils/elles sontrest6(e)s
$ri
ilr,,i;;;;
reste/restons/restez
$Y\.
[1Tl
(,: l] f.i
l1..
irt' F:lirtr
ffi tr 3{;qg.3i,-H
rest6
il;
restant
.i-.
jrL,"L'l
retourne
retournes
il/elle/on retourne
nous retournons
vous retournez
ft.,#;.:il,fi f !.f ii!r:,,A "$,fi{;i
Cet 6t6, je reste en Ecosse. l'm staying in Scotland this summer.
lls ne sont pas restes tes longtemps. They didn't stay very long.
ll leur restait encore un peu d'argent. They still had some money left.
retourne
retournes
ils/elles retournent
IMPH}?FECT
je
tu
suis retourn6(e)
es retourn6(e)
il/ellelon est retourn6(e)
nous sommesretourn6(e)s
vous 6tesretourn6(e)(s)
ils/elles sont retourn6(e)s
le
tu
retournais
retournais
illelle/on retournait
nous retournions
vous retourniez
ils/elles retournaient
SffNfiff[{llSA\t-
FUT'UffiE
je
tu
ye
retournerai
retourneras
illelle/on retournera
nous retournerons
vous retournerez
tu
retournerais
retournerais
il/elle/on retournerait
nous retournerions
vous retourneriez
ils/elles retourneraient
ils/elles retourneront
9.x,4$T' fr &. f+,'f
IMPE;trAYTVF
retourne
/
retournons
/
PRESI:
T
rjA!'B ! :("'[p[-
fi
retournez
f
{:;0
P[.
F:
retourn6
retournant
EXAMFIF
P'dF?,45}::5
to London?
Est-ce que tu es retournle d Londres? .Havg. Yo..Y been back
bien retourner en ttqlie un iour, l'd like to go back to ltaly one day'
l,oimerqis
'Elle
s retourn, lo corte pour vdifier. She turned the card over to check.
7ie, ,rtourrr-toil Turn around 2o6!
fl
fi
jeli'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
*.tl.J tu{e'rtvE
nous retournions
vous retourniez
PERFEST
nd
SL$
il/elle/on retourne
ils/elles retournent
ils/elles resteraient
iitilrjJiii"l 1l'li:
T'
resterais
resterais
je
tu
je
tu
ils/elles restaient
illelle/on resterait
nous resterions
vous resteriez
ils/elles resteront
Td
illelle/on restait
nous restions
vous restiez
je
tu
resterai
resteras
restera
illelle/on
nous resterons
vous resterez
F ii{,Fi i{i [:
restais
restais
{;*&il'}i iil4Jmf,tl
r:
ie
tu
Ihr$
le
tu
suis rest6(e)
es rest6(e)
pRH$nruT
PRESEftJT
ils/elles restent
ils/elles restent
f;i"i"r"t'rjl
\{f:
ie
tu
reste
restes
il/elle/on reste
nous restons
vous restez
ie
tu
[ J [.]..i iJ 4\! #"ffi
tote that retourner takes avoir in the perfect tense when it is used with
a direct obiec! see Page 1 14.
t
see
pages 88-91 for informqtion an how to form the reflexive verb se retourner'
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
ie/j'=ltu=you
Vene Tnsles
Vene Tneles
h
fffiwffiffi$e" (to come back)
PRESTIUT SI"' B.JU ruETIVE
flHEsr,&tT
le
tu
Je
revlens
reviens
tu
illelle/on
nous
vous
illelle/on revient
nous revenonS
vous revenez
ils/elles reviennent
IMPERF&CT
PtrRFHS"fl"
je
tu
suis revenu(e)
es revenu(e)
iUelle/on estrevenu(e)
nous sommes revenu(e)s
vous 6tes revenu(e)(s)
ils/elles sont revenu(e)s
je
tu
reviendrai
reviendras
illelle/on reviendra
nous reviendrons
vous reviendrez
ils/elles reviendront
tu
revenons
/
revenez
ie
tu
illelle/on revenait
nous revenlons
vous reveniez
ils/elles revenaient
ils/elles reviendraient
revenu
vous riez
ils/elles rient
IM*PHFTfJffiTT
j'
tu
je
tu
ai ri
as ri
a ri
vous riiez
ils/elles riaient
ilslelles ont ri
e;*ruffi!3 [ffi!\iAht
FUTTJHE
je
tu
je
tu
rirai
riras
rira
nous ririons
vous ririez
vous rirez
ils/elles riraient
ils/elles riront
f;),&s'i" pAF{T'lr}F
IMPEFIJ&{"1{rrfl
revenant
riant
F? li i|llPi"F. d?Ftffi/tSIS
€xAft.,rp*ff fry?tr14s$li
pqs revenu. My cat still hasn't come back.
dans cinq minutes! l'll be back in five minutesl
Q.o me revientl lt's coming back to me now!
On a bien ri. We had a good laugh.
Ne ris pas, ce n'est pos dr1lel Don't laugh, it's not funny!
C'dtoil iuste pour rire' ltwas only for a laugh.
je/i'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
$3'i\ r'{T"l{i:n
rit.)
ri
ris/rions/riez
t'
rirais
rirais
il/elle/on rirait
illelle/on
nous rirons
PflE$
Mon chat n'est toujours
riais
nous riions
PFi[i$f; [\JT Pg\ffiTEClp[-F
Je reviens
riais
il/elle/on riait
illelle/on
nous avons ri
vous avez ri
pJ
ries
ils/elles rient
PERFHCT
F.
rie
illelle/on rie
nous riions
vous riiez
nous rions
,e revlenoralS
tu reviendrais
illelle/on reviendrait
nous reviendrions
vous reviendriez
le
tu
ris
ris
il/elle/on rit
revenals
revenais
PAS'T PAffiTICIPLE
$[\{Pfrffi,tli]"'$V#
/
,|e
*s|\t$!Tfr$&lAl-
[:[,.!TUffiF
reviens
ils/elles
revlenne
reviennes
revienne
revenions
reveniez
reviennent
pffi k"$Er\i"!" ii[-$ m.] L] !\q6'$'trj/Ei
PRE$Hhi"T
ri [. b:
ie/i'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
Hllttl
rl
1l
Vens Tneles
Vene Tnelss
b
rffimptrffi (to break)
pRESrrdT
je
tu
03ffi
ils/elles rompent
ils/elles
ai rompu
as rompu
a rompu
avons rompu
avez rompu
ont rompu
FUTil'Rf;
je
tu
le
tu
rompras
[fvfiFNRATIVH
rompais
rompais
romprais
romprais
illelle/on romprait
nous romprions
vous rompriez
ils/elles rompraient
F.A$T
romps/rompons/rompez
F],,A &1"t'B CN
je
tu
sais
sais
illelle/on
nous
vous
il/elle/on sait
nous
vous
Savons
savez
p LE
rompu
PAmrIcIPt".H
sache
Saches
sache
sachions
sachiez
ils/elles sachent
ils/elles savent
IMPERFEET
PERFFET
ils/elles rompaient
je
tu
je
tu
rompes
illelle/on rompait
nous rompions
vous rompiez
romprai
PME$E'VT SI-IBJUNETIVS
PRE$FflJT'
rompe
iUelle/on rompe
nous rompions
vous rompiez
ils/elles rompent
ils/elles rompront
$s"fi'
[\if;
e#a$r"ixTE0rdA[-
illelle/on rompra
nous romprons
vous romprez
Bt{fi sfr
mJ U tr\!{:'fl
ll\frFHRF[:ST
PEHFHCT
illelle/on
nous
vous
je
ru
romps
romps
illelle/on rompt
nous romponS
vous rompez
j'
tu
tr$ERtT ${J
i'
tu
je
tu
ai su
a5 su
a su
illelle/on savait
illelle/on
nous avons su
vous avez 5u
ils/elles ont
savais
savais
nous
vous
savions
saviez
ils/elles savaient
su
c0ruptTt0lsp"t
FUT["IRE
je
tu
illelle/on
nous
vous
je
tu
saurai
sauras
saurais
saurais
iUelle/on saurait
saura
nous
vous
SauronS
saurez
saurions
sauriez
ils/elles sauraient
ils/elles sauront
tlA$T pAffi"!]#lpLffi
IMPERAI'{V}:
sache/sachons/sachez
PRE$HI$"]i- f!&:fiTlidIP[.. E
rompant
sachant
gffAfr/rPs"fi'r"f{trsstrs
E X.A
o rompu le silence. She broke the silence.
