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Transcript
SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT
SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
B.A PHILOSOPHY
(2011 ADMISSION ONWARDS)
VI SEMESTER
CORE COURSE
MODERN WESTERN PHILOSOPHY
QUESTION BANK
Unit-1: Spirit of Modern Philosophy
1. Who among the following is NOT a rationalist thinker?
(a) John Locke
(b) Rene Descartes
(c) Benedict Spinoza
(d) W. Leibniz
2. Who among the following is an empiricist thinker?
(a) Rene Descartes
(b) Benedict Spinoza
(c) William Leibniz
(d) David Hume
3. Who among the following is a rationalist thinker?
(a) John Locke
(b) George Berkeley
(c) David Hume
(d) Rene Descartes
4. The view that knowledge is attained through reason not the senses is called:
(a) Idealism
(b) Positivism
(c) Rationalism
(d) Empiricism
5. The view that knowledge is attained through sense experience is called:
(a) Idealism
(b) Positivism
(c ) Rationalism
(d) Empiricism
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6. Which among the following is the characteristic of Modern Philosophy
(a) A revolt against authority and tradition
(b) Demand for freedom in thought, feeling, and action
(c) Scientific
(d) All of the above
7. Who authored ‘Essay on Human Understanding’
(a)Rene Descartes
(b) John Locke
(c) Immanuel Kant
(d) David Hume
8. Modern philosophy began in
(a) Renaissance
(b) The Enlightenment
(c) The idealistic period
(d) Natural Science Period
9. The father of modern western philosophy
(a) Aristotle
(b) Socrates
(c ) Descartes
(d) Spinoza
Unit-2: Rationalism
A. Descartes
10. Descartes advocated the philosophy of:
(a) Pluralism
(b) Empiricism
(c ) Dualism
(d) Idealism
11. Descartes method is
(a)Method of doubt
(b) Mathematical method
(d) Deductive
(d) All of these
12. Descartes is a
(a) skeptic
(b) empiricist
(c ) rationalist
(d) All of the above
13. The concept of innate ideas is put forward by:
(a) Spinoza
(b) Leibniz
(c ) Kant
(d) Descartes
14. …………. Is advocated theory of interactionism
(a) Descartes
(b) Pre-established harmony
(c ) Berkeley
(d) Kant
15. According to Descartes, the Absolute substance refers to:
(a) God
(b) Mind
(c ) Matter
(d) Mind and Matter
16. According to Descartes, the idea of God is :
(a) Adventitious
(b) fictitious
(c ) Demonstrative
(d) Innate
17. Which one of the following views is held by Descartes?
(a) Mind and body are the two substances which exist independently of each other
(b) Mind is the only substance and matter is only a fiction
(c) Mind is the only substance and matter is only a fiction
(d) Matter is the only substance and mind is one of its modes of existence
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18. Which one of the following statements adequately sums up Descartes’ philosophy?
(a) Mind and matter are two aspects of the same reality
(b) The world is made of two radically different kinds of substance, mind and matter.
(c) Matter alone is real and mind is only an illusion.
(d) Mind creates matter
19. Which one of the following types of substances is NOT admitted by Descartes?
(a) Infinite and uncreated
(b) Perpetually changing
(c ) Finite and spiritual
(d) Finite and material
20. In order to escape …………………, Descartes has introduced the idea of God
(a) Spiritualism
(b) Solipsism
(c ) Empiricism
(d) Dualism
21. The rationalist philosopher …………. wants to give philosophy a stable character like mathematics.
(a) Descartes
(b) Kant
(c ) Spinoza
(d) Leibnitz
22. .......... defines substance as “ an existent thing which requires nothing but itself in order to exist”.
(a) Spinoza
(b) Locke
(c ) Descartes
(d) Hume
23. Descartes claims God as the …………..substance, and mind and matter as ……… substance.
(a) absolute , created
(b) absolute, finite
(c ) Only, created
(d) created, absolute
24. Descartes suggests ……………… as absolute substance
(a) God
(b) Mind
(c ) Soul
(d) All of these
25. Which one of the following statements is NOT supported by Descartes?
(a) Mind and matter are independent substance
(b) Mind and matter are two separate substances alongside God.
(c) Mind and matter are inter-related to one another
(d) Mind and matter are both identical
26. The doctrine of Occassionalism advocated by
(a) Descartes
(b) Malebranche
(c ) Spinoza
(d ) Leibnitz
27. According to which theory mind and body are opposed to each other and consequently cannot
interact upon each other; but still there is a correspondence between the two; and this
correspondence is brought about by God?
