HELLO MY DNA DEVISED, SOCIALLY CONSTRUCTED, STUDENTS! Today: 1. Announcements 2. Intro: Nature vs. Nurture 3. Notes: DNA, Twin and Adoption Studies 4. Nature and Success: The Marshmallow Test HW: Reading Ch. 4 pgs 129- 144 Vocab Quiz Friday – Tomorrow – Socratic Discussion of Eyescube Activity Nature Vs Nurture Nature: Who you are based on your genetics, biology: essential characteristics Nurture: Who you are based on what has happened to you/what you have done. Behavioral Geneticists: the ones that study the interplay between our heredity (DNA) and our environments. Genetics Chromosomes: threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain genes. Genes: the biochemical units of heredity that make up your chromosomes. Genome: the complete instructions for the making of all organisms – consists of all genetic material in a organisms chromosomes. Heritability: the proportion of observed differences on a trait among individuals of population that is due to genetic differences. Studies on Twins Identical Twins: twins who developed from a single monozygotic fertilized egg. They will be genetically IDENTICAL in every way, and share the same fetal environment. What could we learn about nature/nurture from identical twins? What about identical twins adopted separately at birth? Fraternal Twins: twins who developed from separate eggs – they are no closer than any other brother or sister, but the share a fetal environment. What can we learn about nature/nurture from fraternal twins? Temperament: Is who we are who we are going to be? Temperament: A person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity Marshmallow Experiment What is ‘Delayed Gratification’? What does the article define as ‘hot’ and ‘cold’ stimuli? What were some of the future benefits of being a good practitioner of delayed gratification as a child? Challenge Q: The original scientists argue the Marshmallow Experiment demonstrates that delayed gratification (patience as part of your temperament is not only biological, it’s a very important determinant of success) HOWEVER, what else might the marshmallow experiment be testing? Rochester Redux What is being tested here? Implications for Education? Implications for Society? EXIT TICKET: What do you think – more nature or nurture? Are YOU a good practitioner of delayed gratification? Happy Integrity Day Mis Amigos! Today: 1. Warm-up: Integrity 2. Discussion: Eyescube Activity 3. Write-up: Addiction Simulation. HW: Read Ch. 4 Vocab Quiz Friday Why people cheat, lie and steal. Why do people lie, cheat or steal according to the professor? What impacts why people DON’T cheat, lie or steal? What – with this understanding of why – is the purpose of our ‘Day of Integrity’? Addiction Simulation Discussion • `Describe your experience with the addiction simulation – – – – What challenges did you face? What realizations did you have? Did you get “caught”? Was it a struggle to lie to your peers and adults in your life? • What would you do if you knew that a loved one was a casual drug user? • What would you do if you knew that a loved one had a drug problem? • What should parents do to help their kids who may be struggling with drug and/or alcohol use? • What should parents do if their child is struggling with drugs and/or alcohol yet their child is now over the age of 18? • Should parents let their kids go to parties in high school to allow them to get exposed to drugs and/or alcohol in a more controlled environment before they go to college? Why or why not? • Should parents allow their kids to drink at home in a supervised manner before they go to college? Why or why not? WRITE UP Please write 1-2 pages describing you thoughts, feelings, and reactions to the exercise. – Discuss your experiences from a social, cognitive, and emotional perspective. – Discuss your use of the string bracelet and if you were successful in wearing it for the entire 48 hours. How did this impact your experience? ALTERNATIVE WRITE UP: Write 1-2 pages explaining how addiction has impacted your life- perhaps it is on a very personal level, someone close to you, perhaps its more on a public level, an artist you admire – explain their situation, its consequences for them and its impact on you. Happy Block Day! Today: 1. Genetics and Heritability 2. Gender 3. Environmental Influences HW: Who were you as a child – ask your parents – what were you like? Vocab quiz Friday Genetic Influence on Traits • Where did Keaton get her features? Mom or dad? What about Cooper? Sibling Similarities and differences: ~6 Months Kaiser Checkup Appointment Heritability: the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. Epigenetics: studies how environmental factors impact the expression of certain genetic traits. Heritability Review • What is heritability? