Download American propaganda during World War II

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Eastern Bloc media and propaganda wikipedia, lookup

Political warfare wikipedia, lookup

Cartographic propaganda wikipedia, lookup

Propaganda of Fascist Italy wikipedia, lookup

Airborne leaflet propaganda wikipedia, lookup

Role of music in World War II wikipedia, lookup

Architectural propaganda wikipedia, lookup

Randal Marlin wikipedia, lookup

Radio propaganda wikipedia, lookup

Psychological warfare wikipedia, lookup

Propaganda in Nazi Germany wikipedia, lookup

Propaganda in Japan during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II wikipedia, lookup

Propaganda of the deed wikipedia, lookup

Propaganda in the Soviet Union wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
American propaganda during World War II
1
American propaganda during World War II
During World War II, American propaganda was used to
increase support for the war and commitment to an Allied
victory. Using a wide variety of media, propagandists
fomented hatred for the enemy and support for America's
allies, urged greater public effort for war production and
victory gardens, persuaded people to make do with what
they had so that more material could be used for the war
effort, and sold war bonds.
In the face of obstacles - COURAGE.
BE SURE YOU HAVE CORRECT TIME!, combines instruction
with caricature portrayal of enemy leaders.
American propaganda during World War II
2
Campaigns
When World War II began, most Americans viewed
propaganda as a tool of totalitarian dictatorships.[1]
Furthermore, many remembered with hostility the fervor of
World War I propaganda efforts, which were later regarded as
violating basic rights as well as conveying misinformation.[2]
At first, the government was reluctant to engage in
propaganda campaigns, but pressure from the media, the
business sector and advertisers who wanted direction
persuaded the government to take an active role.[3] Even so,
the government insisted that its actions were not propaganda,
but a means of providing information.[4] These efforts were
slowly and haphazardly formed into a more unified
propaganda effort, although never to the level of World War
I.[5]
In 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt created the Office of
War Information (OWI).[6] This mid-level agency joined a
host of other wartime agencies, including the War and State
Departments, in the dissemination of war information and
propaganda.[7] Officials at OWI used numerous tools to
communicate to the American public. These included
Hollywood movie studios, radio stations and printing
presses.[8]
World War II poster quoting FDR about every citizen's part
in the war
The Writers' War Board was privately organized for the purposes of propaganda and often acted as liaison between
the government and the writers. Many of the writers involved regarded their efforts as superior to governmental
propaganda,[9] as they regarded their material as bolder and more responsive than governmental efforts.[10] However,
the writers both responded to official requests and initiated their own campaigns.[9]
In 1944(lasting until 1948), prominent U.S. policy makers launched a domestic propaganda campaign aimed at
convincing the U.S. public to accept a harsh peace for the German people. One method used in this campaign was an
attempt to remove the commonly held view that the German people and the Nazi party were separate entities.[11] A
key participant in this campaign was the Writers' War Board, which was closely associated with the Roosevelt
administration.[11]
American propaganda during World War II
Media
Posters
The U.S. used posters more than any other type of propaganda media, and produced more propaganda posters than
any other country fighting in World War II.[12] Almost 200,000 different designs were printed during the war.[13]
These posters used a number of themes to encourage support for the
war, including conservation, production, recruiting, home efforts and
secrecy.[12] Posters were usually placed in areas without paid
advertisements.[12] The most common areas were post offices, railroad
stations, schools, restaurants and retail stores.[14] Smaller posters were
printed for the windows of private homes and apartment buildings.[15]
These were places where other propaganda media couldn't be used.[16]
The Office of War Information (OWI) Bureau of Graphics was the
government agency in charge of producing and distributing
propaganda posters.[17] The main distinction between United States
poster propaganda and that of British and other allied propaganda was
that the U.S. posters stayed mostly positive in their messages.[17] The
United States posters focused on duty, patriotism and tradition,
whereas those of other countries focused on fueling the people's hatred
for the enemy.[17] The positive messages on U.S. posters were used to
O'er the ramparts we watch: United States Army
increase production on the home front instead of insuring that the
Air Forces.
"money raised was not lost."[17] U.S. Posters rarely used images of war
casualties, and even battlefield scenes became less popular, and were replaced by commercial images to satisfy the
"consumer" need for the war.[18] The war posters were not designed by the government, but by artists who received
no compensation for their work.[17] Government agencies held competitions for artists to submit their designs,
allowing the government to increase the number of designs that it could choose from.[19]
Advertising
Many companies ran advertising supporting the war. This helped keep their names before the public although they
had no products to sell, and they were allowed to treat this advertising as a business expense.[20] The War
Advertising Council helped supervise such efforts.[21] Car manufacturers and other producers that retooled for the
war effort took out ads depicting their efforts.[22] Other companies connected their products in some way with the
war. For example, Lucky Strike claimed the change from green to white in its packaging was to save bronze for
weapons, and, as a result, saw its sales skyrocket.[23] Coca-Cola, as did many other soft drink manufacturers,
depicted its product being drunk by defense workers and members of the armed forces.[24] Many commercial ads
also urged the purchase of war bonds.[25]
Much of the war effort was defined by advertising, and the armed forces overseas preferred magazines with full ads
rather than a slimmed down version without them.[26]
3
American propaganda during World War II
Comic books and cartoons
Just as is done today, editorial cartoonists sought to sway
public opinion. For example, Dr. Seuss supported
Interventionism even before the attack on Pearl Harbor.[27]
Comic strips, such as Little Orphan Annie and Terry and the
Pirates, introduced war themes into their stories.[28] Even
before the war, sabotage and subversion were common motifs
in action-oriented strips.[29]
Many superheroes were shown combating Axis spies or
activities in America and elsewhere.[30] A comic book
depicting Superman attacking the German Westwall was
attacked in an issue of Das Schwarze Korps, the SS weekly
newspaper, with the Jewish origin of creator Jerry Siegel
given prominent attention.[31]
In 1944, after being praised by Ernie Pyle, Bill Mauldin's
cartoons were syndicated in the United States. This effort was
supported by the War Department due to Mauldin's grimmer
depiction of everyday military life in his cartoons.[32]
Mauldin's cartoons not only publicized the efforts of the
ground forces, but they made the war appear bitter and
Cover of the August 1943 issue of the 4 Favorites showing
onerous, helping convince Americans that victory would not
«War Bond» beating Hirohito, Adolf Hitler and Benito
Mussolini. The heroes on the cover are shown singing Spike
be easy. While his cartoons omitted carnage, they showed the
Jones' hit song Der Fuehrer's Face.
difficulty of war through his depiction of the soldiers'
disheveled appearance, and sad, vacant eyes.[33] This helped
produce continued support for the troops, by conveying the hardships of their daily experiences.[34]
Leaflets
Leaflets could be dropped from aircraft to populations in locations unreachable by other means; for example, when
the population was afraid or unable to listen to foreign radio broadcasts. As such, the United States extensively used
leaflets to convey short informational tidbits. In fact, one squadron of B-17 bombers was entirely dedicated to this
purpose.[35] Leaflets were also used against enemy forces, providing "safe conduct passes" that enemy troops could
use to surrender as well as counterfeit ration books, stamps and currency.[36] The very scale of the leaflet operations
had its effect on enemy morale, showing that the Allied armament industry was so productive that planes could be
diverted for this purposes.[37]
The use of leaflets against Japanese troops was of little effect.[38] Many civilians on Okinawa discounted pamphlets
declaring that prisoners would not be harmed.[39] By the time American planes could reach the Japanese home
islands, the leaflets had improved, providing "advance notice" of bombings ensured that the leaflets were read avidly
despite prohibitions.[38] These pamphlets declared they had no wish to harm civilians, only the military installations,
and that the bombings could be stopped by demanding new leaders who would end the war.[40] After the atomic
attacks, more pamphlets were dropped, warning that the Americans had an even more powerful explosive at their
disposal.[41] When the Japanese government subsequently offered to surrender, the U.S. continued to drop
pamphlets, telling the Japanese people of their government's offer and that they had a right to know the terms.[42]
The American Historical Association's G.I. Roundtable Series of pamphlets was used to ease transition to the
post-war world.[43]
4
American propaganda during World War II
Radio
In the United States, radio was so widely used for propaganda that it greatly exceeded the use of other media that
was typically used against other nations.[44] President Roosevelt's fireside chats are an excellent example of this use
of radio.[45] In February 1942, Norman Corwin's This is War series was broadcast throughout the country and, by
shortwave, throughout the world.[46] Other significant uses of radio overseas includes messages to the Italian Navy,
which persuaded it to surrender.[47] CBS Radio's counterpropaganda series Our Secret Weapon (1942–43), featuring
writer Rex Stout representing Freedom House, monitored Axis shortwave radio propaganda broadcasts and rebutted
the most entertaining lies of the week.[48]:529
In 1942–43 Orson Welles created two CBS Radio series that are regarded as significant contributions to the war
effort. Hello Americans was produced under the auspices of the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs
to promote inter-American understanding and friendship during World War II. Ceiling Unlimited, sponsored by the
Lockheed-Vega Corporation, was conceived to glorify the aviation industry and dramatize its role in World War
II.[49]
Since radio was often a "live' media, there were restrictions. Broadcasters were warned not to cut to a commercial
with the line, "and now for some good news," and reporters were instructed not to describe bombings precisely
enough so that the enemy could tell what they hit, for example, they were to state "the building next to the one I am
standing on," not "the First National Bank."[50] While audience participation and man-on-the-street programs were
immensely popular, broadcasters realized there was no way to prevent enemy agents from being selected, and these
were discontinued.[51] Many broadcasters worked war themes into their programming to such an extent that they
confused the targeted audiences. As a result, the Radio War Guide urged broadcasters to focus on selected
themes.[52]
At first the Japanese population could not receive propaganda by radio because short-wave receivers were prohibited
in Japan. However, the capture of Saipan not only shocked the Japanese because it was considered invincible, but
allowed Americans to use medium-wave radio to reach the Japanese islands.[53]
Books
Books were more often used in the post-combat consolidation phases than in combat, particularly because their
intent was indirect, to mold the thinkers who would be molding public opinion in the post-war period, and therefore
books had more of a long-range influence rather than an immediate effect.[54]
And some topics were considered off limits. Books on submarines were suppressed, even ones drawing on public
knowledge and made with naval assistance. In fact, attempts were made to suppress even fictional stories involving
submarines.[55] As fiction grew less popular, bookstores promoted non-fiction war books.[56]
A few weeks after D-Day, crates of books were landed in Normandy to be distributed to French booksellers. An
equal number of American and British efforts were included in these shipments.[57] Books had been stockpiled for
this purpose, and some books were specifically published for it.[58]
Movies
Hollywood movie studios, obviously sympathetic to the Allied cause, soon adapted standard plots and serials to
feature Nazis in place of the usual gangster villains while the Japanese were depicted as being bestial, incapable of
reason or human qualities.[59] Although Hollywood lost access to most foreign markets during the war, it was now
able to use Germans, Italians and Japanese as villains without diplomatic protests or boycotts. Many actors such as
Peter Lorre, Conrad Veidt, Martin Kosleck, Philip Ahn and Sen Yung specialized in playing Axis spies, traitors and
soldiers.[60] Irreplaceable film workers received draft deferments to allow them to continue producing pro-Allied
films.[61]
5
American propaganda during World War II
6
The 1941 Nazi attack on the Soviet Union resulted in pro-Russian movies.[62] The war also produced an interest in
newsreels and documentaries, which had been unable to compete against entertainment films prior to the war.[62]
America's allies were no longer allowed to be depicted negatively in any way.[55]
At the request of General George C.