Paul et lo ont rompu. Paul and Jo have split up.
Tu sois ce que tu vqs faire l'annie prochaineT Do you know what you're doing
Elle
lt/t P ! "
{
i3.1.t \ !}
li i
:
li
next year?
pas. I oon
know.
don'tt Know.
Ie ne sois pqs.
Je
sait pas noger. She can't
EIIe ne'oE
swim.
Tu savqis que son-pdre 6tait pakistanals? Did you know her father was Pakistani?
jelj'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous:you ils/elles=they
jelj,=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
Vene
F
Vene TeeLes
Thslrs
SffiK"ltilf (to smell; to feel)
$)aHs
ffruf;$Hl'd"$'
ie
tu
ils/elles sentent
nous
vouS
ils/elles
ai senti
as senti
a senti
avons senti
avez senti
ont senti
je
nous
vous
ils/elles
l\lH
sentes
nous sentions
vous sentiez
sentais
sentais
illelle/on sentait
nous sentions
vous sentiez
je
tu
sentiront
illelle/on sentirait
nous sentirions
vous sentiriez
i
il',,l"l.$-i"l
[${Pl*ffi
senti
PAftTICIPIF
Ji/fr
nous
vous
avOnS Servi
avez servi
ils/elles servent
le
tu
ils/elles servaient
serviras
servira
je
tu
IMPERAIF$*F
servirais
servirais
il/elle/on servirait
nous servirions
vous servifiez
ils/elles serviraient
PAST PARTIEIPLE
sers/servons/servez
servi
P,r"{F{["!d;fi Pn""H
pd"sj pFdp?,4
si:,$
EXAMFLE PT{FA$di,
Qa sentoit mouvqis. lt smelt bad.
le n'oi rien renti. ldidn'tfeel a thing.
EIle ne se sent pos bien. She's not feeling well.
On vous sert? Areyou being served?
sert d quoi ce bouton? Whal is this button for?
Cq
'servez-vois
en vionde. Help yourself to meat.
S
Q
See
servais
illelle/on servait
nous servions
vous servtez
Servlral
ils/elles serviront
H[\lT
servats
CONDITIONAL
illelle/on
nous servirons
vous servirez
PR ES
servions
serviez
servant
sentant
H.&A
as servi
a servi
FUTUHE
je
tu
serves
il/elle/on serye
ai servi
ils/elles ont servi
ils/elles sentiraient
$3.EIf
sens/sentons/sentez
illelle/on
nous
vous
serye
tfrdpHmFEcT
PERFHCT
sentirais
sentirais
Sers
ils/elles servent
i'
tu
je
tu
sers
illelle/on sert
nous seryon5
vous servez
ils/elles sentaient
sentiras
sentira
sentirons
sentirez
ie
ru
ils/elles sentent
je
tu
PRESEhIT $ U BJUI\ICTIVE
PRESEft!T
sente
illelle/on sente
sentirai
IiV?PHffiATIWH
F$?HSFIU"T
T
fi#*$L!gTlffizu,qF".
FCJTLJMU
tu
illelle/on
u nifi
I[UPHMFffi$T
PHfTFEfr"i'
tu
illelle/on
nd"r' $["3 B"J
je
tu
sens
sens
illelle/on sent
nous Sentons
vous sentez
I
H
pages 88-91 for informqtion on how to form the reflexive verb se sentir.
jelj'=11,r=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we v6g5=lou ils/elles=they
See
poges 88-91 for informotion on how to form the reflexive verb se servir'
ie4'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
Vens Tneles
Vens TneLes
F $s,?w'ffilff' (to go out)
$]ffi s-.:q g {rd",t i$ iJ $*""t L} [\i {xrft
ii),qj[r,1;1[.:]\{tr
le
tu
sors
ie
sors
tu
illelle/on
illelle/on sort
nous softons
vous sortez
nous
vous
ils/elles sortent
ils/elles
PiiritHffi*t
h;
je
sorte
sortions
sortiez
suis sorti(e)
es sorti(e)
est sorti(e)
TU
illelle/on
sommes sorti(e)s
€tes sorti(e)(s)
sont sorti(e)s
nouS
vous
ils/elles
Je
tu
illelle/on
nous
vouS
ils/elles
{:tr
F!"1-&'l.,tFiE:
ie
tu
illelle/on
nouS
vou5
ils/elles
pFt[$tritl*
vous
ils/elles
suff
isent
ai suffi
as suffi
sortait
illelle/on
nous
sortions
sortiez
vouS
ils/elles
sortaient
je
sortiras
sortirais
sortirais
sortira
sortirons
sortirez
illelle/on
sortirait
sortiront
ils/elles
a suffi
avons suffi
avez suffi
ont suffi
je
suffirai
suffiras
sortiraient
VOUS
ils/elles
suffiront
suffis
sorti
/ suffisons /
PRfSFiIF\i"{-
rJ rui,tTf
vrj
suffise
suffises
suffise
suffisions
suffisiez
suff
isent
suffisais
suffisais
nous
vous
suff isions
suffisiez
ils/elles suffisaient
p/l[i
suffirais
suffirais
illelle/on suffirait
nous suff irions
vous suffiriez
ils/elles suffiraient
plh$'fl $}$,&'ff[*{ r} ["[:
IMP$li?l.1iiVf,:
&:Ain"l ii'l,\ffi r l{:}[F"l-ff
,.$
iUelle/on suffisait
je
tu
suffira
suffirons
suffirez
nous
ffi
il$l\[[)8T1ffi{{i,qp..
tu
il/elle/on
sortirions
sortiriez
ils/elles
je
tu
FUTUffif:
$\cc.!. H"
illelle/on
nous
vous
i_$
IP-'NPtrfi{Ftr*"7
I
suffisez
suffi
lj sii.;llir'.. i::
suffisant
Fr'{,,r{,4
Sf;
&'Xli
$
le ne suis pas sartie ce week-end. I didn't 90 out this weekend.