(a) Descartes Interactionism
(b) Spinoza’s Parallelism
(d) Leibnitz’s Pre-established harmony (d) GeulincxOccasionalism
28. Which one of the following statements is entitled by Descartes’ cogito ergo sum?
(a) Only I exist
(b) Only God exists
(c ) I exist while I think
(d) Only matter exists
29. Descartes recognizes mind and matter as ……. substances which are created by God.
(a) Absolute
(b) Relative
(c ) Neutral
(d) Real
30. Descartes suggests mind and matter are ………..
(a) Opposed on each other
(b) Dependent on each other
(c) Independent of each other
(d) None of the above
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31. Descartes advocates …………..by admitting mind and matter as two substances
(a) Dualism
(b) Individualism
(c ) Rationalism
(d) None of these
32. To solve mind and body problem, Descartes has introduced ……….
(a) Mind Body Dualism
(b) Psycho-physical Interactionism
(c) Occassionalism
(d) Psycho-physical parallelism
33. Which among is NOT included Descartes three kinds of ideas
(a) Innate Ideas
(b) Complex Ideas
(c ) Factitious Ideas
(d) Adventitious Ideas
34. Descartes argues against trusting the senses on the grounds that ………
(a) They never directly deceive him
(b) They sometimes deceive him
(c) God allows sensory deception
(d) Sense perception is indubitable
35. Descartes declares that he is …………
(a) A body
(b) a dream
(c ) a thing that thinks
(d) a thing that cannot exist
36. Descartes reasons that the very fact that he is thinking shows that ……
(a) He does not exist
(b) He is not being deceived
(c) He exists
(d) He is dreaming
37. The view that we consist of two distinct substances (body and mind) and that these two interact
is known as ………
(a) Functionalism
(b) Identity theory
(c ) Substance dualism
(d) Materialism
38. Descartes believed that interaction between body and mind took place in ……
(a) Ectoplasm
(b) the brain stem
(c ) the pineal gland
(d) the nervous system
39. Descartes says that the chief characteristic of physical things is that …..
(a) They cannot be measured
(b) Science can study them
(c) They do not have extension
(d) They have extension
40. Which of the following do Cartesian dualists reject?
(a) That minds and bodies exist
(b) That mind and bodies can exist independently of each other
(c) That minds exist in time
(d) That mind exist in space
41. According to Descartes, knowledge is
(a) Power
(b) Unattainable
(c ) Certain
(d)Fleeting
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42. For Descartes, cogito ergo sum is
(a) A proof for the existence of God
(b) An indubitable truth
(c) An obvious falsehood
(d) A way to make money
43. Which claim did Descartes use to establish the certainty of his own existence?
(a) To be is to be perceived
(b) I think, therefore I am
(c) Nothing exists except bodies in motion
(d) Every created thing has both mental and physical properties.
44. What was clarity and distinctness a mark of, for Rene Descartes?
(a) God
(b) Goodness
(c ) Truth
(d) Rationality
45. Who authored the book Discourse on Method ?.
(a) Descartes
(b) Spinoza
(c ) Immanuel Kant
(d) Hegel
46. Which book authored Rene Descartes
(a) Critique of Pure Reason
(b) Ethics
(c ) Meditations on First Philosophy
(d)The Principles of Human Knowledge
47. Descartes uses the method of doubt to cast doubt on
(a) The existence of the external world
(b) The existence of God
(c) The existence of dream
(d) The existence of demons
B. Spinoza
48. Spinoza equates substance with ------- and -------(a) Qualities, God
(b) Nature, God
(c ) Nature, Soul
(d) None of the above
49. By admitting only God, Spinoza fails to explain plurality, diversity, motion and change of the …..
(a) Individual souls
(b) Objects of the world
(c ) Empirical world
(d ) None of the above
50. Which one of the following statements is associated with Spinoza?
(a) Mind and body are two independent entities in perfect harmony with each other.
(b) Mind and body interact and there is a causal relation between the two.
(c) Mind and body are not two independent substances but are two parallel manifestations of the
same reality.
(d) Mind is an epiphenomenon of the body
51. Which one of the following statements is true, according to Spinoza?
(a) Substance can exist outside of God
(b) Substance and God are independent realities
(c) There can be no substance outside of God
(d) Substance and God are imaginary.