Marshall, Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army,
Frank Capra created a documentary series
that was used as orientation films for new
recruits.[63] Capra designed the series to
illustrate the enormous danger of Axis
conquest and the corresponding justness of
the Allies.[64] This Why We Fight series
documented the war in seven segments:
• Prelude to War, the rise of Fascism;[65]
• The Nazi Strike, from Anschluss to the
invasion of Poland;[66]
• Divide and Conquer, the conquest of
continental Europe;
• The Battle of Britain,
From "War Comes To America", in the Why We Fight series - the dire
consequences for the United States of an Axis victory in Eurasia.
• The Battle of Russia,
• The Battle of China, and
• War Comes to America, covering subsequent events.[67]
At President Roosevelt's urging, it was also released to the theaters for the general public.[68] In Britain, Churchill
ordered the entire sequence to be shown to the public.[67]
Movies were also useful in that propaganda messages could be incorporated into entertainment films.[69] The 1942
film Mrs. Miniver portrayed the experiences of an English housewife during the Battle of Britain and urged the
support of both men and women for the war effort. It was rushed to the theaters on Roosevelt's orders.[70]
The 1944 film The Purple Heart was used to dramatize Japanese atrocities and the heroics of American flyers.[71]
Animation
World War II transformed the possibilities for animation. Prior to the
war, animation was seen as a form of childish entertainment, but that
perception changed after Pearl Harbor was attacked. On 8 December
1941, the U.S. Army immediately began working with Walt Disney.
Army personnel were stationed at his studio and lived there for the
duration of the war.[72] A military officer was actually based in Walt
Disney’s office. The U.S. Army and Disney set about making various
types of films for several different audiences. Most films meant for the
public included some type of propaganda, while films for the troops
included training and education about a given topic.
Front Lot at Walt Disney Studios Park.
American propaganda during World War II
Scrap Happy Daffy
Films intended for the public were often meant to build morale. They allowed
Americans to express their anger and frustration through ridicule and humor. Many
films simply reflected the war culture and were pure entertainment. Others carried
strong messages meant to arouse public involvement or set a public mood.
Cartoons such as Bugs Bunny Bond Rally and Foney Fables pushed viewers to buy
war bonds, while Scrap Happy Daffy encouraged the donation of scrap metal, and
Disney's The Spirit of '43 implored viewers to pay their taxes.
The U.S. and Canadian governments also used animation for training and
instructional purposes. The most elaborate training film produced, Stop That Tank!, was commissioned by the
Canadian Directorate of Military Training and created by Walt Disney Studios.[73] Troops became familiar with
Private Snafu and Lance Corporal Schmuckatelli. These fictional characters were used to give soldiers safety briefs
and instructions on expected behavior, while often portraying behavior that which was not recommended. The short
Spies depicts an intoxicated Private Snafu giving secrets to a beautiful woman who is really a Nazi spy. Through the
information he gives her, the Germans are able to bomb the ship Private Snafu is traveling on, sending him to hell.
[74]
Animation was increasingly used in political commentary against the Axis powers. Der Fuehrer's Face[75] was one
of Walt Disney's most popular propaganda cartoons. It poked fun at Hitler’s Germany by depicting Donald Duck
dreaming that he is a German war worker, eating breakfast by only spraying the scent of bacon and eggs onto his
breath and dipping a single coffee bean into his cup of water. Disney and the U.S. Army wanted to depict Germans
as living in a land that was a facade of the wonderful promises made by Hitler. Producers of the cartoon also wished
to show that the working conditions in German factories were not as glorious as Hitler made them sound in his
speeches. In the film, Donald works continuously with very little compensation and or time off. At the end, Donald
awakes from his nightmare and is forever thankful he is a citizen of the United States of America. Education for
Death[76] was a very serious film based on the best-selling book of the same name by Gregor Ziemer. The film
shows how a young boy in Nazi Germany is indoctrinated and brainwashed at an early age and learns to believe all
that the German government tells him. While this short is educational, it also provides comic relief by mocking
Hitler. However, the film is both shocking in its content and despairing in its ending, depicting the death of
numerous such boys who are now German soldiers.
Magazines
Magazines were a favored propaganda dissemination tool, as they were widely circulated. The government issued a
Magazine War Guide which included tips for supporting the war effort.[77] Women's magazines were the favored
venue for propaganda aimed at housewives, particularly the Ladies' Home Journal. Magazine editors were asked to
depict women as coping heroically with the sacrifices of wartime.[77] Fiction was a particularly favored venue, and
was used to subtly shape attitudes.[78] Ladies' Home Journal and other magazine also promoted the activities of
women in the armed services.[79]
The pulp magazine industry was especially supportive, if only to prevent their being perceived as unessential to the
war effort and discontinued for the duration of the war.[80] The Office of War Information distributed guides to
writers for Western, adventure, detective and other pulp genres with possible story lines and themes that would help
the war effort. Among the suggestions were a detective who was "cheerful" about following a suspect without using
an automobile, a woman working in a traditionally male job, the importance of the 35 miles per hour speed limit and
carpooling, and good Chinese and British characters.[81]
7
American propaganda during World War II
8
Newspapers
Newspapers were told that government press releases would be true, and to give no aid and comfort to the
enemy—but this latter was not to be considered a prohibition on releasing bad news.[82] However, partially through
the cooperation of supportive journalists, the Office of Censorship (OOC) managed to remove negative news and
other items useful to the enemy—such as weather forecasts—although neither the OOC nor any other agency
managed to completely slant the news in a positive, morale-boosting manner.[83] Indeed, some government officials
found that both newspapers and radio were using uncorroborated news from Vichy France and Tokyo.[84]
Themes
As in Britain, American propaganda depicted the war as an issue
of good versus evil, which allowed the government to encourage
its population to fight a "just war," and used themes of resistance
in and liberation to the occupied countries.[85] In 1940, even prior
to being drawn into World War II, President Roosevelt urged
every American to consider the effect if the dictatorships won in
Europe and Asia.[86] Precision bombing was praised, exaggerating
its accuracy, to convince people of the difference between good
and bad bombing.[87] Hitler, Tojo, Mussolini and their followers
were the villains in American film, even in cartoons where
characters, such as Bugs Bunny, would defeat them[62] -- a
practice that began before Pearl Harbor.[88] Cartoons depicted
Axis leaders as not being human.[89]
Roosevelt proclaimed that the war against the dictatorships had to
take precedence over the New Deal.[90]
Artists and writers were strongly divided on whether to encourage
hatred for the enemy, which occasioned debates.[91] The
government rarely intervened in such debates, only occasionally
suggesting lines for art to take.[92] However, the OWI suggested
plot lines using Axis agents in place of traditional villainous roles,
such as the rustler in Westerns.[93]
The Axis as a Japanese/Nazi two-headed monster.
In one speech, Henry Wallace called for post-war efforts to psychologically disarm the effect of the Axis powers,
requiring schools to undo, as far as possible, the poisoning of children's minds by Hitler and the Japanese
"warlords."[94] Two days later, a Dr. Seuss's editorial cartoon showed Uncle Sam using bellows to drive germ out of
the mind of the child "Germany," while holding the child "Japan" ready for the next treatment.[94]
American propaganda during World War II
9
Anti-German
Hitler was often depicted in situations ridiculing him, and
editorial cartoons usually depicted him in caricature.[95][96]
Hitler's dictatorship was often heavily satirized.[97] To raise
morale, even prior to the turning of the war in the Allies favor,
Hitler often appeared in editorial cartoons as doomed.[98] He
and the German people were depicted as fools. For example, a
German father scolded his hungry son, telling him that the
Germans ate countries, not food.[99]
Nazi Germany was treated as the worst evil within the Axis, a
greater threat than Japan and Italy.[100] To counter the much
greater desire in the United States to attack Japan, operations
in the North African theater were implemented, despite
military counterindications, to increase support for attacking
Germany. Without such involvement, public pressure to more
heavily support the war in the Pacific might have proven
irresistible to American leaders.[101]
Ten years ago, the Nazis burned these books but free
Americans can still read them.
Germans were often stereotyped as evil in films and
posters,[102] although many atrocities were specifically
ascribed to Nazis and Hitler specificially, rather than to the
undifferentiated German people.[103]
Alternate history novels depicted Nazi invasions of America to arouse support for interventionism.[104]
The Writers' War Board compiled lists of books banned or burned in Nazi Germany and distributed them for
propaganda purposes, and thousands of commemorations of the book burnings were staged.[105]
Anti-Italian
Mussolini also appeared in situations ridiculing him.[95] Editorial cartoons depicted him as a two-bit dictator.[106]
Italians were often stereotyped as evil in films and posters.[102]
Anti-Japanese
Propaganda portrayed the Japanese as a foreign, grotesque and uncivilized enemy.[107] Drawing on Japanese samurai
traditions, American propagandists portrayed the Japanese as blindly fanatic and ruthless, with a history of desiring
overseas conquests.[108] Japanese propaganda, such as Shinmin no Michi or The Way of the Subjects, called for the
Japanese people to become "one hundred million hearts beating as one"—which Allied propagandists used to portray
the Japanese as a mindless, unified mass.[109] Atrocities were ascribed to the Japanese people as a whole.[103] Even
Japanese-Americans would be portrayed as massively supporting Japan, only awaiting the signal to committ
sabotage.[110] Japanese atrocities and their fanatical refusal to surrender supported the portrayal of otherwise racist
elements in propaganda.[111]
American propaganda during World War II
10
Even prior to the Pearl Harbor, accounts of atrocities in
China roused considerable antipathy for Japan.[112] This
stemmed from as early as the Japanese invasion of
Manchuria, when accounts were received of Japanese
forces of bombing civilians, or firing upon shell-shocked
survivors.[113] Such books as Pearl Buck's The Good
Earth and Freda Utley's China At War aroused sympathy
for the Chinese.[114] As early as 1937, Roosevelt
condemned the Japanese for their aggression in
China.[115] The Rape of Nanking, due to the large number
of Western witnesses, achieved particularly notoriety,
with Chinese propagandists using it to cement Allied
opinion.[116]
Propaganda based on the attack on Pearl Harbor was used
with considerable effectiveness, because its outcome was
enormous and impossible to counter.[117] Initial reports
termed it a "sneak attack" and "infamous behavior".[118]
"Remember Pearl Harbor!" became the watchword of the
[119]
war.
Reports of the maltreatment of American
Remember Pearl Harbor!
prisoners of war also aroused fury,[120] as did reports of
atrocities against native populations, with babies being thrown in the air to be caught on bayonets receiving
particular attention.[121] When three of the Doolittle Raiders were executed, it evoked a passion for revenge in
America, and the image of the "Japanese ape" became common in film and cartoons.[53] The film The Purple Heart
dramatized their story, with an airman giving a concluding speech that he now knew that he had understood the
Japanese less than he had thought, and that they did not understand Americans if they thought this would frighten
them.[71] The diary of a dead Japanese soldier, which contained an entry coolly recounting the execution of a
downed airman, was given considerable play as a demonstration of the true nature of the enemy.[122]
The early overwhelming Japanese successes led to a pamphlet "Exploding the Japanese 'Superman' Myth" to counter
the effect.[123] The limitations of Japanese troops it cited, although minor, were actual flaws to counter the
impression GIs had of Japanese military prowess.[124] The Doolittle Raid was staged after urging from Roosevelt for
a counter-attack, if only for morale reasons.[125]
American propaganda during World War II
11
Japanese calls for devotion to death were used to
present a war of extermination as the only possibility,
without any question as to whether it was desirable.[126]
One Marine unit was briefed: "Every Japanese has been
told that it is his duty to die for the emperor. It is your
duty to see that he does so."[127] The suicides at
Saipan—of women, children, and the elderly as well as
fighting men—only reinforced that belief.[128] A
thorough defeat of the Japanese was argued for in
magazines so as to prevent a resurgence, as happened
in Germany after World War I, of Japanese military
power or ambition.[129] This encouraged American
forces to attack civilians, on the belief they would not
surrender, which fed into Japanese propaganda about
American atrocities.[130]
Hirohito and undifferentiated "Japs" were often
portrayed in caricature.[131] Dr. Seuss's editorial
cartoons, which often depicted Hitler and Mussolini,
opted for a "Japan" figure rather than any given
leader.[132]
Bataan Death March in propaganda.