Aur'llie sort avec Bruno. Aur6lie is going out with Bruno.
Elle est sortie de l'h6pitolhler: She came out of hospital yesterday.
for a walk
Je n'oi pos sorti le chien parce qu'il pleuvoif. I didn't take the dog out
because it was raining.
[}
suffisons
suffisez
PHffi[::HOT
sortant
,,
suffit
nouS
r."effiTE#tFtL
fi ,,r'tr i.} fl f JE_ pi
illelle/on
IU
IU
sors/sortons/sortez
suffis
suffis
sortais
sortais
sortirai
IilP:
je
tu
IU
sortent
h! il} r l{$ ffi
nous
vous
pil:tH.$ Htht 1- $
PHE$f;f\{'f
50rte
sortes
1fil/if)[:ii"tF'r:S"f
Je
lP\i"{PfrffiA.f
\f
*i#f"},{_ff tF,hri"d.$,1j.:j;
suffiro, 10 eurosT Will'l 0 euros be enough?
suffit! That's enough!
suffisait de me le demqnder. You only had to ask.
Qo te
Qa
il
Note that sortir takes avoir in the perfect tense when it is used with a direct
'14.
see page 1
objec!
ie/j'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you
ils/Glles=they
je/i,=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
Vene
VeRe Tneles
PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE
PRESENT
le
tu
suls
suis
le
tu
illelle/on
illelle/on suit
nous Sutvons
vous suivez
nous
vouS
ils/elles
ils/elles suivent
suive
suives
suive
survton5
sutvtez
l
tu
al sulvl
as suivi
illelle/on a suivi
nous avons suivi
vous avez Sutvl
le
tu
illelle/on
nouS
vouS
ils/elles
ils/elles ont suivi
suivais
suivais
suivait
le
tu
je
Sulvral
suivras
il/elle/on suivra
tu
il/elle/on
nous suivrons
vous sutvrez
nous
ils/elles suivront
ils/elles
vouS
sutvnonS
sutvnez
sutvl
suis/suivons/suivez
je
tu
.
me suis tu(e)
nous nous sommes tu(e)s
vous vous €tes tu(e)(s)
ils/elles se sont tu(e)s
FUTURE
ie me tairai
tu te tairas
illelle/on se taira
nous nous tairons
vous vous tairez
ils/elles se tairont
IMPERATIVE
tais-toi / taisons-nous / taisez-vous
PRESENT PARTICIPLE
PRESENT PARTICIPLE
suivant
;";;;;.
EXAMPLE PHRASES
EXAMPLE PHNASFS
Mon chot me suit partout
dqns
la
maison. My cat follows me everywhere around
the house.
Il
a
Elles
un cours d'qllemond pendant six mois. He did a Cerman course for 6 months.
n'anivent pas d suivre eh maths. They can't keep up in maths.
suivi
io{'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we v6us=you ils/elles=they
Il
s'est
je
tu
te taises
il/elle/on
se taise
me taise
nous nous taisions
vous vous taisiez
ils/elles se taisent
IMPERFECT
t'es tu(e)
il/elle/on s'est tu(e)
suivraient
PAST PARTICIPLE
IMPERATIVE
tait
PERFECT
SUIVIEZ
suivrait
se
ils/elles se taisent
suivaient
sulvrars
suivrais
me tais
te tais
nous nous taisons
vous vous taisez
SUrVtOnS
CONDITIONAL
FUTURE
il/elle/on
suivent
IMPEHFECT
PERFECT
PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE
PRESENT
je
tu
TeeLEs ,':'
je
tu
me taisais
te taisais
illelle/on se taisait
nous nous taisions
vous vous taisiez
ils/elles se taisaient
CONDITIONAL
ye
tu
me tairais
te tairais
il/elle/on se tairait
nous nous tairions
vous vous tairiez
ils/elles se tairaient
PAST PARTICIPLE
tu
tu. He stopped talking.
Taisez-vous! Be quiet!
Sophie, tais-toil Be quiet SoPhie!
ie/i,=|tu=youi|=he/ite||e=she/iton=we/onenous=wevous=youils/elles=they
VeRe Teeles
VEne TheLes
> tCIrmflner (to fall)
w ftemfrn' (to hoto)
prq H$ E rsT' $ [J
Pi?t)$H!UT
IU
tiens
tiens
illelle/on
tient
le
nous
tenons
tenez
vouS
ils/elles
tiennent
ie
tu
ffi .$
L] ndff Tfi \./Fl
tienne
tiennes
r
ai tenu
tenu
a tenu
nous avons tenu
vouS avez tenu
ils/elles ont tenu
tu
illelle/on
as
illelle/on tienne
nous teniOnS
vous teniez
ils/elles tiennent
je
tu
je
tiendrai
tu
il/elle/on
tiendras
nous
vous
tiendra
tiendrons
tiendrez
ils/elles
tiendront
I|\IgPffiffiATfiVffi
tiens/tenons ltenez
ils/elles tombent
ils/elles tenaient
illelle/on tiendrait
nous tiendrions
vous tiendriez
ils/elles tiendraient
r N3
suis tomb6(e)
es
nous sommes tomb6(e)s
vous 6tes tomb6(e)(s)
ils/elles sont tomb6(e)s
kE
tenu
le
tu
tomberai
tomberas
il/elle/on tombera
nous tomberons
vous tOmberez
ils/elles tomberont
IMPF{4AffNVfi
tombe/tombons/tombez
pl\H$K[u"n" $fi ffiTl(:npLF
PRESE[\!T $3ds{4'11#lpLffi
tenant
tombant
SXS
iX,?,Pf..
*i
Tiens-moi la moin. Hold mv hand.
Tiens-toi
fi
See
tombe
tombes
illelle/on tombe
nous tombions
vous tombiez
ils/elles tombent
je
tu
tombais
tombais
illelle/on tombait
nous tombions
vous tombiez
ils/elles tombaient
je
tu
tomberais
tomberais
iUelle/on tomberait
nous tomberions
vous tomberiez
ils/elles tomberaient
PA$T pAR'I"[{:[$']fl-
Hii
tomb6
EXAIV{pd.F p$"ff,-{,,q,str$
PSf ffi A,$trS
EIle tenoit beaucoup d son"chot. She was really
Tiens, prends mon stylo. Here, have my pen.
je
tu
$ U H"]U NU0TI\f tr
*${vmNTlf}NAi-
FUT[.'fi€
tiendrais
tiendrais
$E[\lT
I!V!FHRFEfiT
tomb6(e)
illelle/on esttomb6(e)
nous tenions
vous teniez
*$$.$"F] flIA $?TIfi
tombes
nous tombons
vous tombez
je
tu
tenais
tenais
il/elle/on tenait
je
tu
tombe
PERFEC'fi'
GCIq\!mflTtolvA[-
il:U'TUffiC
le
tu
il/elle/on tombe
tftnpHRr"gcT'
PHffiFE$T
pffi fi
PRE$EfU"tr
attached to her cat'
Attention, tu vas tomber! Be careful, you'll fall!