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m0T2miip8jo • What do the following pictures have to do with genetic and environmental interaction? • Should “Designer Babies” be allowed? • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Q67bMYOm7E Gender Differences Evolutionary Psychology – the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind using the principles of natural selection Natural Selection – good traits are selected for over years of birth and death in a species. Adaptation – traits that are selected through natural selection represent something that is a good ‘adaptation’ for the survival of a certain species. Genetic Mutation – how genes change and create new traits that are selected for. Natural Selection and Mating Preferences – traits are selected for via survival and reproduction – so mating preferences should be closely linked to the survival of those offspring. KEY CRITICISM: Evolutionary Psychology receives a lot of criticism for taking a trait and working backwards to provide an explanation. They also may pigeonhole people into certain behaviors when there is always variation, AND just because a behavior has evolved a certain way doesn’t make it good. What can we learn from David’s case? • Do you think we should assign a sex to intersex children? Or let them wait and choose if they want sexual assignment surgery later? How do you see this differently or similarly to ‘designer babies’? • Why do you think surgeons believe that children benefit from gender assignment surgery? • What does David’s case imply for trans* people? Experience and Brain Development Early postnatal experiences affect brain development. Rosenzweig et al. (1984) showed that rats raised in enriched environments developed thicker cortices than those in impoverished environment. Experience and Faculties Early experiences during development in humans shows remarkable improvements in music, languages and the arts. Courtesy of C. Brune Brain Development and Adulthood Brain development does not stop when we reach adulthood. Throughout our life, brain tissue continues to grow and change. A well-learned finger-tapping task leads to more motor cortical neurons (right) than baseline. Parental Influence Parental influence is largely genetic. This support is essential in nurturing children. However, other socializing factors also play an important role. Miquel L. Fairbanks Although raised in the same family, some children are greater risk takers. Peer Influence Children, like adults, attempt to fit into a group by conforming. Peers are influential in such areas as learning to cooperate with others, gaining popularity, and developing interactions. Ole Graf/ zefa/ Corbis Cultural Influences Humans have the ability to evolve culture. Culture is composed of behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values and traditions shared by a group. Kevin R. Morris/Corbis Variation Across Culture Cultures differ. Each culture develops norms – rules for accepted and expected behavior. Men holding hands in Saudi Arabia is the norm (closer personal space), but not in American culture. Jason Reed/ Reuters/Corbis Hypothetical Situation: What would you do in this situation? • A family has recently moved into an apartment (*see diagram). The family consists of: • • • • Mother Father Daughters: 2 & 15 Years Sons: 6 & 9 Years • What would you do? Bathroom Kitchen Bedroom Living/Dining Room Bedroom TGIF!!! Today: 1. Vocab Quiz 2. Nature vs. Nurture: Is beauty in the eye of the beholder? 3. IF TIME: Mating Preferences and Attraction Objective: How do the forces of nature and nurture impact our perceptions regarding what is beautiful. Vocab Quiz Please pick 5 of 8 terms below and define them as they relate to psychology – 1. Temperament 2. Latent content 3. Manifest content 4. Tolerance 5. Addiction 6. Withdrawal 7. LSD 8. Change blindness Nature vs Nurture: Beauty Nature – the biologically determined aspect of your physical self, abilities, identity, beliefs etc. Nurture – the socially or environmentally impacted aspects of your physical self, abilities, identity, beliefs etc. What do you find beautiful? Where do you think you beliefs/appreciation for such things comes from? Nature Vs. Nurture : Our behaviors Our appearance Our interests – Our Understandings of Beauty What is the speakers central argument? Why are certain landscapes beautiful? Works of art? Works of human athleticism? Why don’t we all agree on what we find beautiful? Why would understanding of a type of art, athletics or music make it more beautiful? Criticisms of his talk? Questions you would ask him?