One OWI suggestion for adapting "pulp" formulas was a sports story of a professional baseball team touring Japan,
which would allow the writers to show the Japanese as ruthless and incapable of sportsmanship.[133]
American popular songs at the time included "We're Gonna Have to Slap the Dirty Little Jap," "Taps for the Japs,"
"We’ll Nip the Nipponese," "We’re going to play Yankee Doodle in Tokyo," and "You’re a Sap, Mr. Jap."[134]
Wartime filmmakers embellished characteristics of Japanese culture that the American people would find
scandalously foreign.[134]
At the beginning of the war artists portrayed the Japanese as nearsighted, bucktoothed, harmless children.[135]
Indeed, many Americans believed that Germany had convinced Japan to attack Pearl Harbor.[136] As the war
progressed, Japanese soldiers and civilians would be portrayed in films as evil, rat faced enemies that desired global
domination.[137]
In countries occupied by Japan and forced to join its would-be Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, the failure to
sustain the economic level prior to the war, particularly in the Philippines, was quickly use in propaganda about the
"Co-Poverty Sphere."[138]
Leaflets air-dropped to the Japanese people informed them of the Potsdam Declaration, which brought to bear the
extent of Allied victory, and of the Japanese government's peace negotiations, undermining the ability of the
Japanese hard-liners to insist on continued war.[139]
American propaganda during World War II
12
Careless talk
Many posters depicted careless talk as providing information
to the enemy, resulting in Allied deaths. [140] This effort was
used to prevent people with sensitive information from talking
about it where spies or saboteurs could listen in.[141] Posters
with this theme conveyed the reality of war to the general
public.[142] This was a major topic endorsed by the Office of
War Information.[141]
Some of these poster contained the most well known slogans
of the war and many were depicted by propaganda artist Cyril
Kenneth Bird.[143] Other slogans used for this type of poster
were “loose talk costs lives”, "loose lips sink ships", “Another
careless word, another wooden cross”, and “bits of careless
talk are pieced together by the enemy”.[17] Stories also
emphasized an anti-rumor theme, as when one woman advised
another not to talk with a man about her war job, because the
woman he is dating is untrustworthy and might be an enemy
agent.[144]
Rumor mongering was discouraged on the grounds it
fomented divisions in America[145] and promoted defeatism
and alarmism.[146] Alfred Hitchcock directed Have You
Heard?, a photographic dramatization of the dangers of
rumors during wartime, for Life magazine.[147]
A careless word...A needless loss. (by Anton Otto Fischer)
Victories
Battle victories and heroism were promoted for morale purposes, while losses and defeats were underplayed. Despite
his blunders in the first days of the war, General Douglas MacArthur was presented as a war hero due to the dire
need for one.[148] The desperate situation on Bataan was played down;[149] although its fall caused considerable
demoralization.[150] The Doolittle Raid was carried out solely to help morale rather than to cause damage.[151] a
purpose which it fulfilled.[152] After the Battle of Coral Sea, the Navy reported more Japanese damage than had
actually been inflicted,[153] and declared it a victory, which the Japanese also did.[154] The decisive victory at the
Battle of Midway was emblazoned on newspaper headlines,[155] but was reported with restraint and the U.S. Navy
overstated the Japanese damage. Life warned that Midway did not mean that Japan was no longer on the
offensive.[156]
In 1942, the survivors of the Battle of Savo Island were removed from public circulation to prevent news from
leaking, and the August 9th disaster did not reach the newspapers until mid-October.[157]
Limiting the distribution of bad news caused difficulty with gasoline rationing, as Americans were kept unaware of
numerous tanker sinkings.[158]
Earlier, people complained that the government was covering up the extent of the damage at Pearl Harbor, although
this was partly to keep it from the Japanese. The Japanese had a good idea of the damage they inflicted, so only
Americans were kept ignorant.[159] One reporter reported, "Seven of the two ships sunk at Pearl Harbor have now
rejoined the fleet."[159] Although complaints of news suppression continued,[160] both the newspapers and radio took
favorable news and embellish it, a process not countered by the government.[161]
Joseph Goebbels countered this propaganda to prevent it influencing Germany, downplaying the defense of
Corrigidor and attacking Douglas MacArthur as a coward. This was not very successful, as the German people knew
American propaganda during World War II
13
it understated the American defense and that MacArthur had left under orders.[162]
The invasion of North Africa produced a morale boost when American forces were bogged down in New Guinea and
the Guadalcanal Campaign.[163]
After Guadalcanal, attention was focused on Europe, where Italy was taken, heavy bombing was hammering
Germany, and the Red Army was moving steadily advancing west.[164]
False optimism
Some propaganda was directed to counter people's hopes that it would not be a long, hard war. Despite air victories
in Europe, Dr. Seuss depicted Hitler as a mermaid destroying Allied shipping.[98] The U.S. War Department
supported the syndication of Bill Mauldin's cartoons because Mauldin made the war appear bitter and onerous,
showing that the victory would not be easy. His depiction of U.S. soldiers with disheveled appearances and sad,
vacant eyes conveyed the difficulty of the war.[165]
Death and injury
Until 1944, the mayhem of war (dead and wounded) was mostly toned
down by American propagandists, who followed instructions allowing
them to show a few wounded soldiers in a crowd. Later, more realistic
presentations were allowed, partly owing to popular demand.[166] The
earlier attitude was supported by the media; for example, NBC warned
that broadcasts were not to be "unduly harrowing."[167] However, the
American public wanted more realism on the grounds that they could
handle bad news.[168] Roosevelt finally authorized photos of dead
soldiers, to keep the public from growing complacent about the toll of
war.[169]
With the Marines at Tarawa was noted for more
gruesome battle scenes than films before it.
When The Battle of San Pietro showed dead GIs wrapped in mattress
covers, some officers tried to prevent troopers in training from seeing it, for fear of morale; General Marshall
overrode them, to ensure that the soldiers took their training seriously.[170]
The OWI emphasized to returning, battle-scarred soldiers that there were places and jobs for them in civilian
life.[171] This promise was also featured in romantic stories, where a sweet, gentle heroine would help the veteran
adjust to civilian life after his return from the war.[172]
War effort
Americans were called upon to support the war effort in many ways. Cartoons depicted those who talked about
victory but clearly were sitting around waiting for others to ensure it[173] or showed how red tape was detrimental to
the war effort.[174] Defeatism was attacked,[175] national unity was promoted,[176] and themes of community and
sacrifice were emphasized.[177] Fictional characters were sharply divided into selfish villains and heroes who put the
needs of others first[178] and learned to identify with the defenders of freedom.[179]
American propaganda during World War II
14
Propagandists were instructed to convey the message that the
person viewing the propaganda media stood to personally lose
if he or she failed to contribute; for example, the appeal for
women to contribute to the war effort more closely
personalized the soldiers dependent on their work as their
sons, brothers and husbands.[180]
Considerable complications were caused by censorship and
the need to prevent the enemy from learning how much
damage they had inflicted.[181] For example, Roosevelt's
fireside chat described the damage at Pearl Harbor as
"serious" but he could not "give exact damage."[182]
Many artists and writers knew that keeping up morale was
important, but considerable debate arose over whether to go
for light frivolous diversions, or to impress the severity of the
war to stir up support.[183]
Authors of fiction were encouraged to show their characters
buying warbonds, conserving, planting victory gardens, and
otherwise acting war-mindedly; characters could refrain from
calling loved ones to avoid straining the phone system, or a
romance would start when a man and woman carpooled.[184]
Service on the Home Front.
Many stories were set in the frontier era or on family farms, to emphasize traditional virtues such as hard work,
innocence, piety, independence and community values.[185]
Civil defense
The Office of Civil Defense was created to inform Americans what to do in case of enemy attack.[186] Within a day
of the attack of Pearl Harbor, it produce pamphlets describing what to do in event of an air raid.[187] It also promoted
civilian morale, and its emblems helped remind people that the war was continuing.[188]
Conservation
American propaganda during World War II
15
Women's magazines carried numerous tips for housewives on thrifty
purchasing, dealing with rationing, and how to cope in a period of
limited supplies.[77] General Mills distributed a Betty Crocker
"cookbooklet" with war time recipes.[189] A Victory Cookbook
explained the principles of wartime cooking, starting with the need to
share food with the fighting men.[190] Ladies' Home Journal explained
the principles behind sugar rationing, for example, sugarcane could be
used to make explosives.[191] The Office of Price Administration urged
Americans in restaurants not to ask for extra butter or a refill on
coffee.[192] Radio soap operas used plots about wartime rationing and
condemned the hoarding of goods.[193]
Rubber was in particularly short supply, and rubber rationing had the
deepest impact on American life. However, the Rubber Survey Report,
produced by a committee to investigate the rubber supply, succeeded in
changing public opinion by showing the good reasons for
rationing.[194] Since gasoline was needed to power planes and military
automobiles, Americans were encouraged to conserve.[142] This also
helped conserve rubber.[192] Carpooling was promoted in government
campaigns.[195]
Save Waste Fats for Explosives.
Scrap drives were instituted, and supported by government PR efforts, even before the declaration of war.[196] Such
programs as Salvage for Victory redoubled after the outbreak. Many private individuals organized and publicized
some of the most successful scrap drives of the war.[197] President Roosevelt sent a letter to Boy Scout and Girl
Scout groups, urging the children to support scrap drives.[198] Cartoons ridiculed those who did not collect scrap.[199]
Conservation was the largest theme in poster propaganda,
accounting for one of every seven posters during the war.[200]
Conserving materials, in the kitchen and around the home,
was one of five major topics in posters with conservation
themes. Other topics included purchasing war bonds, planting
victory gardens, the Office of Price Administration, and
rationing.[200] Women were encouraged to help with
conservation in their cooking, saving fat and grease for
explosives,[17] and rationing sugar, meat, butter, and coffee to
leave more for the soldiers.[201] Butcher shops and markets
handed out bulletins that urged the conservation of waste fat,
A call for scrap.
which could be brought back to the butcher.[202] Due to these
posters and other forms of propaganda the United States
recycled 538 million pounds of waste fats, 23 million tons of paper, and 800 million pounds of tin.[203]
People were told to conserve materials used in clothing, which resulted in clothing becoming smaller and
shorter.[201] Fiction often depicted a heroine who spent her high wages on fancy dress, but found that her soldier
boyfriend disapproved until he learned she had a war job. Even then, he wanted her to change back to the clothes he
knew her in before they went out.[204]
American propaganda during World War II
Industry
Industry was also called on to conserve. Lucky Strike used the metals in their dyes as a justification for changing
their packaging from green to white.[23] Prior to the shutdown of commercial production, cars no longer carried
chrome.[205]
Production
Even prior to Pearl Harbor, Roosevelt called on the United States to be the arsenal of democracy in support of other
countries at war with Fascism.[206]
Industrial and agricultural production was a
major focus of poster campaigns.[207]
Although the war-time boom meant that
people had money to buy things for the first
time since the Depression, propaganda
emphasized the need to support the war
effort, and not spend their money on
non-essential items and so divert material
from the war effort.[208] The manufacture of
the last civilian car was publicized in such
venues as Life.[209] Factories were
represented as part of the war effort,[210] and
greater
worker
cooperation
with
management was urged.[211] Stories
A sailor saluting war production: "I'm proud of you folks too!