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52. By ‘mode’ Spinoza means that which
(a) Is in itself and is conceived through itself
(b) Exists in itself
(c) Is a being that is absolutely infinite
(d) Exists through something other than itself
53. What is true of Spinoza’s parallelism?
(a) It explains the mental by the physical
(b) It explains the physical by the mental
(c) It is double aspect theory accepting both the mental and physical realms as manifestations of
the same substance.
(d) It accepts the mental and the physical as two stages of evolution.
54. Spinoza claims substance is …………. and ………………
(a) Many, finite
(b) One, infinite
(c ) Many, limited
(d) One, limited
55. By ………….. Spinoza understands that which is in itself and which is conceived by means of itself.
(a) Matter
( b) Body
(c ) Substance
(d) Attribute
56. ............ points out that if Descartes, definition of substance is to be strictly adhered to, there can
be only one substance, i.e., God.
(a) Spinoza
(b) Hume
(c ) Locke
(d) Berkeley
57. According to Spinoza, body and mind
(a) Are causally independent
(b) interact with each other
(c ) are parallel to each other
(d) are providentially synchronized by God
58. The view that one may consider God both as Naturanaturans and Natruanaturata is maintained
by:
(a) Thomas Aquinas
(b) Spinoza
(c ) Leibnitz
(d) Berkeley
59. The fundamental property of substance is known as:
(a) Modes
(b) Attribute
(c ) Thought
(d) Extension
60. …….. declares that there are no substances other than God.
(a) Spinoza
(b) Kant
(c ) Hume
(d) Locke
61. The attribute of mind is ……. and the attribute of matter is ….
(a) thought, size
(b) thought, extension
(b) infinity, extension
(d) infinite, finite
62. Who declares that there are no substances other than God
(a) Spinoza
(b) Kant
(c ) Hume
(d )Locke
63. Why is there no mind/body interaction problem for Spinoza?
(a) Only minds exist
(b) Only bodies exist
(c ) minds and bodies are simply aspects of the selfsame unit of infinite substance
(a) God guarantees that our mental states correlate with our bodily states.
64. Spinoza is an advocate of
(a) Dualism
(b) Pantheism
(c ) Materialism
(d) Empiricism
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65. What did Benedict Spinoza think a person is
(a) a mode of God/Nature
(b) an immaterial mind
(c ) a physical body
(d) an immaterial mind in a physical body.
66. ‘There can only one substance which is causasui (cause of itself) and this single substance must
be identified with the universe a whole. This unique all inclusive totality is therefore God or
Nature’ whose statement?
(a) Hegel
(b) Marx
(c ) Hume
(d) Spinoza
67. The position of psycho-physical parallelism is advocated by:
(a) Descartes
(b) Spinoza
(c ) Leibniz
(d) Locke.
C. Leibnitz
68. God according to Leibniz is:
(a) Central Monad
(b) Queen Monad
(c ) Soul Monad
(d) Monad of Monads
69. Monadology is the famous work of:
(a) Descartes
(b) Spinoza
(c ) Leibniz
(d ) Berkeley
70. A monad is explained as:
(a) Physical atom
(b) Unit of force
(c ) Matter
(d) Mind
71. Leibniz advocated the theory of:
(a ) Interactionism
(b) Pre-established harmony
(c ) Parallelism
(d) Monism
72. Doctrine of monads is advocated by:
(a) Spinoza
(b) Leibniz
(c ) Berkeley
(d) Hume
73. For Leibnitz, monad is windowless because
(a) It is absolutely free from external influence
(b) It is extended
(c) It is composite body
(d) It is something material
74. …………. Admits innumerable monads or spiritual atoms
(a) Leibnitz
(b) Hume
(c ) Berkeley
(d) Locke
75. .............. thinks that substance is to be defined by active force
(a) Spinoza
(b) Hume
(c ) Descartes
(d) Leibnitz
76. The monads are …… and everything is potential or implicit in it
(a) Very strong
(b) active
(c ) Windowless
(d) None of these
77. Which among is NOT correct regarding monads
(a) Windowless
(b) Spiritual
(c ) Perceive each other
(d) Active force
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78. Leibnitz defines substance or ‘monad’ as
(a) Active force
(b) physical object
(c ) mental object
(d) none of these
79. Every monad is a …… of the universe which generates the images of things by its own activity
(a) Clear aspect
(b) definite explanation
(c ) Living mirror
(d ) none of these
80. Leibnitz philosophy is
(a) Monistic
(b) Dualistic
(c ) Pluralistic
(d) Materialistic
81. Which among the following is NOT applicable to Leibnitz
(a) God is the creator of harmony
(b) Extension is real
(c )The monads are eternal and can be destroyed only by miracle on the part of God.
