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1. Announcements
2. Intro: Nature vs. Nurture
3. Notes: DNA, Twin and
Adoption Studies
4. Nature and Success: The
Marshmallow Test
HW: Reading Ch. 4 pgs 129- 144
Vocab Quiz Friday – Tomorrow –
Socratic Discussion of Eyescube
Nature Vs Nurture
Nature: Who you are based on your genetics, biology:
essential characteristics
Nurture: Who you are based on what has happened to
you/what you have done.
Behavioral Geneticists: the ones that study the interplay
between our heredity (DNA) and our environments.
Chromosomes: threadlike structures
made of DNA molecules that contain
Genes: the biochemical units of heredity
that make up your chromosomes.
Genome: the complete instructions for
the making of all organisms – consists of
all genetic material in a organisms
Heritability: the proportion of observed
differences on a trait among individuals
of population that is due to genetic
Studies on Twins
Identical Twins: twins who developed from a single monozygotic fertilized egg.
They will be genetically IDENTICAL in every way, and share the same fetal
What could we learn about nature/nurture from identical twins? What about
identical twins adopted separately at birth?
Fraternal Twins: twins who developed from separate eggs – they are no closer
than any other brother or sister, but the share a fetal environment.
What can we learn about nature/nurture from fraternal twins?
Is who we are who we are going to be?
Temperament: A person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
Marshmallow Experiment
What is ‘Delayed Gratification’?
What does the article define as ‘hot’ and ‘cold’ stimuli?
What were some of the future benefits of being a good practitioner of delayed
gratification as a child?
Challenge Q: The original scientists argue the Marshmallow Experiment
demonstrates that delayed gratification (patience as part of your temperament
is not only biological, it’s a very important determinant of success)
HOWEVER, what else might the marshmallow experiment be testing?
Rochester Redux
What is being tested here?
Implications for Education?
Implications for Society?
What do you think – more nature or nurture? Are
YOU a good practitioner of delayed gratification?
Happy Integrity Day Mis Amigos!
1. Warm-up: Integrity
2. Discussion: Eyescube
3. Write-up: Addiction
HW: Read Ch. 4
Vocab Quiz Friday
Why people cheat, lie and steal.
Why do people lie, cheat or steal according to
the professor?
What impacts why people DON’T cheat, lie or
What – with this understanding of why – is the
purpose of our ‘Day of Integrity’?
Addiction Simulation Discussion
• `Describe your experience with the addiction simulation
What challenges did you face?
What realizations did you have?
Did you get “caught”?
Was it a struggle to lie to your peers and adults in your life?
• What would you do if you knew that a loved one was a casual drug user?
• What would you do if you knew that a loved one had a drug problem?
• What should parents do to help their kids who may be struggling with
drug and/or alcohol use?
• What should parents do if their child is struggling with drugs and/or
alcohol yet their child is now over the age of 18?
• Should parents let their kids go to parties in high school to allow them to
get exposed to drugs and/or alcohol in a more controlled environment
before they go to college? Why or why not?
• Should parents allow their kids to drink at home in a supervised manner
before they go to college? Why or why not?
Please write 1-2 pages describing you thoughts,
feelings, and reactions to the exercise.
– Discuss your experiences from a social, cognitive, and
emotional perspective.
– Discuss your use of the string bracelet and if you were
successful in wearing it for the entire 48 hours. How
did this impact your experience?
ALTERNATIVE WRITE UP: Write 1-2 pages explaining
how addiction has impacted your life- perhaps it is
on a very personal level, someone close to you,
perhaps its more on a public level, an artist you
admire – explain their situation, its consequences
for them and its impact on you.
Happy Block Day!
1. Genetics and
2. Gender
3. Environmental
HW: Who were you as a
child – ask your parents –
what were you like?
Vocab quiz Friday
Genetic Influence on Traits
• Where did Keaton get her features? Mom or dad?
What about Cooper?
Sibling Similarities and differences: ~6 Months
Kaiser Checkup Appointment
Heritability: the proportion of
variation among individuals that we
can attribute to genes.