symbolized such harmony by featuring
romances between a working-class war
worker and her employer.[212] Cartoons depicted labor unrest as pleasing Hitler and racial discrimination as
preventing the accomplishment of essential work.[213] Fictional treatments of war issues emphasized the need for
workers to combat absenteeism and high turnover.[214]
Business entrepreneurs founding new businesses for military production were hailed as exemplars of American
economic individualism.[215]
After the death of the Sullivan brothers, their parents and sister made visits to shipyards and armament factories to
encourage increased production.[216] Veterans of the Guadalcanal campaign, America's first major offensive of the
war, were also sent to factories to encourage production and discourage absenteeism.[217]
Economy and industry were strongly emphasized in United States propaganda posters because of the need for long
term production during the war.[218] Factory workers were encouraged to become not just workers, but “Production
Soldiers” on the home front.[219] These posters were used to persuade workers to take shorter breaks, work longer
hours, and produce as many tools and weapons as possible to increase production for the military.[220] Ship factories
hung out banners to encourage ships for victory.[221]
Increased production resulted in more workers moving to factory towns, straining available housing and other
amenities. As a result, fictional plots often dealt with the need for homeowners to take in boarders and the necessity
for tolerance and unity between residents and newcomers.[222]
16
American propaganda during World War II
17
Victory gardens
The government encouraged people to plant vegetable gardens to help
prevent food shortages. Magazines such as Saturday Evening Post and
Life printed articles supporting it, while women's magazines included
directions for planting.[223] Because planting these gardens was
regarded as being patriotic, they were termed victory gardens, and
women were encouraged to can and preserve food they raised from
these gardens.[189] While the U.S. Department of Agriculture provided
information, many commercial publishers also issued books, on how to
plant these gardens.[224]
During the war years, Americans planted 50 million victory
gardens.[225] These produced more vegetables than the total
commercial production, and much of it was preserved, following the
slogan: "Eat what you can, and can what you can't."[226]
War bonds
Your Victory garden counts more than ever!
During the war, the sale of War Bonds was extensively promoted.[227]
Originally termed "Defense Bonds", they were called "war bonds" after
the attack on Pearl Harbor.[228] Much of the nation's artistic talent and best advertising techniques were used to
encourage people to buy the bonds so as to keep the program voluntary.[229]
The War Advertising Board did its best to convince people that buying
bonds was a patriotic act, giving buyers a stake in the war.[227]
Advertisements were initially used on radio and in newspapers, but
later magazines were also used, with both government and private
companies producing the advertisements.[227] The Writers' War Board
was originally founded for the purpose of writing copy for war bond
ads.[230]
War bond rallies and drives were common, and were staged at many
social events.[231] Teachers passed out booklets to children to allow
them to save toward a bond by purchasing war bond stamps.[232]
Buy War Bonds!
Marlene Dietrich and many other female movie stars sold many
thousands of dollars worth of war bonds.[233] The Little Orphan Annie
radio show urged its young listeners to sell war stamps and war
bonds.[234] Even product ads often contained the slogan, "Buy War
Bonds and Stamps!".[25] Enrolling in payroll deduction plans to buy
war bonds was also urged through the media.[235]
One hundred and thirty-five billion dollars worth of liberty bonds were sold, most of which were purchased by
banks, insurance companies and corporations.[17] However, individuals purchased $36 billion in bonds, with children
accounting for close to $1 billion.[17]
American propaganda during World War II
18
Womanpower
Major campaigns were launched to encourage women to enter the
work force and convince their husbands that this was appropriate
behavior.[236] Government campaigns targeting women were addressed
solely at housewives, perhaps because already employed women could
move to the higher-paid "essential" jobs on their own,[237] or perhaps
in the belief that housewives would be the primary source of new
workers.[238] Propaganda was also directed at husbands, many of
whom were unwilling to have their wives working.[239] Fiction also
addressed husbands' resistance to their wives working.[240]
Key symbolic figures such as "Rosie the Riveter" and "Mrs. Casey
Jones" appeared in posters across the country representing strong
women who supported their husbands in the war effort.[241] Due to all
the propaganda targeting female wartime duties, the number of women
working jumped 15% from 1941 to 1943.[242] Women were the
primary figures of the home front, which was a major theme in the
poster propaganda media,[243] and, as the war continued, women began
appearing more frequently in war posters. At first, they were
accompanied by male counterparts, but later women began to appear as
the central figure in the posters.[17] These posters were meant to show a
direct correlation with the efforts of the home front to the war overseas
and portray women as directly affecting the war.[243] Radios also
broadcast information and appeals, drawing on patriotic calls and the
need of such work to save men's lives.[244]
The "We Can Do It!" poster was not famous
during the war. It was shown to Westinghouse
factory workers to reduce labor unrest.
Two major campaigns were launched: "Women in the War," to recruit
for the armed services and war-related jobs; and "Women in Necessary
Services," or such jobs as laundry, clerking in grocery and drug stores,
and other employment necessary to support the economy.[245] Books
and magazines addressed women with the need for their labor.[246]
Many works of fiction depicted women working in industries suffering
labor shortages,[247] although generally in the more glamorous
industries.[248] Major magazines covers movies, and popular songs all
depicted women workers.[249]
The woman war worker was commonly used as a symbol of the home
front, perhaps because, unlike a male figure, the question of why she
was not serving in the armed forces would not be raised.[250] In many
stories, the woman worker appeared as an example to a selfish woman
who then reformed and obtained employment.[251]
Bring him home sooner... Join the WAVES.
Magazines were urged to carry fiction suitable for wartime. For instance, True Story toned down its Great
Depression hostility to working women and featured war work favorably.[252] At first, it continued sexual themes,
such as female war workers being seduced, having affairs with married men, or engaging in casual affairs. The
Magazine Bureau objected to this as hindering recruitment, and argued that war workers should not be shown as
more prone to dalliance than other women. As a result, True Story removed such themes from stories featuring
female war workers.[253] The ambitious career woman whose life culminated in disaster still appeared, but only
when motivated by self-interest; whereas women who worked from patriotic motives were able to maintain their
American propaganda during World War II
19
marriages and bear children rather than suffer miscarriages and infertility, as working women invariably suffered in
pre-war stories.[254] Stories showed that war work could redeem a woman with a sordid past.[255] Saturday Evening
Post changed its depiction of working women even more: the pre-war, destructive career wife vanished entirely, and
now employed women could also have happy families[256]
The image of the "glamour girl" was adapted to wartime conditions by depicting women in factory work as attractive
and overtly showed that a woman could keep her looks while performing war work.[257] Fictional romances
presented war workers as winning the attention of soldiers, in preference to girls who lived for pleasure.[258] The
motives for female war workers motives were often presented as bringing their men home earlier, or making a safer
world for their children.[259] Depictions of female war workers often suggested that they were working only for the
duration, and planned to return full time to the home afterward.[260]
The appeal for women workers suggested that by performing war work, a woman supported her brother, boyfriend or
husband in the armed forces, and hastened the day when he could return home.[261]
In the armed forces
Women's groups and organizations were asked to recruit women for the WACS, WAVES, WASPS and other female
branches of the services.[262]
The image of the "glamour girl" was applied to women in the military, to reassure women that joining the military
did not make them less feminine.[263] In fictional romances, women in uniform won the hearts of soldiers who
preferred them to women who did not support the war effort.[258]
Home fires
Most of the entertainment aimed at soldiers was heavy on sentiment
and nostalgia, to help sustain morale.[264] In most media, the girl next
door was often used as the symbol of all things American.[265] Betty
Grable characterized it as women giving soldiers something to fight
for,[266] but one soldier wrote to her saying that her pin-up photographs
told them, in the midst of fighting, what they were fighting for.[267]
Songs on armed forces request programs were not about Rosie the
Riveter, but of the girls who were waiting for the soldiers to return.[268]
Many such songs were also popular at the home front.[269] Themes of
love, loneliness and separation were given more poignancy by the
war.[270]
German intelligence officers, interrogating American prisoners,
mistakenly concluded that the Americans notions of why they were
fighting were for such vague concepts, such as "Mom's apple pie," and
concluded that American servicemen were idealistically soft and could
be convinced to desert their allies.[271]
Be with him at every mail call! (by Lejaren
Hiller, Sr.)
Stories for the home front recounted the soldiers' need for their
sweethearts and families to remain as they were, because they were what the soldier were fighting for.[272] As the
war ended, real and fictional stories often featured women who left war work to return to their homes and to raise
children.[273] Women, particularly wives whose husbands were at war, and children were often portrayed as what
was at risk in the war.[274]
Home-front posters also invoked an idealized America, as in the series declaring "This is America", portraying "the
family is a sacred institution," "where Main Street is bigger than Broadway," and "where a man picks his job".[275]
Typically, men were presented as ordinary but women as beautiful and glamorous.[275]
American propaganda during World War II
Allies
Pro-British
Roosevelt urged support for Britain before the United States entered
the war, to gain support for the Lend-Lease Act.[276] Part of this
reasoning was that those who were currently fighting the Axis powers
would keep war from the United States, if supported.[277]
In propaganda media, posters urged support for Great Britain, while
the stock character of the "supercilious Englishman" was removed
from film.[55] Newsreels depicted the Blitz, showing the famous image
of St. Paul's dome rising above the flames, and Ed Murrow reported
the effects.[278] Frank Capra's film Battle of Britain (1943), in the Why
We Fight series, depicted the RAF's fight against Germany.[67] While it
embellished real life dogfights, it did depict the frightening night raids,
which the British people nevertheless managed to carry-on
through.[279]
Before 7 December 1941 and the Japanese surprise attack on Hawaii, a
number of Americans in the north and mid-west United States were
This man is your FRIEND Englishman He fights
either sympathetic to Nazi Germany or simply opposed to another war
for FREEDOM.
with Germany because they were of German ancestry. In addition,
numerous Irish-Catholic Americans were pro-Nazi because they were
openly hostile to the British and British interests. However, the American South was very pro-British at this time,
because of the kinship southerners felt for the British.[280] The South was deemed "a total failure" for the America
First Committee for reasons such as traditional southern pride in the military, pro-British sentiment and Anglophilia
due to a predominance of British ancestry among most Southerners, political loyalty to the Democratic Party and the
role of defense spending in aiding the region's depressed economy.[281]
Pro-Russian
Depicting the Soviet Union in American propaganda was a delicate issue throughout the war, as the Soviet Union
could not possibly be presented as a liberal democracy.[282]
However, the Nazi attack on the Soviet Union inspired propaganda in its favor, and Hollywood produced
pro-Russian movies.[62] At Roosevelt's urging, the film Mission to Moscow was made and depicted the purge trials
as a just punishment of a Trotskyite conspiracy.[283] On the other hand, the 1939 Greta Garbo film Ninotchka was
not re-released as it ridiculed Russians.[55]
Frank Capra's Why We Fight series included The Battle of Russia.[67] The first part of the film depicted the Nazi
attack on the Soviet Union, recounted past failures to invade Russia, and described Russian scorched earth and
guerrilla tactics.[284] It also omitted all references to the pre-War Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact.[285] The second part of
the film depicts Germany being drawn too far into Russia; and mostly concentrates on the siege of Leningrad.[286]
Indeed, it unrealistically portrays the great withdrawal into Russian territory as a deliberate ploy of the Soviet
government.[287]
20
American propaganda during World War II
Pro-Chinese
Support for the Chinese people was urged in posters. Even prior to the
United States' entry into the war, many Chinese figures appeared on
the cover of Time. Japanese propaganda attributed this not to any
disgust Americans felt for Japanese atrocities in China, but simply to
more effective Chinese propaganda.[112]
Frank Capra's Why We Fight series included The Battle of China.[67] It
depicted the brutal attack on China by Japan as well as atrocities such
as the Rape of Nanking, which helped galvanize Chinese resistance to
Japanese occupation. The film also depicted the building of the Burma
Road, which helped keep China in the war as the Japanese had
occupied most Chinese ports[288] The film ridiculed the Japanese
anti-Western propaganda of "co-prosperity" and "co-existence" by
reciting these themes over scenes of Japanese atrocities, it was the
most stark, "Good vs Evil" film of the Why We Fight series.[289]
Pearl Buck, a famous author of books on China, warned Americans to
take seriously the appeal of the Japanese Greater East Asia
Co-Prosperity Sphere to the people of China and other Asian nations.