Nicole est tomb4e de chevql. Nicole fell off her horse'
the stairs
Elle s'est fsit mal en tombant dans l'escalier. she hurt herself falling down
droit!Sit up straight!
pages 88-91 for informotion on how ta form the reflexive verb se tenir.
jelj'=ltu-you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nou$:we voua=you ils/elles=they
jeli,=|tu=youil=he/itel|e=she/iton=we/onenou$=Wevous=youils/e||e$=they
..r
l:"itri-
VeRe Tneles
,+"";,:$ Vrne Teeles
> traire (to milk)
PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE
PRESENT
je
tu
trais
trais
illelle/on trait
nous trayons
vous trayez
ils/elles traient
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
je
tu
traie
traies
illelle/on traie
nous trayions
vous trayiez
ils/elles traient
IMPERFECT
PERFECT
i'
tu
>
ai trait
trait
a trait
avons trait
avez trait
ont trait
as
FUTURE
je
tu
trairai
trairas
illelle/on traira
nous trairons
vous trairez
ils/elles trairont
IMPERATIVE
trais/trayons ltrayez
le
tu
trayais
trayais
illelle/on trayait
nous trayions
vous trayiez
ils/elles trayaient
CONDITIONAL
je
tu
trairais
trairais
iUelle/on trairait
nous trairions
vous trairiez
ils/elles trairaient
PAST PARTICIPLE
trait
PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE
PRESENT
je
le
tu
vaincs
vaincs
illelle/on vainc
nous vainquons
vous vainquez
ils/elles vainquent
illelle/on
il::
ar valncu
as vaincu
i.:1Ti,^-,,
:Yuilfl:;"
ils/elles ont vaincu
varnquars
vainquais
illelle/on vainquait
::::
vous :1:::::l'
valnqulez
ils/elles vainquaient
le
tu
vaincrai
vaincras
illelle/on vaincra
nous vaincrons
vous vaincrez
ils/elles
le
tu
CONDITIONAL
FUTURE
je
tu
ils/elles vainquent
TMPERFECT
PERFECT
,
tu
vainque
vainques
iUelle/on vainque
nous vainquions
vous vatnqutez
""i^ir""t
vaincrais
illelle/on vaincrait
nous vatncnonS
vous vaincriez
ils/elles vaincraient
PAST PARTICIPLE
IMPERATIVE
vaincs / vainquons
varncrars
/ vainquez
vaincu
PRESENT PARTICIPLE
PRESENT PARTICIPLE
trayant
vainquant
EXAMPLE PHBASES
EXAMPLE PI{BASES
A lo ferme, on o appris d troire les vaches. We learnt to milk cows on the farm.
Elle trsit les voches d six heures du motin. She milk the cows at 6 am.
L'ormde o 6t6 vaincue. The army was defeated.
Lo France s vaincu la Corde trois buts q deux. France beat Korea 3 goals
ieli'=l tu=you il=he/it ellb=she/it on=we/one nous=we vou$=you ils/elles=they
to 2.
ie/i,=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we y6u3=|ou ils/elles=they
Vene
Vene TneLrs
Taelrs
> vendF€ (to sell)
p, waloif (to be worth)
PRSSHN}T $
PRESf;hIT
je
tu
vaux
vaux
il/elle/on vaut
le
tu
I",'
RJU N#TNVE
vaille
vailles
illelle/on vaille
nous valons
vous valez
nous valions
vous valiez
ils/elles valent
ils/elles vaillent
IIMPERFEET
PERFECT
j'
tu
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
ai valu
as valu
a valu
avons valu
avez valu
ont valu
FUTURg"
je
tu
vaudrai
vaudras
illelle/on vaudra
nous vaudrons
vous vaudrez
ils/elles vaudront
IIV?PERATNVE
vaux/valons lvalez
je
tu
valais
valais
illelle/on valait
vends
venos
vend
nous vendons
vous venoez
Je
tu
il/elle/on
ils/elles
I
tu
illelle/on
nous
vouS
ils/elles
ils/elles valaient
je
tu
as vendu
a vendu
avons vendu
avez vendu
ont vendu
vendrai
vendras
illelle/on vendra
nous vendrons
vous vendrez
nous vaudrions
vous vaudriez
ils/elles vendront
ils/elles vaudraient
valu
ai vendu
je
tu
illelle/on vaudrait
IMPERATIVE
vends/vendons/vendez
PI4HSHNT FANTfiCIPtffi
PRESET\IT' PAffiT f;!PI.H
valant
vendant
EXAMPLE FHtrA$T'S
EXAMPI-E FFffi'llsgs
vout combien? How much is it worth?
(.o voudroit Io peine d'essoyer. lt would be worth a try.
Il vout mieux ne pas y pensei: lt's best not to think about it.
Il
Qo
ieli'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we v6u5=lou ils/elle$=they
ie
tu
vende
vendes
illelle/on vende
nous vendions
vous vendiez
ils/elles vendent
IMPERFECT
FUTURE
vaudrais
vaudrais
PIA$T P'$,i{T!fifi?tE
vendent
PERFECT
nous valions
vous valiez
c0rumlTl0niA[-
PRE$ENT SU B-IU I\'CTIVE
PRESEfUT
je
tu
venoars
vendais
illelle/on vendait
nous vendions
vous vendiez
ils/elles vendaient
cor!DtfloNl\L
je
tu
vendrais
vendrais
il/elle/on vendrait
nous vendrions
vous vendriez
ils/elles vendraient
PAST PAHTICIPTE
vendu
son vdlo pour 50 euros. He sold me his bike for 50 euros'
que
vendez des piles? Do you sell batteries?
vous
Est-ce
EIle voidrait vendre ss voiture. She would like to sell her car.