(d) No monad has any part and therefore is truly indivisible.
82. Leibnitz claims that there is only a …….. between soul and body, instituted by God
(a) Complete substance
(b) Complete correspondence
(c) Complete interactionism
(d) All of these
Unit-3 Empiricism
A. Locke
83. Mind is a ‘tabula rasa’ according to:
(a) Berkeley
(b) Locke
(c ) Descartes
(d) Spinoza
84. John Locke rejected the concept of:
(a) Substance
(b) Innate Ideas
(c ) Experience
(d) Primary Qualities
85. There must be an unknown and unknowable substratum which supports the existence of ………..
qualities
(a) Primary
(b) Secondary
(c ) Basic
(d) Both primary and secondary
86. The secondary properties of substance are known as ………….
(a) Modes
(b) Attribute
(c ) Relative property
(d) Substance
87. Which one of the following according to Locke is correct description of substance?
(a) Substance is spiritual in nature
(b) Substance has both real and nominal essences.
(c) Substance is a known locus of qualities.
(d) Substance is the cause of the world
88. Locke suggests that mind knows directly the ……. and not the objects themselves.
(a) Sensations
(b) Ideas of the object
(c ) Qualities
(d) none of the above
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89. Which one of the following according to Locke justifies the distinction between primary and
secondary qualities?
(a) God has created primary qualities
(b) Secondary qualities are given in experience
(c) Primary qualities and secondary qualities are logically different
(d) Primary qualities are objective while secondary qualities are subjective
90. John Locke has divided the qualities of things into ……… and ……..
(a) A priori, a posteriori
(b) Empirical, intuitive
(c) Primary, secondary
(d) All of these
91. As an empiricist, Locke claims that all our knowledge is derived either through sensation or …….
(a) Perception
(b) Reflection
(c ) Thinking
(d) None of these
92. Which one of the following is true of Locke’s view of substance?
(a) Substance is the sum of qualities
(b) Substance is the substratum of qualities
(c) Substance is the sum of ideas.
(d) Substance is the logical construction of sense data
93. Which one of the following arguments is advance by Locke for the rejection of innate ideas?
(a) If there were innate ideas, then all human beings would be identical
(b) If there were innate ideas then we should find them expressed in infants and untutored
savages.
(c) If there were innate ideas then there must be a God who generates them
(d) If there were innate ideas than human beings should be eternal.
94. Which one of the following is the correct definition of secondary qualities, according to Locke?
(a) Secondary qualities are nothing in the objects themselves but powers to produce sensations in
us by their primary qualities.
(b) Secondary qualities are those which are imposed on the external objects by human mind.
(c) Secondary qualities are those that vary according to variations in conditions of perception
(d) Secondary qualities are those whose ideas are not exact resemblances of qualities of objects.
95. Who suggests ideas are of two types, simple and complex.
(b) Descartes
(b) Spinoza
(c ) Locke
(d) Berkeley
96. Which among the following is NOT Locke’ view of ideas
(a) The mind is active in the reception of simple ideas
(b) The mind becomes active, when we get complex ideas
(c )Simple ideas are directly known as the contents of actual experience
(d) All ideas originate with and from experience
97. An example for secondary quality
(a) colour
(b) figure
(c ) extension
(d) solidity
98. An example for primary quality
(a) colour
(b) taste
(c ) Sound
(d)number
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99. A …………. is one which ‘being in itself uncompounded, contains in it nothing but one uniform
appearance or conception in the mind and is no distinguishable into different ideas’. In other
words it is an unanalyzable simple datum of knowledge.
(a) Simple Idea
(b) Complex Idea
(c )Mode
(d) Reflection
100. Empiricism is the epistemological theory that the only source of knowledge about the external
world is
(a) Reason
(b) intuition
(c ) logic
(d ) sense experience
B. Berkeley
101.