China! First to Fight!
This was due to those people being treated as inferior races, an attitude
many in the West had toward orientals.[290] Elmer Davis of the Office of War Information also declared that since
the Japanese were proclaiming the Pacific conflict as a racial war, the United States could only counter this
propaganda by deeds that showed Americans believed in the equality of races.[291] However, this was not officially
addressed, and American propaganda did not confront the problem of prejudice based on color.[292]
Occupied Europe
Frank Capra's films The Nazis Strike and Divide and Conquer, part of the Why We Fight series, depicted the
conquest of Europe.[67] The Nazis Strike covers the seizure of land starting with the Anschluss and concluding with
the invasion of Poland, as it depicts Hitler creating an enormous military force.[293] Divide and Conquer depicts
German conquests in Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands and France. Special attention is
given to atrocities, and the French population is depicted as enslaved after the conquest.[294] An American poster
depicted Frenchmen with raised hands warning them that German victory meant slavery, starvation and death.[295]
The tragedy of Lidice, shooting of the men and the sending of the women to concentration camps, was also depicted
in posters.[296] The Free French also had posters published, urging the American population to support them.[297]
The Belgian Information Center had posters declaring that the people of Belgium still resisted.[298]
American propaganda was circulated in occupied countries through the efforts of the underground movements.[299]
Stockpiled books were shipped to France within weeks of D-Day, in order to counteract Nazi propaganda,
particularly anti-American propaganda.[300] This was part of "consolidation propaganda", intended to pacify
occupied regions so as to limit the forces needed to occupy; to counter-act Nazi propaganda, particularly about the
United States; and to explain what the United States had done during the war.[301]
21
American propaganda during World War II
22
Pro-Filipino
Posters were used to portray and support the resistance forces
in the Philippines, which, while often listed as one of the
greatest organized resistances in history, also exacted a
terrible toll on the Filipino people.
References
[1] Anthony Rhodes, Propaganda: The art of persuasion: World War II,
p139 1976, Chelsea House Publishers, New York
[2] William L. O'Neill, A Democracy At War: America's Fight At Home and
Abroad in World War II, p 139 ISBN 0-02-923678-9
[3] Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender and
Propaganda during World War II, p 30, ISBN 0-87023-453-6
[4] Leila J. Rupp, Mobilizing Women for War, p 90, ISBN 05109-7
[5] William L. O'Neill, A Democracy At War: America's Fight At Home and
Abroad in World War II, p 140 ISBN 0-02-923678-9
[6] Clayton Laurie, The Propaganda Warriors (University of Kansas Press)
[7] Allan Winkler, The Politics of Propaganda: Office of War Information,
1942-1945. (Yale University Press)
[8] Barbara Savage, Broadcasting Freedom (Duke University Press)
[9] William L. O'Neill, A Democracy At War: America's Fight At Home and
Abroad in World War II, p 141 ISBN 0-02-923678-9
[10] Lee Kennett, For the Duration. . . : The United States Goes To War p
166 ISBN 0-684-18239-4
[11] Steven Casey, (2005), The Campaign to sell a harsh peace for Germany
to the American public, 1944 - 1948, [online]. London: LSE Research
Online. [Available online at http:/ / eprints. lse. ac. uk/ archive/ 00000736]
Originally published in History, 90 (297). pp. 62-92 (2005) Blackwell Publishing
Propaganda poster depicting the Philippine resistance
movement
[12] Terrence H. Witkowski "World War II Poster Campaigns: Preaching Frugality to American Consumers." Journal of Advertising, Vol 32 No
1 Page 72
[13] Robert Heide and John Gilman, Home Front America: Popular Culture of the World War II Era p 36 ISBN 0-8188-0927
[14] William L. Bird, JR. and Harry R. Rubenstein. Design for Victory: World War II Posters on the American Home Front. Princeton
Architectural Press. New York, 1998. Page 12
[15] Robert Heide and John Gilman, Home Front America: Popular Culture of the World War II Era p 37 ISBN 0-8188-0927
[16] " The Poster's Place in Wartime (http:/ / americanhistory. si. edu/ victory/ victory2. htm)"
[17] Christopher C. Thomas. A Thousand Words: Themes and Trends in Home Front Posters. http:/ / repository. tamu. edu/ bitstream/ handle/
1969. 1/ 5802/ etd-tamu-2007A-HIST-Thomas. pdf?sequence=1
[18] William L. Bird, JR. and Harry R. Rubenstein. Design for Victory: World War II Posters on the American Home Front. Princeton
Architectural Press. New York, 1998. Page 48
[19] William L. Bird, JR. and Harry R. Rubenstein. Design for Victory: World War II Posters on the American Home Front. Princeton
Architectural Press. New York, 1998. Page
[20] William L. O'Neill, A Democracy At War: America's Fight At Home and Abroad in World War II, p 253-4 ISBN 0-02-923678-9
[21] William L. O'Neill, A Democracy At War: America's Fight At Home and Abroad in World War II, p 254 ISBN 0-02-923678-9
[22] Robert Heide and John Gilman, Home Front America: Popular Culture of the World War II Era p 128 ISBN 0-8188-0927
[23] Robert Heide and John Gilman, Home Front America: Popular Culture of the World War II Era p 128-9 ISBN 0-8188-0927
[24] Robert Heide and John Gilman, Home Front America: Popular Culture of the World War II Era p 129 ISBN 0-8188-0927
[25] Robert Heide and John Gilman, Home Front America: Popular Culture of the World War II Era p 130 ISBN 0-8188-0927
[26] William L. O'Neill, A Democracy At War: America's Fight At Home and Abroad in World War II, p 255 ISBN 0-02-923678-9
[27] Richard H. Minear, Dr. Seuss Goes to War: The World War II Editorial Cartoons of Thedor Seuss Geisel p 16 ISBN 1-56584-704-0
[28] Robert Heide and John Gilman, Home Front America: Popular Culture of the World War II Era p 83 ISBN 0-8188-0927
[29] Lee Kennett, For the Duration. . . : The United States Goes To War p 6 ISBN 0-684-18239-4
[30] Robert Heide and John Gilman, Home Front America: Popular Culture of the World War II Era p 84 ISBN 0-8188-0927
[31] " The SS and Superman (http:/ / www. calvin. edu/ academic/ cas/ gpa/ superman. htm)"
[32] Bill Mauldin, edited by Todd DePastino, Willie & Joe: The War Years p 13 ISBN 978-1-56097-838-1
[33] Bill Maudlin, edited by Todd DePastino, Willie & Joe: The War Years p 15 ISBN 978-1-56097-838-1
American propaganda during World War II
[34] Anthony Rhodes, Propaganda: The art of persuasion: World War II, p150 1976, Chelsea House Publishers, New York
[35] Anthony Rhodes, Propaganda: The art of persuasion: World War II pp. 146. 1976 Chelsea House Publishers, New York
[36] Anthony Rhodes, Propaganda: The art of persuasion: World War II, pp. 146-7. 1976 Chelsea House Publishers, New York
[37] Anthony Rhodes, Propaganda: The art of persuasion: World War II, pp. 147. 1976 Chelsea House Publishers, New York
[38] Anthony Rhodes, Propaganda: The art of persuasion: World War II, pp. 262. 1976, Chelsea House Publishers, New York
[39] John Toland, The Rising Sun: The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire 1936-1945 p. 724. Random House New York 1970
[40] Max Hastings, Retribution: The Battle for Japan 1944-45 p. 313. ISBN 978-0-307-26351-3
[41] John Toland, The Rising Sun: The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire 1936-1945 p. 799. Random House New York 1970
[42] John Toland, The Rising Sun: The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire 1936-1945 p. 829. Random House New York 1970
[43] " The G.I. Roundtable Series (http:/ / www. historians. org/ projects/ GIRoundtable/ index. html)"
[44] Anthony Rhodes, Propaganda: The art of persuasion: World War II, pp. 147-8. 1976, Chelsea House Publishers, New York
[45] Anthony Rhodes, Propaganda: The art of persuasion: World War II, p148 1976, Chelsea House Publishers, New York
[46] Anthony Rhodes, Propaganda: The art of persuasion: World War II, pp. 148-9. 1976, Chelsea House Publishers, New York
[47] Anthony Rhodes, Propaganda: The art of persuasion: World War II, p. 150. 1976, Chelsea House Publishers, New York
[48] Dunning, John, On the Air: The Encyclopedia of Old-Time Radio. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 1998 ISBN 978-0-19-507678-3
hardcover; revised edition of Tune In Yesterday (1976)
[49] Orson Welles on the Air: The Radio Years. New York: The Museum of Broadcasting, catalogue for exhibition October 28–December 3,
1988, page 64
[50] Lee Kennett, For the Duration. . . : The United States Goes To War p 143 ISBN 0-684-18239-4
[51] Lee Kennett, For the Duration. . . : The United States Goes To War p 144 ISBN 0-684-18239-4
[52] Lee Kennett, For the Duration. . . : The United States Goes To War p 170-1 ISBN 0-684-18239-4
[53] Anthony Rhodes, Propaganda: The art of persuasion: World War II, p259 1976, Chelsea House Publishers, New York
[54] John B. Hench, Books As Weapons, p69-70 ISBN 978-0-8014-4891-1
[55] Lee Kennett, For the Duration. . . : The United States Goes To War p 164 ISBN 0-684-18239-4
[56] Lee Kennett, For the Duration. . . : The United States Goes To War p 167 ISBN 0-684-18239-4
[57] John B. Hench, Books As Weapons, p1 ISBN 978-0-8014-4891-1
[58] John B. Hench, Books As Weapons, p6 ISBN 978-0-8014-4891-1
[59] Anthony Rhodes, Propaganda: The art of persuasion: World War II, p151 1976, Chelsea House Publishers, New York
[60] "Speaking of Pictures ..." (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=IkAEAAAAMBAJ& lpg=PA2& pg=PA12#v=onepage& q& f=true). Life:
pp. 12–15. 1942-11-23. . Retrieved November 22, 2011.