m'u vendu
ie/j,=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
Vene Tneues
Vens Tasles
gfefiXfrffi"
@
Pfd ffi,S E
PHF$nihqT
je
tu
>
(to come)
viens
viens
illelle/on vient
nous venonS
vous venez
ils/elles viennent
r'j'f
le
tu
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
$
Uc
tiJ
[."r
vienne
viennes
vienne
venions
veniez
,e
suis venu(e)
TU
es venu(e)
est venu(e)
sommes venu(e)s
6tes venu(e)(s)
sont venu(e)s
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
je
tu
illelle/on
nouS
vous
ils/elles
venats
venais
venait
venions
veniez
je
tu
je
viendrai
viendras
illelle/on viendra
nous viendrons
vous viendrez
IU
viendrais
viendrais
il/elle/on
viendrait
ils/elles viendront
ils/elles
ilf,"'[FF:&:fr"&T$Vlr
viens/venons /venez
$Hfsl'f
nous
VOUS
,Pl-l$l;
i'
viendrions
viendriez
illelle/on
l:;jl,iR'1"[r*llB]["ffi
venu
P$?ffi
vetes
illelle/on v€te
vOt
nous v6tions
vous v6tiez
ils/elles v€tent
F[WPH}TFK*T
PEffiFfr#'T
je
tu
j'
tu
ai v6tu
as v€tu
il/elle/on a v€tu
nous avons v€tu
v€tais
nous v6tions
vous v€tiez
avez vOtu
ils/elles v€taient
(": {:., f d
FUT["0m8
f
} }T
q
je
tu
je
tu
v€tirai
v€tiras
illelle/on v€tira
nous v6tirons
vous v€tirez
t
v€tirais
v€tirais
nous v6tirions
vous v6tiriez
ils/elles v€tiraient
F"dh$}' F,ft
ilvtF!8trV"\.{ti/F;
fi:iT
tr$lP[.H
v6tu
v6ts/v€tons/v€tez
ifi[[pt
{:} h} A
illelle/on v6tirait
ils/elles v€tiront
r{"r{.\$f
v6tais
illelle/on v€tait
ils/elles ont vOtu
pftfj*ig:i\j'l
v€te
tu
ils/elles v6tent
vous
$tr$$.d' ${."lSJ{.Jfi,{#T{l/fi
je
v€ts
v6ts
nous v€tons
vous v€tez
viendraient
FhqFi-['F*l PC-H
F:
v€tant
venant
ff-;9*4,,14Ph f,:
je
tu
venaient
fl:$i\trm['ffi0rsA{"
g1(_i?'L!ffiH
(to dress)
PRH$$IFiT
viennent
$MiPffiffiFtrCT
$jlHffirrtrflT
F!il{fr
zu*T[Vr,
w&$;na"
i#j"d&4$Sr$
viendro pas cette ann,Ae. She won't be coming this year.
Fatou et Malik viennent du S6ndgol. Fatou and Malik come from Senegal.
Je viens de manger. l've just eaten.
EIle ne
EK,4/WpA€ Fddffi/q$s.f;
It
litt
6tait v\tu d,un pantalon et d'un pull. He was wearing trousers. and a iumper'
fout se lever, se'lover et se votir e'n 1 0 minutes. You have to get up, get washed
and get dressed in 10 minutes.
()
ie/i'-ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
see
pages 88-91 for informqtion on how to form the reflexive verb se vQtir.
ie/i,=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
Vens TagLrs
Vpne Tneles
F vivre
pnFsEtuT
je
tu
PFIESEh{T' S{"I EJU Nfr TIVH
vis
vis
illelle/on vit
nous vivons
vous vivez
ils/elles vivent
ar vecu
as v6cu
illelle/on a v6cu
nous avons v6cu
vous avez v6cu
ils/elles ont v6cu
je
tu
vives
vlvral
vivras
illelle/on vivait
illelle/on vivra
nous vivrons
vous vivrez
ils/elles vivront
IMFERAT[VH
vis/vivons lvivez
vivrais
vivrais
illelle/on vivrait
nous vivrions
vous vivriez
PN-E
v6cu
fiffNm[Tlsl\!Al-
je
tu
verrai
verras
verrais
verrais
illelle/on verrait
illelle/on verra
nous verrons
vous verrez
nous verrions
vous verriez
ils/elles verraient
ils/elles verront
PA$T PAffiTIEtPLg
llVfi Pffi F&l''\:I" j\itF.:
vois/voyons /voYez
fi'i
1(;lF !.H
PF{ENiL:}ii"t n'll
vivant
voyant
EXAMFLE f'F'fr.ASFS
F.{:i^wF{ {. u. .r::...rr
i,
venez me voir quand vous serez d Paris. Come and see me when you're in Paris.
ne vois rien sans mes lunettes. I can't see anything without !Y glasses.
le
'Est-ce
que tu l'os vu? Did you see him? or Have you seen him?
Est-ce que cette tache se voitT Does that stain show?
r)
ieli'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
ils/elles voyaient
FL'Tti*nfr
PRESETST PART'CIPI-H
Ma seur vit en Espagne. My sister lives in Spain.
ll o vdcu dix ans d Lyon, He lived in Lyons for 10 years.
Les gorilles vivent surtout dqns Ia fordf. Corillas mostly live in the forest.
voyais
nous voytons
vous voyiez
avons vu
avez vu
ils/elles ont vu
je
tu
voyais
illelle/on voyait
nous
vous
ils/elles vivraient
Pld$,"i &:'A*{Tlel
le
tu
ai vu
as vu
il/elle/on a vu
ils/elles vivaient
voies
TfuXPERFSCT
i'
ru
nous vivions
vous viviez
voie
ils/elles voient
PtrFgFffiCT'
je vivais
tu vivais
IUETIVE
nous voyions
vous voyiez
ils/elles voient
ils/elles vivent
IJ
il/elle/on voie
nous voyons
vous voyez
nous vivions
vous vtvtez
HSHIUT $U EJ
le
tu
vois
vois
illelle/on voit
illelle/on vive
le
tu
PIft
PF?H$HTST"
vlve
c0Fdmtfl0NAL
FUTLIRE
le
tu
,e
tu
tMPEnFd:Cl'
PERFECT
,
tu
ts v'ffifir (to see)
(to live)
see pages 88-91 for informotion
on
how to
form the reflexive verb se voir.
ielj,-ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one 6qu5=w€ vous=you ils/elles=they
Vrne lNoex
Vens TneLrs
b. qdf'}*.fifi#xq"
i:'Fl
F:jSi
(to want)
,:,ffi
E|'* T'
ils/elles veuillent
ils/elles veulent
I
voulu
a voulu
avons voulu
avez voulu
ont voulu
a5
nouS
vous
ils/elles
'Fcr f i.lffif,!
voudrai
tu
illelle/on
voudraS
voudront
ils/elles
Fi
fi
tlil
ils/elles voulaient
i'
F),pl, "ffi
r,.,}
ni ["] il T
T[
*
i
fi
#
fld s"
[-
nous voudrions
vous voudriez
ils/elles voudraient
il"l"fl
fi
$
pF- H
voulu
$] [- ]"n
With the exception of reflexive verbs which always take 6tre, all verbs have the
same auxiliary (6tre or avoir) as their model verb. There are a few exceptions
1
2.
which are inilicated by a superior number or
An asterisk (*) means that the verb takes avoir when it is used with a direct
object, and 6tre when it isn't.
r)
For more information on verbs that take either avoir or €tre, see page 114.
abaisser
abandonner
abattre
ab0tir
abimer
abolir
abonder
abonner
aborder
aboutir
aooyer
abreuver
abriter
abrutir
x,jn fu,{ia{
ft
frffi{$sw
All the verbs are in alphabetical order. For reflexive verbs like s'asseoir (to sit
down) or se taire (to siop talking),look under asseoir or taire, not under s' or se.
ab16ger
voulant
a:
t$te Werh
rusm
The verbs in bold are the model verbs which you will find in the verb tables.