The philosophical position of Berkeley is known as:
(a) Subjective Idealism
(b) Innate Ideas
(c ) Realism
(d) Absolute Idealism
102. ‘To be is to be perceived’ according to:
(a) Berkeley
(b) Locke
(c ) Hume
(d) Hegel
103. Who claims that only mind and their ideas exist
(a) Spinoza
(b) Berkeley
(c ) Locke
(d) Kant
104. Berkeley asserts that existing and perceiving are
(a) One and the same thing
(b) Both nonexistent
(c) Two distinct things
(d) Imaginary
105. Berkeley insists that heat and cold are …..
(a) Illusions
(b) physical object
(c ) Only things existing apart from our minds (d) Only sensations existing in our minds
106. What did George Berkeley mean about such things as tables and chairs when he denied the
existence of matter?
(a) There are no unperceived tables and chairs.
(b) There are no tables and chairs
(c) Tables and chairs are really just swarms of particles in motion
(d) Everything, including tables and chairs, is an illusion.
107. What was Berkeley’s explanation for the fact that things like rocks and trees seem to continue
to exist even when humans don’t perceive them?
(a) They are material objects, so naturally they can exist unperceived.
(b) Appearances are deceiving. In fact such things do cease to be when we no longer perceive
them
(c) Being partly mental, they continue to exist because they can perceive themselves.
(d) God always perceives them.
108. Berkeley rejects Locke’s distinction between primary and secondary qualities because
(a) All qualities are subjective
(b) Only secondary qualities are subjective
(c) Qualities are created by God
(d) Qualities inhere in substances
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109. As all beings are particular things, so all ideas are particular ideas, is said by
(a)Locke
(b) Berkeley
(c )Descartes
(d) Kant
110. Berkeley is …..
(a) Idealist
(b) Realist
(c ) Pragmatist
(d) None
111. Which one of the following vies truly explains the status of matter in the light of Berkeley’s
thesis ‘esseestpercipii’?
(a) Whatever is known is only substance or concrete things
(b) Whatever is known is only ideas
(c) We experience in perception only objects with qualities.
(d) Apart from ideas, matter exists.
112. Berkeley suggests, as all beings are particular, so all ideas are
(a) Universal ideas
(b) Particular ideas
(c ) Empirical ideas
(d) None of these
113. Berkeley ……..the assumption of general ideas in the mind and the belief in the existence of a
material world outside it
(a) Accepts
(b) rejects
(c ) transforms
(d) none of these
114. Which among the following is NOT true for Berkeley?
(a) Matter is not perceived.
(b) The existence of matter is not based on inference
(c) The existence of matter serves no useful purpose.
(d) External objects are real and exist outside our mind.
115. According to ……. The ideas of imagination are produced byourselves and real perceptions are
produced by God.
(a) Locke
(b) Berkeley
(c ) Descartes
(d) Hume
116. Which one of the following is true of Berkeley?
(a) There is a material substratum underlying qualities.
(b) There is no material substratum underlying qualities.
(c) There is no material substratum underlying qualities but there is a material world independent
of ideas.
(d) Primary qualities alone are objectively real and mater is the same as these primary qualities.
117. Who claims only minds and their ideas exist
(a) Berkeley
(b) Hume
(c ) Bacon
(d) Berkeley
118. Which one of the following theses is the most fundamental to Berkeley’s world views?
(a) All qualities are ideas and so any object consisting of qualitie4s is an idea.
(b) Qualities of an object do not inhere in a material substratum
(c) Secondary qualities are the powers to produce sensations in us by their primary qualities.
(d) Primary qualities are produced by our minds.
119. Which one of the following is the view of Berkeley?
(a) The nature of body consists not in weight, hardness, colour and the like, but in extension alone
(b) Bodies are mere appearances of our outer sense, and not things-in-themselves.
(c) Body is only a system of floating ideas without any substance to support them.
(d) Body is composed of centres of force that are in a constant process of development.
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120. Which one of the following statements is not implied by Berkeley’s view that ‘to be is to be
perceived’?
(a) Ideas can exist only as long as they are being perceived.
(b) Qualities cannot exist independently of the perceiving mind.
(c) Objects cannot exist when they are not perceived by any mind.
(d) Objects cannot exist when they are not perceived by human beings.
121. Which one among the following does NOT figure in Berkeley’s rejection of abstract ideas?
(a) There is no such thing in any mind as an abstract idea
(b) Knowledge of external worlds is possible without the abstract idea ‘Matter’.