[61] Robert Heide and John Gilman, Home Front America: Popular Culture of the World War II Era p 95 ISBN 0-8188-0927
[62] Anthony Rhodes, Propaganda: The art of persuasion: World War II, p152 1976, Chelsea House Publishers, New York
[63] John W. Dower, War Without Mercy: Race & Power in the Pacific War p15 ISBN 0-394-50030-X
[64] Richard Overy, Why the Allies Won, p295 ISBN 0-393-03925-0
[65] Anthony Rhodes, Propaganda: The art of persuasion: World War II, p152 1976, Chelsea House Publishers, New York
[66] Anthony Rhodes, Propaganda: The art of persuasion: World War II, p152, 158 1976, Chelsea House Publishers, New York
[67] Anthony Rhodes, Propaganda: The art of persuasion: World War II, p158 1976, Chelsea House Publishers, New York
[68] John W. Dower, War Without Mercy: Race & Power in the Pacific War p14 ISBN 0-394-50030-X
[69] Emily Yellin, Our Mothers' War, p 99 ISBN 0-7432-4514-8
[70] Emily Yellin, Our Mothers' War, p 99-100 ISBN 0-7432-4514-8
[71] John W. Dower, War Without Mercy: Race & Power in the Pacific War p50 ISBN 0-394-50030-X
[72] Buena Vista Home Entertainment in association with David A. Bossert and Kurtti Pellerin and Leonard Maltin, In an Interview with John
Hench, 2004, DVD
[73] Walt Disney Productions, Canadian Department of National Defence, National Film Board of Canada, Stop That Tank!, 1942, Film
[74] I. Freleng, U.S. Army Signal Corps, Animation by Warner Staff, Spies, 1944, Film
[75] Walt Disney Productions, Der Fueher's Face, 1942, Film
[76] Walt Disney Production, Education for Death: The Making of a Nazi, 1943, Film
[77] Emily Yellin, Our Mothers' War, p 23 ISBN 0-7432-4514-8
[78] Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender and Propaganda during World War II, p 41, ISBN 0-87023-453-6
[79] Emily Yellin, Our Mothers' War, p 24 ISBN 0-7432-4514-8
[80] Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender and Propaganda during World War II, p 43, ISBN 0-87023-453-6
[81] "Desperate Dorothy" (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=HlEEAAAAMBAJ& lpg=PA2& pg=PA132#v=onepage& q& f=true). Life:
p. 133. 1942-12-07. . Retrieved November 23, 2011.
[82] Lee Kennett, For the Duration. . . : The United States Goes To War p 142 ISBN 0-684-18239-4
[83] Lee Kennett, For the Duration. . . : The United States Goes To War p 144-5 ISBN 0-684-18239-4
[84] Lee Kennett, For the Duration. . . : The United States Goes To War p 149 ISBN 0-684-18239-4
[85] Richard Overy, Why the Allies Won, p 22-3 ISBN 0-393-03925-0
[86] Meirion and Susie Harries, Soldiers of the Sun: The Rise and Fall of the Imperial Japanese Army p 284 ISBN 0-394-56935-0
[87] Richard Overy, Why the Allies Won, p 295 ISBN 0-393-03925-0
23
American propaganda during World War II
[88] Robert Heide and John Gilman, Home Front America: Popular Culture of the World War II Era p 33 ISBN 0-8188-0927
[89] Richard H. Minear, Dr. Seuss Goes to War: The World War II Editorial Cartons of Thedor Seuss Geisel p 78 ISBN 1-56584-704-0
[90] Richard Overy, Why the Allies Won, p 261 ISBN 0-393-03925-0
[91] Lee Kennett, For the Duration. . . : The United States Goes To War p 164-5 ISBN 0-684-18239-4
[92] Lee Kennett, For the Duration. . . : The United States Goes To War p 165 ISBN 0-684-18239-4
[93] Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender and Propaganda during World War II, p 45, ISBN 0-87023-453-6
[94] Richard H. Minear, Dr. Seuss Goes to War: The World War II Editorial Cartons of Thedor Seuss Geisel p 25 ISBN 1-56584-704-0
[95] " Anti-Axis Images (http:/ / mysite. verizon. net/ vzetqw5o/ antiaxispropaganda/ id2. html)"
[96] Richard H. Minear, Dr. Seuss Goes to War: The World War II Editorial Cartons of Thedor Seuss Geisel p 73 ISBN 1-56584-704-0
[97] Michael Balfour, Propaganda in War 1939-1945: Organization, Policies and Publics in Britain and Germany, p163 ISBN 0-7100-0193-2
[98] Richard H. Minear, Dr. Seuss Goes to War: The World War II Editorial Cartons of Thedor Seuss Geisel p 75 ISBN 1-56584-704-0
[99] Richard H. Minear, Dr. Seuss Goes to War: The World War II Editorial Cartons of Thedor Seuss Geisel p 76 ISBN 1-56584-704-0
[100] Richard Overy, Why the Allies Won, p 23 ISBN 0-393-03925-0
[101] William L. O'Neill, A Democracy At War: America's Fight At Home and Abroad in World War II, p 166 ISBN 0-02-923678-9
[102] " Home Front: Propaganda (http:/ / www. nebraskastudies. org/ 0800/ frameset_reset. html?http:/ / www. nebraskastudies. org/ 0800/
stories/ 0801_0121. html)"
[103] John W. Dower, War Without Mercy: Race & Power in the Pacific War p34 ISBN 0-394-50030-X
[104] Gavriel D. Rosenfeld, The World Hitler Never Made, p97-99 ISBN 0-521-84706-0
[105] " The Book Mobilization (http:/ / www. ushmm. org/ museum/ exhibit/ online/ bookburning/ war. php)"
[106] Richard H. Minear, Dr. Seuss Goes to War: The World War II Editorial Cartons of Thedor Seuss Geisel p 115 ISBN 1-56584-704-0
[107] Sheppard, W. A:An Exotic Enemy: Anti-Japanese Musical Propaganda in World War II Hollywood,University of California Press , 2001,
Vol. 54, N. 2, p 305
[108] John W. Dower, War Without Mercy: Race & Power in the Pacific War p20 ISBN 0-394-50030-X
[109] John W. Dower, War Without Mercy: Race & Power in the Pacific War p30-1 ISBN 0-394-50030-X
[110] Richard H. Minear, Dr. Seuss Goes to War: The World War II Editorial Cartons of Thedor Seuss Geisel p 25 ISBN 1-56584-704-0
[111] Max Hastings, Retribution: The Battle for Japan 1944-45 p 8 ISBN 978-0-307-26351-3
[112] " JAPANESE PSYOP DURING WWII (http:/ / www. psywarrior. com/ JapanPSYOPWW2. html)"
[113] Meirion and Susie Harries, Soldiers of the Sun: The Rise and Fall of the Imperial Japanese Army p 161 ISBN 0-394-56935-0
[114] William L. O'Neill, A Democracy At War: America's Fight At Home and Abroad in World War II, p 57 ISBN 0-02-923678-9
[115] John Toland, The Rising Sun: The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire 1936-1945 p 57 Random House New York 1970
[116] Meirion and Susie Harries, Soldiers of the Sun: The Rise and Fall of the Imperial Japanese Army p 226 ISBN 0-394-56935-0
[117] Anthony Rhodes, Propaganda: The art of persuasion: World War II, p257 1976, Chelsea House Publishers, New York
[118] Edwin P. Hoyt, Japan's War, p 232 ISBN 0-07-030612-5
[119] Andrew Gordon, A Modern History of Japan: From Tokugawa to the Present, p210, ISBN 0-19-51106-9
[120] Marius Jansen, The Making of Modern Japan p 655 ISBN 0-674-00334-9
[121] John W. Dower, War Without Mercy: Race & Power in the Pacific War p43-4 ISBN 0-394-50030-X
[122] John W. Dower, War Without Mercy: Race & Power in the Pacific War p50-1 ISBN 0-394-50030-X
[123] Richard Overy, Why the Allies Won, p 210 ISBN 0-393-03925-0
[124] Meirion and Susie Harries, Soldiers of the Sun: The Rise and Fall of the Imperial Japanese Army p 417-8 ISBN 0-394-56935-0
[125] Edwin P. Hoyt, Japan's War, p 271 ISBN 0-07-030612-5
[126] John W. Dower, War Without Mercy: Race & Power in the Pacific War p52-3 ISBN 0-394-50030-X
[127] John W. Dower, War Without Mercy: Race & Power in the Pacific War p53 ISBN 0-394-50030-X
[128] Max Hastings, Retribution: The Battle for Japan 1944-45 p 34 ISBN 978-0-307-26351-3
[129] John W. Dower, War Without Mercy: Race & Power in the Pacific War p56 ISBN 0-394-50030-X
[130] Edwin P. Hoyt, Japan's War, p 391 ISBN 0-07-030612-5
[131] Robert Heide and John Gilman, Home Front America: Popular Culture of the World War II Era p 33-4 ISBN 0-8188-0927
[132] Richard H. Minear, Dr. Seuss Goes to War: The World War II Editorial Cartons of Thedor Seuss Geisel p 121 ISBN 1-56584-704-0
[133] Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender and Propaganda during World War II, p 44-5, ISBN 0-87023-453-6
[134] Sheppard, W. A: An Exotic Enemy: Anti-Japanese Musical Propaganda in World War II Hollywood,University of California Press, 2001,
Vol. 54, N. 2, p 306
[135] Sheppard, W. A:An Exotic Enemy: Anti-Japanese Musical Propaganda in World War II Hollywood,University of California Press, 2001,
Vol. 54, N. 2, p 306
[136] John W. Dower, War Without Mercy: Race & Power in the Pacific War p37 ISBN 0-394-50030-X
[137] Palmer, M. and Legg, S: The Mask of Nippon, Black and White film, NFB/ONF, 1942, National Film Board of Canada
[138] Anthony Rhodes, Propaganda: The art of persuasion: World War II, p263 1976, Chelsea House Publishers, New York
[139] Anthony Rhodes, Propaganda: The art of persuasion: World War II, p262-3 1976, Chelsea House Publishers, New York
[140] Anthony Rhodes, Propaganda: The art of persuasion: World War II, p172 1976, Chelsea House Publishers, New York
[141] " War Aims Through Art: The U.S. Office of War Information (http:/ / americanhistory. si. edu/ victory/ victory5. htm)"
24
American propaganda during World War II
[142] "American Propaganda in WWII" (http:/ / library. thinkquest. org/ C0111500/ ww2/ american/ amerprop. htm?tql-iframe).
Library.thinkquest.org. . Retrieved 2012-01-15.
[143] Anthony Rhodes, Propaganda: The art of persuasion: World War II, 1976, Chelsea House Publishers, New York
[144] Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender and Propaganda during World War II, p 193-4, ISBN 0-87023-453-6
[145] Richard H. Minear, Dr. Seuss Goes to War: The World War II Editorial Cartons of Thedor Seuss Geisel p 183 ISBN 1-56584-704-0
[146] Richard H. Minear, Dr. Seuss Goes to War: The World War II Editorial Cartons of Thedor Seuss Geisel p 184 ISBN 1-56584-704-0
[147] ""Have You Heard?": The Story of Wartime Rumors" (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=3E0EAAAAMBAJ& lpg=PA21&
pg=PA68#v=onepage& q& f=true). Life: pp. 68–73. 1942-07-13. . Retrieved November 17, 2011.