All the other verbs follow one of these patterns, so the number next to each verb
indicates which pattern fits this particular verb. For example, .aider (to help)
follows the same pattern as donner (number 29 in the verb tables)'
voudrais
voudrais
illelle/on voudrait
!ltl:$ ll' ft:l
[\{il
/ veuillons / veuillez
&:
nous voulions
vous vouliez
je
tu
voudra
voudrons
voudrez
nous
vous
voulais
voulais
illelle/on voulait
{:
je
n
je
tu
ai voulu
tu
illelle/on
tm
Superior numbers (1, 2 etc) refer you to notes on.page 107. These notes explain
any differences between the verbs and their model.
lR'XPffiFlFI:ICT
ft:nr$q{:;Efr"r
$r,'
nJ[j t\jfi i"]idn
nous voulions
vous vouliez
nous voulons
vous voulez
$MF fiF{$:8
$iF,J
veuille
veuilles
illelle/on veuille
veux
illelle/on veut
veuille
F$fr ru"f
je
tu
Je veux
tu
ff-Bmqnr
,f,i{ ff ll,$ &;$
pour Nodl.She wants a bike for Christmas.
lls voulaient aller qu cindma. They wanted to go to the cinema.
Tu voudrqis une tasse de th6? Would you like a cup of tea?
Elle veut un v6lo
ie/j'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nou$=we v6u5=lou ils/elles=they
absenter (s')
absorber
absoudrea
abstenir (s')
abstraire
abuser
accabler
accaparer
acc6der
acc6l6rer
accepter
accompagner
accomplir
accorder
10 accoter
20
accoucher
29
accouder (s')
?q
accourtr29
accoutumer
accrocher
29
)9 accroitre6
accroupir (s')
39
accueillir
54
accumuler
67
29
accuser
acharner (s')
29
36
29
39
29
29
29
29
|
/
39
acheminer
29
29
acheter
29
29
22
39
23
29
29
29
29
2
achever
44
71
acqu6rir
actionner
84
86
29
29
29
35
?q
29
29
3
)q
adorer
29
aoosser
29
adoucir
39
29
90
adresser
adveni13
aerer
affaiblir
affairer (s')
affaisser (s')
affamer
aff16ter
35
39
29
29
29
affermir
39
afficher
29
29
affirmer
affliger
affoler
affranchir
affronter
46
29
39
35
29
13
adh6rer
?<
agacer
agenouiller (s')
agir
agiter
agrandir
adjoindre
admettre
admirer
adopter
4)
ag16er
48
ahurir
29
29
aider
39
29
39
19
39
29
aigrir
39
activer
adapter
additionner
29
29
29
29
aiguiser
aimanter
aimer
aiouter
ajuster
alarmer
alerter
alimenter
all6cher
all6ger
all6guer
aller
allier
aflumer
alt6rer
alterner
af unir
amaigrir
ambitionner
am6liorer
am6nager
amener
ameuter
amincir
amoindrir
amollir
amonceler
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
35
67
35
4
20
29
35
29
39
39
29
29
46
44
29
39
39
39
5
V,ena
Vrne lnloex
amorcer
amplifier
amputer
amuSer
analyser
an6antlr
angorsser
animer
annexer
annoncer
annoter
annuler
anoblir
anticiper
aparser
apercevoir
apitoyer
aplatir
apparaitre'
appareiller
apparenrer
apparier
appartentr
appauvrlr
appeler
applaudir
appliquer
apponer
appr6cier
apprenore
appreter
apprivoiser
approcher
approfondir
approprier
approuver
appuyer
arc-bouter
argenter
arguer
armer
arpenter
arracner
arranger
arrCter
arriver
arrondir
arroser
asphyxrer
aspirer
assag rr
assainir
assassiner
13
20
29
i
29
44
assembler
assener
i
asseoir (s')
29
^^i
29 I
39 ;
29 i
29
5
t1
(.ltalOgUer
60
bouleverser
2\)
(
balbutier
2A
boulonner
bourdonner
bourrer
( aUSef
baliser
bannir
assrster
29
20
39
29
baptiser
baratiner
39
29
29
barbouiller
29
bousculer
bousiller
fo
boutonner
1q
braconner
brailler
39
?q
39
39
39
)9
| bAiller
39 I baiser
29 r baisser
29
branler
braquer
29
29
29
29
bavarder
baver
b6cher
becqueter
b6gayer
b6ler
b6n6ficier
b6nir
bercer
berner
beugler
beurrer
biaiser
10
29
29
29
54
29
29
29
8
39
29
29
29
29
29
bichonner
biffer
)a
)o
brouiller
29
br0ler
bru nir
buter
29
54
29
blesser
29
29
39
29
29
boire
boiter
bombarder
bondir
bonifier
9
?o
)q
29
)9
29
29
border
borner
boucher
boucler
bouder
bouffer
bricoler
brider
briguer
briller
brimer
5
1q
39
29
20
blottir (se)
breveter
brosser
bl€mir
bloquer
bredouiller
29
39
13
39
13
Draver
29
20
blaser
29
blaguer
bldmer
blanchir
braireT
briser
broder
broncher
60
?o
46
29
39
bou rsoufler
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
42
29
29
29
39
29
29
29
(se)
brandir
39
battre
39
29 1 baignel
brancher
61
attendrir
atterrir
attirer
attraper
attribuer
46 aviver
29' avoir
6 , avouer
39 , bdcler
29 i bafouer
20 i bagarrer
batailler
batifoler
29
29
bdtir
attendre
aviser
baser
29
29
29
29
5
augmenter
i autoriser
I avachir (s')
29 avaler
54 i avancer
29), avanlager
29 i aventurer
29 i avertir
29 i aveugler
29 r avilir
barioler
barrer
barricader
basculer
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
86
29
39
61
39
20
39
bouillir
)q
1 atteindre
atteler
j
13
29
29
29
bouffir
bouger
39
67
29
I associer
I assombrir
: assommer
i assortir
Jv , assouplr
29 i assouplir
29 assourdir
68 I assujettir
54 i assumer
39 , assurer
5Z i astiquer
29 j astreindre
29 i atermoyer
20 i attabler (s')
84 I attacher
39 i attaquer
(,1\ef
29
29
asservlr
assi6ger
assigner
assimiler
29
1 3
29
29
39 i
29 ;
29 i
20 I
66 :
29 I
29 ,
7
39
46
balader (se)
balafrer
balancer
balayer
11
lo
29
39
20
29
29
29
29
29
29
Droyer
cabrer (se)
cacner
cadrer
cajoler
calculer
caler
cdliner
calmer
calomnier
carquer
camper
capituler
capter
captiver
capturer
caract6riser
careS5er
cancaturer
',i\5ef
.ttapulter
coer
c eindre
r 6l6brer
(
t eler
censurer
ce rcler
certifier
cesser
chag riner
chahuter
chamailler
chanceler
cnanger