(c) Acceptance of abstract ideas leads to atheism and materialism
(d) A particular idea can be made to represent all other particular ideas of the same sort.
122. Who, among the following western philosophers attempted to refute ‘Matter’?
(a) Kant
(b) Berkeley
(c ) Locke
(d) Hume
123. Berkeley believes that sensible things cannot exist except in …….
(a) A mind
(b) absolute existence
(c ) material substance
(d) material universe
124. Which among the following is correct
(a) According to Locke God, Mind and Matter are three kinds of substance
(b) According to Descartes, Mind and Matter are three kinds of substance
(c) According to Berkeley only Mind and their ideas exist
(d) All the above
125. Which among the following is NOT correct statement
(a) According to Spinoza there is only one substance, i.e., God
(b) According to Berkeley only Mind and their ideas exist
(c) According to Descartes there is only one substance, i.e, God
(d) According to the Absolute Idealism of Hegel there is only one reality
126. Subjective Idealism is propounded by
a) John Locke
b) George Berkeley
c) David Hume
d) Descartes
127. Who claimed that an abstract idea does not exist.
(a)David Hume
(b) George Berkeley
(c ) John Locke
(d) Plato
128. The maxim of ‘esseestpercipii’ is put forward by:
(a) Berkeley
(b) Locke
(c ) Spinoza
(d) Leibniz
C. Hume
129. Which of the following books is NOT written by David Hume?
(a) A Treatise of Human Nature
(b) An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
(c) The Phenomenology of Spirit
(d) An Enquiry concerning the Human Understanding
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130. According to Hume there are two kinds of contents of the mind, namely …..
(a) Sensations and impressions
(b) knowledge and ignorance
(c ) subjective and objective ideas
(d) Impressions and their ideas
131. According to Hume, ……… is secondary and ….. is primary.
(a) Reflection, sensation
(b) Complex, simple idea
(c ) Sensation, reflection
(d) simple, complex idea
132. Hume’s theory, that all impressions as such are distinct and separate with no logical connection
between them, is known as ……
(a) Humean atomism
(b) Humean skepticism
(c )Humean agnosticism
(d) Humean idealism
133. Hume does not believe in ……
(a) Causal relation exists
(b) External world is unreal
(c ) Certainty of Knowledge
(d)Moral principles and God are man-made entities.
134. ‘Substance is a product of human imagination’ is said by …..
(a) Descartes
(b) Spinoza
(c )Locke
(d) Hume
135. According to Hume, all knowledge is derived from:
(a) Reason
(b) Experience
(c ) Ideas
(d ) A priori
136. David Hume is accepted as a:
(a) Rationalist
(b) Idealist
(c ) Materialist
(d) Skeptic
137. Hume divides our perceptions into two categories:
(a)Sensations and emotions
(b) Impressions and ideas
(c )Static and dynamic
(d) simple and complex
138. What is the self, according to Hume?
(a)A sequence of perceptions
(b) An immaterial, unchanging substance
(c )A physical body
(d) A social entity
139. Why can’t we have cause and effect knowledge, according to Hume?
(a) We can never observe a constant conjunction between events.
(b)We can never observe the cause and the effect at the same time.
(c )We can never observe a necessary connection between events.
(d) We can never observe the atoms that make up the cause and the effect.
140. Which among the following is NOT correct statement
(a) If we believe in the causal principle, he says, it is only through habit or custom that we do
so, there is no rational basis for it.
(b) The mind is a kind of theatre, where perceptions successively make their appearance, pass and
re-pass, glide away and mingle in an infinite variety of postures and situations.
(c ) Hume’s point is that the idea of necessary connection between cause and effect is something
that experience can give us.
(d) We have no knowledge that an external world exists, that physical substances exist, that a God
exists.
141.