Epigenetics: studies how
environmental factors impact the
expression of certain genetic traits.
Heritability Review
• What is heritability?
• What do the following pictures have to do with genetic
and environmental interaction?
• Should “Designer Babies” be allowed?
Gender Differences
Evolutionary Psychology – the study of the evolution of behavior
and the mind using the principles of natural selection
Natural Selection – good traits are selected for over years of birth
and death in a species.
Adaptation – traits that are selected through natural selection
represent something that is a good ‘adaptation’ for the survival of
a certain species.
Genetic Mutation – how genes change and create new traits that
are selected for.
Natural Selection and Mating Preferences – traits are selected for
via survival and reproduction – so mating preferences should be
closely linked to the survival of those offspring.
KEY CRITICISM: Evolutionary Psychology receives a lot of criticism
for taking a trait and working backwards to provide an explanation.
They also may pigeonhole people into certain behaviors when
there is always variation, AND just because a behavior has evolved
a certain way doesn’t make it good.
What can we learn from David’s case?
• Do you think we should assign a sex to intersex
children? Or let them wait and choose if they want
sexual assignment surgery later? How do you see this
differently or similarly to ‘designer babies’?
• Why do you think surgeons believe that children
benefit from gender assignment surgery?
• What does David’s case imply for trans* people?
Experience and Brain Development
Early postnatal experiences affect brain
development. Rosenzweig et al. (1984) showed
that rats raised in enriched environments
developed thicker cortices than those in
impoverished environment.
Experience and Faculties
Early experiences during development in
humans shows remarkable improvements in
music, languages and the arts.
Courtesy of C. Brune
Brain Development and Adulthood
Brain development does not stop when we
reach adulthood. Throughout our life, brain
tissue continues to grow and change.
A well-learned finger-tapping task leads to
more motor cortical neurons (right) than baseline.
Parental Influence
Parental influence is largely genetic. This support
is essential in nurturing children. However, other
socializing factors also play an important role.
Miquel L. Fairbanks
Although raised in the same family,
some children are greater risk takers.
Peer Influence
Children, like adults, attempt to fit into a group
by conforming. Peers are influential in such
areas as learning to cooperate with others,
gaining popularity, and developing interactions.
Ole Graf/ zefa/ Corbis
Cultural Influences
Humans have the ability to evolve culture.
Culture is composed of behaviors, ideas,
attitudes, values and traditions shared by a group.
Kevin R. Morris/Corbis
Variation Across Culture
Cultures differ. Each culture develops norms –
rules for accepted and expected behavior. Men
holding hands in Saudi Arabia is the norm (closer
personal space), but not in American culture.
Jason Reed/ Reuters/Corbis
Hypothetical Situation: What would you
do in this situation?
• A family has recently moved
into an apartment (*see
diagram). The family
consists of:
Daughters: 2 & 15 Years
Sons: 6 & 9 Years
• What would you do?
1. Vocab Quiz
2. Nature vs. Nurture: Is
beauty in the eye of the
3. IF TIME: Mating
Preferences and
Objective: How do the
forces of nature and nurture
impact our perceptions
regarding what is beautiful.
Vocab Quiz
Please pick 5 of 8 terms below and define them as they
relate to psychology –
1. Temperament
2. Latent content
3. Manifest content
4. Tolerance
5. Addiction
6. Withdrawal
7. LSD
8. Change blindness
Nature vs Nurture: Beauty
Nature – the biologically determined aspect of your
physical self, abilities, identity, beliefs etc.
Nurture – the socially or environmentally impacted
aspects of your physical self, abilities, identity, beliefs
What do you find beautiful? Where do you think you
beliefs/appreciation for such things comes from?
Nature Vs. Nurture :
Our behaviors Our appearance Our interests – Our Understandings of Beauty
What is the speakers central argument?
Why are certain landscapes beautiful?
Works of art? Works of human athleticism?
Why don’t we all agree on what we find beautiful?
Why would understanding of a type of art, athletics or music
make it more beautiful?
Criticisms of his talk?
Questions you would ask him?