chanter
chantonner
cnarger
charmer
charrier
chasser
chOtier
chatouiller
chauffer
chausser
chercher
ch6rir
chiffrer
choisir
39
ch6mer
choquer
29
cnoyer
l9
chuchoter
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
20
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
circoncire8
circonscri re
circonvenirl
circuler
cirer
ciseler
citer
clarifier
clasSer
classifier
cligner
clignoter
clouer
coder
codifier
cogner
coiffer
29
29
29
29
29
I
35
6l
35
coincer
coincider
collaborer
collectionner
;
,
2
t9
coller
coloniser
colorer
colorier
13
29 I
29 I
29 I
29
29 '
i
29
20
0
combattre
1
comDter
29
29 I commander
20 r commemorer
29 I commencer
29 r commettre
48
29
communier
29 : communiquer
5 . comparaitre
46 comparer
29 compenser
29 complaire
46 compl6ter
29 complimenter
20 compliquer
29 comporter
20 composer
29 comPoster
29 comprendre
29 compromettre
29 compter
39 conceder
29 , concentrer
39 concerner
29 concevoir
29 . concilier
54 conclure
29 concourir
8l concurrencer
31 condamner
90 condenser
29 r condescendrel
29
2
29
20
29
conduire
conf6rer
confier
confire9
confirmer
20 , confisquer
29 , confondre
29 r conforter
29
cong6dier
congeler
20
z9
29
connaitre
conquerir
29 r
consacrer
conseiller
consentir
consid6rer
consister
consoler
consolider
consommer
conspirer
constater
consterner
constituer
construtre
consulter
contacter
'
29
29
I
'l3
;
,
20
29
57
29
29
63
35
29
,
,
i
,
r
contaminer
contempler
contenir
contenter
conter
contester
continuer
contraindre
I contraner
' contraster
29 , contredire
29 I contrefaire
66 I contrevenirl
48 I contribuer
29 i contr6ler
35 . convaincre
29 i convenirl
29 I convertir
68 , convier
20 r Convoquer
14 coop6rer
17 ; copier
1 3 i correspondre
29
29
29 ', corriger
29
25
24
35
20
81
29
29
I
,
70
,
20
.
3
I
29
2
15
29
corrompre
corroyer
cOtoyer
coucher
coudre
couler
couper
courber
courir
co0ter
couvrir
cracher
craindre
craquer
cr6er
29 .
78 r
35 I
luoex
39
cr6pir
29
creuser
44
crever
29
29 i cribler
20
29 ', crier
29
29 critiquer
2
29 crocheter
21
29 : croire
29
29 ' croiser
22
29 croitre
29
29', crouler
39
24 I croupir
20
29 I crucifier
23
29 I cueillir
24
29 , cuire
29
29 I culbuter
29
84 : cultiver
29
29 I cumuler
29
29' curer
29
29 t, daigner
29
29 r damner
29
danser
18
29
20 r dater
29
29 , d6barquer
28 , d6barrasser 29
10
37 i d6battre
90 d6baucher 29
29
29 ; d6biliter
29
29i d6biter
35
87 d6blat6rer
29
90 : d6bloquer
29
19 d6boiter
29
20 d6border
29
29 : d6boucher
35 d6bourser 29
20 d6boutonner 29
70 : d6brailler (se) 29
46 d6brancher 29
60
76 d6brayer
54 d6brouiller 29
29
54 d6buter
29
29 d6caler
29
16' d6canter
29
29 d6caper
29
29 ; d6capoter
35
29 d6c6der'
2
17 , d6celer
29 , d'6.cCl6.rer 35
56 d6centraliser 29
29
29 I d6cerner
68
18 d6cevoir
29
29 r d6chainer
19 d6charger 46
Vrne lNoex
VEne lNoex
d6chiffrer
d6geler
d6g6n6rer
2
35
d6gonfler
d69ourdir
d6go0ter
29
d6grader
d6gringoler
d6griser
29
29
d6chiqueter
42
d6chirer
d6cider
d6cimer
d6clamer
d6clarer
29
29
29
29
29
d6classer
29
d6clencher
d6cliner
d6coder
d6col6rer
29
29
29
d6guerpir
35
d,6jeter
29
d6jeuner
d6jouer
d6coller
d6commander 29
d6concerter
d6conseiller
d6contracter
dEcorer
d6coudre
d6couler
d6couper
d6courager
29
29
29
29
16
29
29
46
d6couvrir
56
d6cr6ter
d6crier
d6crire
d6crocher
35
d6croitrelo
d6daigner
d6dicacer
20
31
29
22
29
13
dr6dier
d6dire
d6dommager
28
46
d6douaner
29
29
d6doubler
d6guiser
d69uster
39
29
d6polir
d6poser
d6pouiller
29 |
29 |
29
d6ooussi6rer 35 |
29
29
39
d6noncer
d6nouer
d6panner
d6paqueter
d6partager
13
29
29
d6fraichir
d6gager
d69ainer
d6gauchir
d6gazonner
29
39
29
29
29
29
35
6ceurer
29
6conduire
6conomiser
6corcher
6couler
6couter
d6savouer
d6figurer
d6former
39
€branler
6carteler
6carter
6changer
6chapper
6chauder
6chauffer
6chelonner
6chouer
6clabousser
6claircir
6clairer
6clater
6clipser
d6partir (se)
46
d6passer
29
39
29
d6payser
d6pecer
d6p0cher
39
29
20
29
5
42
46
58
59
29
44
29
i
d6t6riorer
d6terminer
d6tester
29 i d6truire
d6saccoutumer 29 | d6valer
67 |
d6sapprouver 29
29
d6foncer
6blouir
29
29
39
29
d€naturer
d6nier
d6nigrer
d6niveler
30
29
29
29
29
I
I
d6tenir
d6router
46
44
29
20
donner
dormir
13
29
24
d6savantaqer 46 I
d6molir
d6monter
d€montrer
d6multiplier
d6munir
diversifier
diviser
divorcer
29
29
48
d6missionner
distribuer
35 | d6tourner
d6sassortir
demeurerl l
50
86
29
20
29
46 i d6traquer
29 ! d6tromper
29
29
)9
distordre
distraire
d6roger
d6rouler
d6sagr6ger
d6salt6rer
d6samorcer
29
5
89
distinguer
d6169ler
78
46
29
z
6^l
71
6bahir (s')
6battre (s')
6baucher
d6mentir
d6mettre
29
29
29
29
39
29
29
29
29
29
20
29
d6primer
20
29
29
disposer
disputer
dissocier
dissoudrel2
distendre
d6tordre
60
35
35
destiner
destituer
d6sunir
d6tacher
d6taillet
d6tecter
d6teindre
d6teler
d6tendre
29
39
d6raciner
d6ranger
d6raper
d6layer
d6l69uer
d6lib6rer
d6lier
d6lirer
d6livrer
d6loger
demander
d6manteler
d6marquer
d6marrer
d6m6ler
d6m6nager
d6mener (se)
d6laisser
dessaisir
dess6cher
desserrer
dessiner
29
29
29
50
d6pr6cier
d6prendre
d6nombrer
d6finir
i
i
i
d6sorienter
20
66
29
29
45
29
29
29
20
d6filer
39 |
29 |
1 3 I
63 I
29
29
42
29
39
24
5/
29
35
61 i
89 I
29 |
20 i
54 i
39 !