Who claims that substance is the aggregate of qualities
(b) Descartes
(b) Spinoza
(c) Berkeley
(d) Hume
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Unit 3: Kant
142. Synthetic unity of apperception is advocated by:
(a) Hegel
(b) Kant
(c ) Leibniz
(d ) Spinoza
143. The expression ‘Copernican revolution in thought’ is attributed to:
(a) Kant
(b) Hegel
(c ) Berkeley
(d) Spinoza
144. Kant’s Copernican revolution in philosophy is …..
(a) The mind must approach the objects to be known at all
(b) The objects must approach the mind to be known at all
(c) Mind obtained reason because of sun
(d) None of the above
145. Which one of the following concepts is associated with Immanuel Kant?
(a) Occasionalism
(b) tabula rasa
(c )esseestpercipii
(d) synthetic apriori
146. In Transcendental Aesthetic, Kant discusses the theory of ….
(a) Knowledge
(b) Space and time
(c ) Existence of God
(d) Morality
147. According to Kant, knowledge begins with sense proceeds thence to …….. and ends in …..
(a) Understanding, reason
(b) Reason, Understanding
(c )Noumena, phenomena
(d) none of the above
148. Kant has called his epistemological enquiry …….
(a) Critical
(b) Agnostic
(c ) Transcendental
(d) Rational
149. Kant’s philosophy is known as
(a) Criticism
(b) Rationalism
(c ) Idealism
(d ) Realism
150. A proposition, in which the predicate does not belong to the subject, is known as …..
(a) Synthetic
(b) Analytic
(c ) Simple
(d) Complex
151. The critique of Pure Reason is really a treatise on …. With special reference to science
(a) Metaphysics
(b) Epistemology
(c ) Axiology
(d ) Aesthetics
152. According to Kant, the laws of nature
(a) Do not exist
(b) Exist in our minds, and we apply them to construct nature as we experience it.
(c) Are intuited by the mind just like the rest of nature.
(d) Are abstracted from the judgments we make about nature
153. Metaphysics is only possible if we can gain knowledge from statement which are
(a)Synthetic a posteriori
(b) synthetic a priori
(c ) analytical a priori
(d) None of the above: metaphysics is never possible
154. How does Kant say that our mind experiences intuitions?
(a) Intuitions are sudden flashes of insight about the world
(b) Intuitions are formed in the mind from concepts of understanding
(c) Intuitions are experienced in space and time
(d) Intuitions give us the framework which lets us interpret sense data
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155. According to Kant we know ourselves
(a) Only by the phenomenal self we experience in this world
(b) Through the innate obviousness of our own experience
(c) As both phenomenal and noumenalbeings
(d) Not at all, since all our selves are made up of false and illusory judgements
156. According to Kant the ideas of reason are not …. But ….. principles of knowledge
(a) Regulative, constitutive
(b) Affirmative, negative
(c ) Negative, affirmative
(d) Constitutive, regulative
157. What does Kant mean by the noumenal world?
(a) The world as it really is, independently of our experiences of it.
(b) The world as it is presented to us in experience.
(c) The world of mind.
(D) The world of matter.
157. Why doesn't Kant think that we can have knowledge of the things-in-themselves (das dingan-sich)?
(a) Because they have not yet been experienced.
(b) Because they are not physical in nature.
(c) Because they are not mental in nature.
(d) Because the organizing principles of the mind do not apply to them.
158. The a priori conditions of all knowledge is advocated by:
(a) Kant
(b) Hume
(c ) Locke
(d) Berkeley
159. Who authored the book Critique of Pure Reason
(a) Immanuel Kant
(b) Hegel
(c )Rene Descartes
(d) Russell
160. The concepts come to be applied to the sensible through the ………-schema.
(a) Time
(b) Space
(c ) both time and space
(d) Neither time nor space
161. -------------- means that there are a priori categories of the understanding which determine the
objectivity of empirical statements and that by their means alone such statements can ever be
obtained.
(a) Transcendental Analytic
(b) Transcendental Aesthetic
(c ) Schema
(d) Transcendental Deduction
162. The knowledge which is constructed by the understanding, by means of its categories, is the
knowledge of ……………
(a) Phenomenon
(b) Noumenon
(c ) things-in- themselves
(d) Phenomenon and Noumenon
163. Which of the following is true for Kant
(a) Knowledge of the phenomena alone is possible
(b) Noumena remain unknown and unknowable.
(c) Noumena means a thing so far as it is not an object of our sensible intuition
(d) All of the above
164. According to Kant, moral duty is
(a) The commandment of God
(b) Given by one’s intuition
(c) The imperative of pure reason
(d) Determined by majority
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165. According to Kant, we ought to treat humanity
(a) always only as an end
(b) sometimes as an end
(c) never simply as a means
(d) always as a means
166. According to Kant, moral law is
(a) a priori, and based on reason
(b) a priori, and not based on reason
(c) a posteriori, and not based on reason
(d) a posteriori, and based on reason
167. A furtherprocess of synthesis is effected a priori by the three ideas of reason, namely,
(a) Sense, object, knowledge
(b) Intellect, intuition, cognition
(c) World, soul, God
(d) Mind, body, absolute
Unit 4: Hegel
168. The philosopher who put forward the dialectical method is:
(a) Descartes
(b) Kant
(c ) Hegel
(d) Spinoza
169. According to Hegel, there are three stages in the logical development of spirit: subjective mind,
objective mind and …..