[148] William L. O'Neill, A Democracy At War: America's Fight At Home and Abroad in World War II, p 111 ISBN 0-02-923678-9
[149] William L. O'Neill, A Democracy At War: America's Fight At Home and Abroad in World War II, p 114 ISBN 0-02-923678-9
[150] John Toland, The Rising Sun: The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire 1936-1945 p 310 Random House New York 1970
[151] Edwin P. Hoyt, Japan's War, p 273-4 ISBN 0-07-030612-5
[152] John Toland, The Rising Sun: The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire 1936-1945 p 309-10 Random House New York 1970
[153] William L. O'Neill, A Democracy At War: America's Fight At Home and Abroad in World War II, p 119 ISBN 0-02-923678-9
[154] John Toland, The Rising Sun: The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire 1936-1945 p 324 Random House New York 1970
[155] Masanori Ito, The End of the Imperial Japanese Navy p68 New York W.W. Norton & Company 1956
[156] William L. O'Neill, A Democracy At War: America's Fight At Home and Abroad in World War II, p 125 ISBN 0-02-923678-9
[157] James D. Hornfischer, Neptune's Inferno: The U.S. Navy at Guadalcanal p91 ISBN 978-0-553-80670-0
[158] Lee Kennett, For the Duration. . . : The United States Goes To War p 139 ISBN 0-684-18239-4
[159] Lee Kennett, For the Duration. . . : The United States Goes To War p 141 ISBN 0-684-18239-4
[160] Lee Kennett, For the Duration. . . : The United States Goes To War p 150 ISBN 0-684-18239-4
[161] Lee Kennett, For the Duration. . . : The United States Goes To War p 152-3 ISBN 0-684-18239-4
[162]
[163]
[164]
[165]
[166]
[167]
[168]
[169]
[170]
[171]
[172]
[173]
[174]
[175]
[176]
[177]
[178]
[179]
[180]
[181]
[182]
[183]
[184]
[185]
[186]
[187]
[188]
[189]
[190]
[191]
[192]
[193]
[194]
[195]
" Heroes and Film Heroes (http:/ / www. calvin. edu/ academic/ cas/ gpa/ goeb35. htm)"
William L. O'Neill, A Democracy At War: America's Fight At Home and Abroad in World War II, p 167 ISBN 0-02-923678-9
John Toland, The Rising Sun: The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire 1936-1945 p 467 Random House New York 1970
Bill Maudlin, edited by Todd DePastino, Willie & Joe: The War Years p 13-5 ISBN 978-1-56097-838-1
Richard Overy, Why the Allies Won, p293 ISBN 0-393-03925-0
Lee Kennett, For the Duration. . . : The United States Goes To War p 155 ISBN 0-684-18239-4
Lee Kennett, For the Duration. . . : The United States Goes To War p 181 ISBN 0-684-18239-4
" Buna Beach: Shock of the Real (http:/ / www. life. com/ gallery/ 51631/ wwii-the-pictures-we-remember#index/ 3)"
William L. O'Neill, A Democracy At War: America's Fight At Home and Abroad in World War II, p 258 ISBN 0-02-923678-9
Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender and Propaganda during World War II, p 120, ISBN 0-87023-453-6
Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender and Propaganda during World War II, p 94-5, ISBN 0-87023-453-6
Richard H. Minear, Dr. Seuss Goes to War: The World War II Editorial Cartons of Thedor Seuss Geisel p 186 ISBN 1-56584-704-0
Richard H. Minear, Dr. Seuss Goes to War: The World War II Editorial Cartons of Thedor Seuss Geisel p 187 ISBN 1-56584-704-0
Richard H. Minear, Dr. Seuss Goes to War: The World War II Editorial Cartons of Thedor Seuss Geisel p 189 ISBN 1-56584-704-0
Richard H. Minear, Dr. Seuss Goes to War: The World War II Editorial Cartons of Thedor Seuss Geisel p 191 ISBN 1-56584-704-0
Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender and Propaganda during World War II, p 52-3, ISBN 0-87023-453-6
Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender and Propaganda during World War II, p 87, ISBN 0-87023-453-6
Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender and Propaganda during World War II, p 149-50, ISBN 0-87023-453-6
Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender and Propaganda during World War II, p 126, ISBN 0-87023-453-6
Lee Kennett, For the Duration. . . : The United States Goes To War p139-140 ISBN 0-684-18239-4
Lee Kennett, For the Duration. . . : The United States Goes To War p 140 ISBN 0-684-18239-4
Lee Kennett, For the Duration. . . : The United States Goes To War p 164 ISBN 0-684-18239-4
Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender and Propaganda during World War II, p 42, ISBN 0-87023-453-6
Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender and Propaganda during World War II, p 85-6, ISBN 0-87023-453-6
Robert Heide and John Gilman, Home Front America: Popular Culture of the World War II Era p 44 ISBN 0-8188-0927
Lee Kennett, For the Duration. . . : The United States Goes To War p 35 ISBN 0-684-18239-4
Lee Kennett, For the Duration. . . : The United States Goes To War p 47 ISBN 0-684-18239-4
Emily Yellin, Our Mothers' War, p 22 ISBN 0-7432-4514-8
Robert Heide and John Gilman, Home Front America: Popular Culture of the World War II Era p 54 ISBN 0-8188-0927
Robert Heide and John Gilman, Home Front America: Popular Culture of the World War II Era p 55 ISBN 0-8188-0927
Robert Heide and John Gilman, Home Front America: Popular Culture of the World War II Era p 57 ISBN 0-8188-0927
Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender and Propaganda during World War II, p 55, ISBN 0-87023-453-6
William L. O'Neill, A Democracy At War: America's Fight At Home and Abroad in World War II, p 91-2 ISBN 0-02-923678-9
Lee Kennett, For the Duration. . . : The United States Goes To War p 171 ISBN 0-684-18239-4
[196] " Salvaging Victory: Scrap Drives for the War Effort (http:/ / www. sos. state. or. us/ archives/ exhibits/ ww2/ services/ salvage. htm)"
[197] William L. O'Neill, A Democracy At War: America's Fight At Home and Abroad in World War II, p 135 ISBN 0-02-923678-9
[198] Robert Heide and John Gilman, Home Front America: Popular Culture of the World War II Era p 61 ISBN 0-8188-0927
25
American propaganda during World War II
[199] Richard H. Minear, Dr. Seuss Goes to War: The World War II Editorial Cartons of Thedor Seuss Geisel p 194 ISBN 1-56584-704-0
[200] Terrence H. Witkowski "World War II Poster Campaigns: Preaching Frugality to American Consumers" Journal of Advertising, Vol 32 No
1 Page 73
[201] Terrence H. Witkowski "World War II Poster Campaigns: Preaching Frugality to American Consumers." Journal of Advertising, Vol 32
No 1 Page 71
[202] Robert Heide and John Gilman, Home Front America: Popular Culture of the World War II Era p 58 ISBN 0-8188-0927
[203] Terrence H. Witkowski "World War II Poster Campaigns: Preaching Frugality to American Consumers." Journal of Advertising, Vol 32
No 1 Page 79
[204] Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender and Propaganda during World War II, p 93, ISBN 0-87023-453-6
[205] Lee Kennett, For the Duration. . . : The United States Goes To War p 100-1 ISBN 0-684-18239-4
[206] William L. O'Neill, A Democracy At War: America's Fight At Home and Abroad in World War II, p 214 ISBN 0-02-923678-9
[207] " PRODUCE FOR VICTORY (http:/ / americanhistory. si. edu/ victory/ )"
[208] Emily Yellin, Our Mothers' War, p 21 ISBN 0-7432-4514-8
[209] Robert Heide and John Gilman, Home Front America: Popular Culture of the World War II Era p 39 ISBN 0-8188-0927
[210] " Every Citizen a Soldier (http:/ / americanhistory. si. edu/ victory/ victory1. htm)"
[211] " Retooling for Victory: The Factory Front (http:/ / americanhistory. si. edu/ victory/ victory3. htm)"
[212] Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender and Propaganda during World War II, p 157, ISBN 0-87023-453-6
[213] Richard H. Minear, Dr. Seuss Goes to War: The World War II Editorial Cartons of Thedor Seuss Geisel p 24, 26 ISBN 1-56584-704-0
[214] Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender and Propaganda during World War II, p 156, ISBN 0-87023-453-6
[215] Richard Overy, Why the Allies Won p 198 ISBN 0-393-03925-0
[216] Emily Yellin, Our Mothers' War, p 35-6 ISBN 0-7432-4514-8
[217] James D. Hornfischer, Neptune's Inferno: The U.S. Navy at Guadalcanal p419 ISBN 978-0-553-80670-0
[218] Chrisptopher C. Thomas, A Thousand Words: Themes and Trends in Home Front Posters, pages 62-84
[219] "Efficient Workers" (http:/ / americanhistory. si. edu/ victory/ victory4. htm). Americanhistory.si.edu. 2008-10-24. . Retrieved 2012-01-15.
[220] Christopher C. Thomas. A Thousand Words: Themes and Trends in Home Front Posters pages 62-84
[221] Richard Overy, Why the Allies Won p 194 ISBN 0-393-03925-0
[222] Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender and Propaganda during World War II, p 84, ISBN 0-87023-453-6
[223] " Victory Gardens (http:/ / www. livinghistoryfarm. org/ farminginthe40s/ crops_02. html)"
[224] Robert Heide and John Gilman, Home Front America: Popular Culture of the World War II Era p 62 ISBN 0-8188-0927
[225] Terrence H. Witkowski "World War II Poster Campaigns: Preaching Frugality to American Consumers." Journal of Advertising, Vol 32
No 1 Page 73
[226] William L. O'Neill, A Democracy At War: America's Fight At Home and Abroad in World War II, p 137 ISBN 0-02-923678-9
[227] " U.S. War Bonds (http:/ / www. u-s-history. com/ pages/ h1682. html)"
[228] Robert Heide and John Gilman, Home Front America: Popular Culture of the World War II Era p 40 ISBN 0-8188-0927
[229] Lee Kennett, For the Duration. . . : The United States Goes To War p 186 ISBN 0-684-18239-4
[230] William L. O'Neill, A Democracy At War: America's Fight At Home and Abroad in World War II, p 141 ISBN 0-02-923678-9
[231] Robert Heide and John Gilman, Home Front America: Popular Culture of the World War II Era p 40-41 ISBN 0-8188-0927
[232] Robert Heide and John Gilman, Home Front America: Popular Culture of the World War II Era p 41 ISBN 0-8188-0927
[233] Emily Yellin, Our Mothers' War, p 79 ISBN 0-7432-4514-8
[234] Robert Heide and John Gilman, Home Front America: Popular Culture of the World War II Era p 82 ISBN 0-8188-0927
[235] Richard H. Minear, Dr. Seuss Goes to War: The World War II Editorial Cartons of Thedor Seuss Geisel p 192-3 ISBN 1-56584-704-0
[236] Leila J. Rupp, Mobilizing Women for War, p 125, ISBN 05109-7
[237] Leila J. Rupp, Mobilizing Women for War, p 142, ISBN 05109-7
[238] Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender and Propaganda during World War II, p 24, ISBN 0-87023-453-6
[239] Emily Yellin, Our Mothers' War, p 45 ISBN 0-7432-4514-8
[240] Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender and Propaganda during World War II, p 80, ISBN 0-87023-453-6
[241] Leila J. Rupp, Mobilizing Women For War (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978), 147-149.
[242] Leila J. Rupp, Mobilizing Women For War (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978), 179.
