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Lesson 3:
The Golden
describes the time when
a people or civilization is
at it’s best.
in the
500s B.C., a
common enemy
brought the Greek
people together for
a time--
 The
Greek city-states began to work together in
matters of war. To protect themselves, they
formed a
or group of allies. Sparta
led southern city-states in the Peloponnesian
 This
alliance made them stronger. They
defeated the Perians twice, outnumbered both
Fast Fact
 What
kind of ship did
the Greek sailors use
in the Persian War?
After the Persian wars, Athens made new
allies with city-states from Attica, Asia Minor,
and some of the Aegean Islands and
formed the Delian
was elected as a leader in the
Athenian government in 460 B.C. He
pay for
citizens of any class the right
to hold nearly any gov’t office.
Pericles was a
, or supporter, of learning
and the arts.
Sophocles wrote plays with an unhappy
ending called:
Aristophanes wrote plays designed to make
audiences laugh:
A historian who wrote of the Persian Wars was
A great scientist from the Golden Age was
What is he known for today?
Rules of behavior for he wrote for
doctors: The Hippocratic Oath.
 Wanting
Athens to be more powerful,
Pericles sent soldiers to conquer
________________ lands.
 Athens
also forced its Delian League allies
to pay ___________ as the price for peace
and protection.
In 431 B.C., Sparta and its allies in the
Peloponnesian League went to war
against Athens and its allies in the
In 430 B.C. the
a deadly
disease, broke out and spread quickly
through the city, killing many people
and Pericles himself.
Without the wise leadership of Pericles, the
members of the Athenian assembly began
to follow
, leaders who
stir up the feelings and fears of people to
gain personal power.
Greek philosophers
were considered
called himself the city’s
“gadfly,” after an insect that bites horses
and makes them jump. He taught by
asking questions, not telling facts. He
was found guilty of teaching dangerous
ideas to the city’s young people and
was ordered to end his own life by
drinking poison. He felt it was important
for all citizens to obey the law, so he
drank the poison.
One of Socrates’ students was
He thought a ruler should be a person of
good character. He started a special
school, or
, in which future
rulers could learn the lesson that they
would need to govern well.
entered Plato’s academy
at the age of 18. He studied there for 20
years searching for knowledge and truth.