d6duire
d6faire
d6falquer
d6favoriser
d6fendre
d6f6rer
d6ficeler
d6fier
29
89
d6peindre
d6pendre
d6penser
d6p6rir
d6pister
d6placer
d6plaire
d6plier
d6ployer
devancer
35 | d6velopper
3 I devenir
d6sapprendre 66 | d6verser
descendre*
d6semparer
d6sennuyer
1
39
i
d6vdtir
d6vier
deviner
29 i d6visser
25 | d6voiler
29 i devoir
54 i d6vorer
d6sensibiliser 29 I d6vouer
29 |
d6s6ouilibrer 29 |
d6sentraver
d6serter
29
d€sesp6rer
35
29
29
29
29
29
d6shabiller
d6shabituer
d6sh6riter
d6signer
d6sinfecter
d6sint6grer
dicter
diffdrer
I diffuser
1 dig6rer
i diluer
|
diminuer
i diner
i dire
| diriger
35 | disconvenir
d6sint6resser 29 i discourir
d6sintoxiquer 29 i discriminer
29 | discuter
d€sirer
29 j disioindre
d6sister (se)
39 | disparaitre
d6sob6ir
29 | dispenser
d6soler
d6sorganiser 29 i disPerser
89
84
13
29
26
29
91
20
29
29
29
27
35
29
29
29
2a
46
90
17
29
29
43
57
29
29
doubler
douter
dresser
durcir
durer
6craser
effaroucher
effectuer
effeuiller
effondrer
efforcer (s')
effrayer
6galer
6garer
egayer
6qorqer
6laborer
6lancer (s')
6largir
6lectrifier
6lever
29
29
29
29
13
60
6liminer
29
45
29
29
10
6lire
6loigner
6luder
6manciper
6maner
29
embarrasser
39
29
39
29
46
29
29
29
29
29
29
13
39
enfreindre
61
20
engager
40
46
44
engloutir
engourdir
29
emm6nager
6mouvoir
46
44
32
emparer
empOcher
29
29
empi6ter
35
emprrer
emprunter
29
39
54
29
29
29
29
encadrer
)q
encombrer
29
29
29
29
encourager
46
1?,
encourir
endetter
endoctriner
17
29
29
29
endommager
46
(s')
29
29
29
29
24
29
29
29
29
29
emplir
emproyer
empoisonner
emporter
j
i
emprisonner
?<
encaisser
20
t6crire
3l
enchainer
enchanter
6crouler (s')
6difier
29
20
29
effacer
effarer
enfouir
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survenir
survtvre
susciter
suspendre
tacher
tacher
tailler
taire (se)
taper
66
29
transmettre
transparaitre
transprrer
transplanter
tater
taxer
teindre
teinter
t6l6phoner
29
29
si6ger
siffler
signaler
signer
signifier
simplifier
simuler
soigner
sombrer
sommeiller
songer
50nner
20
20
29
29
29
29
-1
29
46
39
37
2
90
92
29
89
29
transporter
traquer
travailler
traversef
39
57
29
29
vitrifier
vitup6rer
vivifier
vivre
20
29
29
29
soupeser
44
tenir
a4
sourire
75
souscrire
3l
tenter
terminer
ternir
29
29
39
29
20
35
ulc6rer
39
29
29
unifier
unir
35
user
tomber
85
tondre
tonner
tordre
torpiller
tortiller
torturer
toucher
tourmenter
tourner
70
29
usiner
utiliser
vacciner
50
vaincre
29
29
29
29
29
29
valoir
29
29
29
87
88
vanter
29
varier
v6g6ter
veiller
vendanger
20
sous-entenclre
89
souStrarre
86
84
soutenir
souvenir (se)
sp6cialiser
sp6cifier
standardiser
stationner
st6riliser
stimuler
stup6fier
subir
submerger
subsister
84
29
20
29
29
29
29
20
39
46
29
substituer
subvenirl
succ6der
29
90
sucer
13
35
terrassef
terrifier
t6ter
ti6dir
timbrer
tirer
tol6rer
29
29
29
89
urbaniser
39
29
29
29
29
t6moigner
tendre
t6l6viser
61
virer
29
29
29
29
29
46
44
29
48
violer
20
39
29
visser
55
83
29
venir
viser
visiter
souffrir
souhaiter
souiller
soulager
soulever
souligner
soumettre
soupgonner
sortir*
29
29
venger
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
20
tr6bucher
trembler
tremper
tricher
tricoter
trier
triompher
tripoter
tromper
troquer
trotter
troubler
trouer
trouver
truffer
truquer
tuer
tutoyer
46
29
80
89
46
90
54
29
29
suer
suffire
35
20
92
Notes
t)
Auxiliary=avoir.
2) Auxiliary = €tre.
3) Only infinitive and 3rd persons of each tense used.
4) Past participle: absous, absoute.
s) Conjugated with either avoir or etre.
6) No circumflex on: j'accrois, tu accrois, and accru.
z) Hardly used except in the infinitive and the 3'd persons of the present,
future and conditional.
8)
e)
Past participle: circoncis.
Past participle: confit.
10) No circumflex on: je d6crois, tu d6crois, and d6cru.
11) When demeurer means to live, the auxiliary is avoir; when it means
to remain, the auxiliary is €tre.
vocif6rer
35
voiler
29
voir
voter
93
l9
vomir
voter
39
29
29
29
vouer
vouloir
29
94
14) When fleurir means to prosper, the present participle is florissant,
and the imperfect is florissait.
29
vouvoyer
voyager
54
1s)
46
29
29
29
29
29
29
54
35
20
39
29
29
29
46
vrombir
39
vulgariser
z6brer
29
z6zayer
60
ztgzaguer
29
35
12) Past participle: dissous, dissoute.
13) Present participle: faillant; past participle: failli; future: je faillirai,
conditional: je faillirais, efc. NB: f'ai failli tomber = | nearly fell.
etc;
Past participle: frit; used mainly in the present tense singular and in
compound tenses.
16) Past participle: inclus.
17) Past participle: m0, rnue, mus, mues.
18) Past participle: nui.
tr)
In questions, je peux can be replaced by ie puis:
Puis-je vous aider? May I help you?
20) Subjunctive: je pr6vale, efc.
21
) Future: je pr6voirai, etc; conditional: je pr€voirais, etc.
22) Used only in the infinitive, present and past participles, and compound
renses.
2r)
Past participle: relui.
24) No past participle, no compound tenses.
ilt" o*rH
What is the pa:
The passive is a
is the person o
qtven, we we'
[J
ruote that des
meanings, sur
something is
)
For moro
de changes to o
most words stai
Je
r
n'ai pas d'r
sBN 978-0-00-719644-9
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