[243] Sara Harrington. “Women’s Work: Domestic Labor in American World War II Posters.” Art Documentation. Vol 22 No 2. Rutgers
University 2003. Page 41
[244] Doris Weatherford, American Women and World War II p 117 ISBN 0-8160-2038-8
[245] Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender and Propaganda during World War II, p 39-49, ISBN 0-87023-453-6
[246] Leila J. Rupp, Mobilizing Women for War, p 143, ISBN 05109-7
[247] Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender and Propaganda during World War II, p 102, ISBN 0-87023-453-6
[248] Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender and Propaganda during World War II, p 106, ISBN 0-87023-453-6
[249] Leila J. Rupp, Mobilizing Women for War, p 144, ISBN 05109-7
[250] Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender and Propaganda during World War II, p 89, ISBN 0-87023-453-6
[251] Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender and Propaganda during World War II, p 89-90, ISBN 0-87023-453-6
[252] Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender and Propaganda during World War II, p 150, ISBN 0-87023-453-6
26
American propaganda during World War II
[253]
[254]
[255]
[256]
[257]
[258]
[259]
[260]
[261]
[262]
[263]
[264]
[265]
[266]
[267]
[268]
[269]
[270]
[271]
[272]
[273]
[274]
Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender and Propaganda during World War II, p 154-5, ISBN 0-87023-453-6
Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender and Propaganda during World War II, p 164, ISBN 0-87023-453-6
Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender and Propaganda during World War II, p 180, ISBN 0-87023-453-6
Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender and Propaganda during World War II, p 79, ISBN 0-87023-453-6
Leila J. Rupp, Mobilizing Women for War, p 146-7, ISBN 05109-7
Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender and Propaganda during World War II, p 78, ISBN 0-87023-453-6
Susan M. Hartmann, The Home Front And Beyond: American Woman in the 1940s, p 23 ISBN 0-8057-9901-X
Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender and Propaganda during World War II, p 176, ISBN 0-87023-453-6
Leila J. Rupp, Mobilizing Women for War, p 156-7, ISBN 05109-7
Doris Weatherford, American Women and World War II p 35 ISBN 0-8160-2038-8
Meghan K. Winchell, Good Girls, Good Food, Good Fun p 60 ISBN 978-0-8078-3237-0
Emily Yellin, Our Mothers' War, p 77-8 ISBN 0-7432-4514-8
Meghan K. Winchell, Good Girls, Good Food, Good Fun p 73 ISBN 978-0-8078-3237-0
Emily Yellin, Our Mothers' War, p 71 ISBN 0-7432-4514-8
Emily Yellin, Our Mothers' War, p 98 ISBN 0-7432-4514-8
John Costello, Virtue Under Fire p 125 ISBN 0-316-73968-5
William L. O'Neill, A Democracy At War: America's Fight At Home and Abroad in World War II, p 262 ISBN 0-02-923678-9
Robert Heide and John Gilman, Home Front America: Popular Culture of the World War II Era p 116 ISBN 0-8188-0927
Edwin P. Hoyt, Hitler's War p253 ISBN 0-07-030622-2
Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender and Propaganda during World War II, p 93-4, ISBN 0-87023-453-6
Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender and Propaganda during World War II, p 97-8, ISBN 0-87023-453-6
Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender and Propaganda during World War II, p 6-7, ISBN 0-87023-453-6
[275] " Fighting For An Ideal America (http:/ / americanhistory. si. edu/ victory/ victory6. htm)"
[276] " Wars and Battles, 1939-1945 (http:/ / www. u-s-history. com/ pages/ h1661. html)"
[277] Richard H. Minear, Dr. Seuss Goes to War: The World War II Editorial Cartons of Thedor Seuss Geisel p 15 ISBN 1-56584-704-0
[278] Richard Overy, Why the Allies Won, p109 ISBN 0-393-03925-0
[279] " Why We Fight: The Battle of Britain (http:/ / www. archive. org/ details/ BattleOfBritain)"
[280] Gordon, David. "America First: the Anti-War Movement, Charles Lindbergh and the Second World War, 1940–1941." (http:/ /
libraryautomation. com/ nymas/ americafirst. html) New York Military Affairs Symposium, September 26, 2003.
[281] American Foreign Relations since 1600: A Guide to the Literature, Second Edition By Kurt Hanson, Robert L. Beisner page 860
[282] Richard Overy, Why the Allies Won, p294 ISBN 0-393-03925-0
[283] Piers Brendon, The Dark Valley: A Panorama of the 1930s, p498 ISBN 0-375-40881-9
[284] " Why We Fight: The Battle of Russia Part I (http:/ / www. archive. org/ details/ BattleOfRussiaI)"
[285] William L. O'Neill, A Democracy At War: America's Fight At Home and Abroad in World War II, p 256 ISBN 0-02-923678-9
[286] " Why We Fight: The Battle of Russia Part II (http:/ / www. archive. org/ details/ BattleOfRussiaII)"
[287] William L. O'Neill, A Democracy At War: America's Fight At Home and Abroad in World War II, p 257 ISBN 0-02-923678-9
[288] " Why We Fight: The Battle of China (http:/ / www. archive. org/ details/ BattleOfChina)"
[289] John W. Dower, War Without Mercy: Race & Power in the Pacific War p18 ISBN 0-394-50030-X
[290] John Toland, The Rising Sun: The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire 1936-1945 p 450-1 Random House New York 1970
[291] John Toland, The Rising Sun: The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire 1936-1945 p 453 Random House New York 1970
[292] John Toland, The Rising Sun: The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire 1936-1945 p 452 Random House New York 1970
[293] " Why We Fight: The Nazi Strike (http:/ / www. archive. org/ details/ TheNazisStrike)"
[294] " Why We Fight: Divide and Conquer (http:/ / www. archive. org/ details/ DivideAndConquer)"
[295] Anthony Rhodes, Propaganda: The art of persuasion: World War II, p170 1976, Chelsea House Publishers, New York
[296] Anthony Rhodes, Propaganda: The art of persuasion: World War II, p171 1976, Chelsea House Publishers, New York
[297] Anthony Rhodes, Propaganda: The art of persuasion: World War II, p204 1976, Chelsea House Publishers, New York
[298] Anthony Rhodes, Propaganda: The art of persuasion: World War II, p205 1976, Chelsea House Publishers, New York
[299] John B. Hench, Books As Weapons, p29 ISBN 978-0-8014-4891-1
[300] John B. Hench, Books As Weapons, p6-7 ISBN 978-0-8014-4891-1
[301] John B. Hench, Books As Weapons, p69 ISBN 978-0-8014-4891-1
27
American propaganda during World War II
External links
• Anti-Axis Propaganda (http://mysite.verizon.net/vzetqw5o/antiaxispropaganda/)
• Faked German South America map (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/europe/
de-aspirations-maps-3.htm)
• WWII: Intense Propaganda Posters (http://www.life.com/image/first/in-gallery/27932/
wwii-intense-propaganda-posters) - slideshow by Life magazine
• The Kitschified Mass Soul: American War Advertisements (http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/dr01.
htm) Goebbels's analysis of American propaganda, for the German population
• The Historical Society of Pennsylvania War Poster Collection (http://www.hsp.org/files/
findingaidv95warposters.pdf), including over 500 original World War I and World War II posters, are available
for research use at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
28
Article Sources and Contributors
Article Sources and Contributors
American propaganda during World War II Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=518023819 Contributors: ACRCali, Acather96, Americanhistorygal, Arjayay, Bagonad,
Barek, Binksternet, Caleson, Chris the speller, CosineKitty, Daf, Damirgraffiti, Dekimasu, Dream Focus, Drums1042, Flrn, Flying tiger, Fortdj33, Geoffreyfishing, Glacialfox, GoingBatty,
Goldfritha, Good Olfactory, Gracenotes, Grandy Grandy, Ground Zero, Guest9999, Gyrcompass, Herostratus, Hmains, Hongooi, Invmog, Jeancey, John, Jordanpres1, Jsd7190, Killerman2,
Kintetsubuffalo, Kiwinanday, Leftdefense, Leprechaun9892, Levineps, Liamwillco, Lotje, Ludificatio Calendarum Aprilium, Lunarbunny, Makipedia, Mandarax, Mm6119, Nard the Bard,
Nepenthes, Nick-D, Omnipaedista, Personne1212, Peter Karlsen, Pol430, Propaganda4evr, Quantumobserver, Qwyrxian, Rama, Redthoreau, RekishiEJ, Rich257, Rjwilmsi, Rmhermen, Rmky87,
Skullers, SkyLlama, Snowy20106, Staxringold, Stephenchou0722, Stor stark7, Sweetteam, Tenmei, The Thing That Should Not Be, Trfasulo, Utcursch, Verne Equinox, VolatileChemical,
WFinch, Wakuran, Weasel extraordinaire, WereSpielChequers, Wikipelli, Woohookitty, Ylee, 136 anonymous edits
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
File:In the face of obstacles - Courage poster.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:In_the_face_of_obstacles_-_Courage_poster.jpg License: Public Domain
Contributors: Jes Wilhelm Schlaikjer / U.S. War Department
File:Be sure you have correct time^ - NARA - 515050.tif Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Be_sure_you_have_correct_time^_-_NARA_-_515050.tif License: Public
Domain Contributors: Janericloebe, 1 anonymous edits
File:Ww1646-25.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ww1646-25.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: U.S. War Department
File:Oer the ramparts we watch.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Oer_the_ramparts_we_watch.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Jes Wilhelm Schlaikjer
(1897-1982)
File:FourFavorites1101.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:FourFavorites1101.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0,2.5,2.0,1.0 Contributors:
AnonMoos, Atomicsteve, G.dallorto, Hyju, Infrogmation, Leonard G., 2 anonymous edits
File:Whywefight30vs200.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Whywefight30vs200.png License: unknown Contributors: Frank Capra
File:Walt Disney Studios Park.jpeg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Walt_Disney_Studios_Park.jpeg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was
Bramheylen at nl.wikipedia
File:ScrapHappyDaffy.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ScrapHappyDaffy.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:SreeBot
File:PropagandaNaziJapaneseMonster.gif Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PropagandaNaziJapaneseMonster.gif License: Public Domain Contributors: Cirt,
Fastfission, Goldfritha, Infrogmation, Janericloebe, Kintetsubuffalo, Liftarn, Mattes, Matthead, Panchurret, Pitke, Ras67, Teofilo, Themightyquill, Tony Wills, Wolfmann, 3 anonymous edits
File:U. S. Government Printing Office - Boston Public Library - Ten years ago (by).jpg Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:U._S._Government_Printing_Office_-_Boston_Public_Library_-_Ten_years_ago_(by).jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0
Contributors: BPL
File:Remember december 7th.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Remember_december_7th.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: United States Office of War
Information.
File:Anti-Japan2.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Anti-Japan2.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Office for Emergency Management. Office of War
Information. Domestic Operations Branch. Bureau of Special Services.
File:A careless word...A needless loss poster.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:A_careless_word...A_needless_loss_poster.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors:
Anton Otto Fischer / Office of War Information
File:With the Marines at Tarawa title screen.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:With_the_Marines_at_Tarawa_title_screen.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors:
US Marine Corps
File:ServiceOnTheHomeFrontPA.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ServiceOnTheHomeFrontPA.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Louis Hirshman and
William Tasker
File:Save Waste Fats for Explosives.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Save_Waste_Fats_for_Explosives.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Henry Koerner,
1943, for the US Office of War Information
File:Back'em Up.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Back'em_Up.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: en:United States Army Military History Institute
File:1944 JonWhitcomb USNavy (3214638694).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:1944_JonWhitcomb_USNavy_(3214638694).jpg License: Creative Commons
Attribution 2.0 Contributors: John Whitcomb
File:Victory-garden.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Victory-garden.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Artist: Morley Size: 27"x19" Publication:
[Washington, D.C.] Agriculture Department. War Food Administration. Printer: U.S. Government Printing Office
File:BuyWarBonds.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:BuyWarBonds.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Great Scott at en.wikipedia
File:We Can Do It!.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:We_Can_Do_It!.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: J. Howard Miller, artist employed by Westinghouse,
poster used by the War Production Co-ordinating Committee
File:Bring him home sooner... Join the WAVES, U.S. Navy poster, 1944.jpg Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bring_him_home_sooner..._Join_the_WAVES,_U.S._Navy_poster,_1944.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: John Philip Falter, US Naval
Reserve (USNR)
File:Lejaren Hiller21.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Lejaren_Hiller21.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Lejaren à Hiller (1880-1969)
File:Englishham.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Englishham.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Benlisquare, Dbenbenn, Manxruler, Rama, Themightyquill,
1 anonymous edits
File:United China Relief 1.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:United_China_Relief_1.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Martha Sawyers
File:Propaganda poster depicts the Philippine resistance movement.jpg Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Propaganda_poster_depicts_the_Philippine_resistance_movement.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:W.wolny
License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
//creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/
29