(a) Absolute God
(b) Absolute mind
(c ) Absolute Spirit
(d) Absolute idea
170. Which method is the proper method of philosophy, according to Hegel, is determined by the
subject matter of philosophy itself
(a) The synthetical
(b) the analytical
(c ) the dialectical
(d) the geometrical
171. The Absolute for Hegel is
(a) Substance
(b) Soul
(c ) God
(d) Idea
172. The real is the rational, and the rational is the real’ is the doctrine of
(a) Fichte
(b) Schelling
(c ) Kant
(d) Hegel
173. Having shown that metaphysics is unproved and speculative at best, Kant goes on to argue
that
(a) Rather than studying speculative metaphysics to learn about sense perceptions, we ought
to study sense perceptions in order to learn about metaphysics.
(b) We ought to study metaphysics as a science because it asks good questions.
(c) We ought to waste time with that of which we know nothing
(d) Metaphysics can only be known innately
174. What do we directly observe, according to David Hume?
(a) Physical objects
(b) Sense impressions
(c ) Ourselves
(d) Our brains
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175. Absolute Idealism is advocated by
( a) John Locke
( b) George Berkley
(c) Immanuel Kant
(d) Hegel
176. According to Absolute Idealism, what is the relationship between being real and being
knowable?
(a) No reality is knowable
(b) All reality is knowable
(c) Some reality is knowable and some isn’t
(d) Only God is ultimately unknowable.
177. There is the final movement in which the spirit reduces Nature to the inwardness, which the
spirit itself is. Only at this stage the spirit rises to self-consciousness in man. According to Hegel
this stage is ………
(a) Thesis
(b) anti-thesis
(c ) Synthesis
(d) Contradiction
178. For Hegel, Idea means
(a) Concrete particular
(b) Concrete universal
(c) Abstract particular
(d) Abstract universal
179. According to the Absolute Idealism of Hegel
(a) There is only one reality
(b) Reality is relative
(c) There are many realities
(d) All of these
180. What is the highest reality (the Absolute), for Hegel?
(a) The entire material world
(b) A God who exists beyond the world
(c) Infinite thought thinking itself
(d) A vast group of independent particulars
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SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
ANSWER KEY
1
a
31
a
61
b
91
b
121
d
151
b
2
d
32
b
62
a
92
a
122
b
152
b
3
d
33
b
63
c
93
b
123
a
153
b
4
c
34
b
64
b
94
a
124
d
154
c
5
d
35
c
65
a
95
c
125
c
155
a
6
d
36
c
66
d
96
a
126
b
156
d
7
b
37
c
67
b
97
a
127
b
157
a
8
a
38
c
68
d
98
d
128
a
158
a
9
c
39
d
69
c
99
a
129
c
159
a
10
c
40
d
70
b
100
d
130
d
160
a
11
d
41
c
71
b
101
a
131
a
161
d
12
c
42
b
72
b
102
a
132
b
162
a
13
d
43
b
73
a
103
b
133
c
163
d
14
a
44
c
74
a
104
a
134
d
164
c
15
a
45
a
75
d
105
d
135
b
165
a
16
d
46
c
76
c
106
a
136
d
166
a
17
a
47
a
77
c
107
d
`37
b
167
c
18
b
48
b
78
a
108
a
138
a
168
c
19
b
49
b
79
c
109
b
139
c
169
c
20
b
50
c
80
c
110
a
140
c
170
c
21
a
51
c
81
b
111
b
141
d
171
d
22
c
52
d
82
b
112
b
142
b
172
d
23
a
53
c
83
b
113
b
143
a
173
b
24
a
54
b
84
b
114
d
144
b
174
b
25
d
55
c
85
a
115
145
d
175
d
26
b
56
a
86
a
116
b
146
b
176
b
27
d
57
c
87
c
117
a
147
a
177
c
28
c
58
b
88
b
118
c
148
c
178
b
29
b
59
b
89
d
119
b
149
a
179
a
30
a
60
a
90
c
120
a
150
a
180
c
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