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... “Herodotus would probably have placed himself in this same tradition, as a theoros
wandering the world in search of knowledge.”14 Later fourth-century authors such as
Plato, Xenophon, and Isocrates then tried to appropriate the meaning of “philosophy” for
their own purposes. Whatever meanings they t ...
aiming at virtue in plato
... moral rules, containing only non-evaluative terms, that determine which
actions are virtuous and which vicious. Indeed, for many contemporary
scholars, it is an advantage of the ancients that they do not fall into what
is seen as the trap of trying to supply determining principles, but instead
THE PHILOSOPHIES OF HISTORY OF HERDER AND
... empty and disconnected from the real world. Instead, the course of history is to be seen
as an organic whole that unfolds through a dialectical process, rather than a constant flux
that must be reined in by an imposed universal. Herder and Hegel are sometimes viewed
as heralds of the Romantic era th ...
Epistemological Vs - Birkbeck, University of London
... But why all this creative reconstruction, all this make believe? The stimulation
of his sensory receptors is all the evidence anybody has had to go on, ultimately,
in arriving at his picture of the world. Why not just see how this construction
really proceeds? Why not settle for psychology! (Quine ( ...
On Reasons to Live Justifiably: In Support of a Humean
... rightly because she has a reason to live with others on justifiable terms, I argue that this answer
is unsatisfying according to Scanlon’s own criteria of success. However, by utilizing others of
his arguments, I also am able to show that he could accept (and I think should accept) the
‘complex’ vie ...
Was Pyrrho the Founder of Skepticism?
... testimony is the oldest important first-hand source, but he represents one
specific tradition. When we move on to other traditions, we can learn about
Pyrrho as a skeptic (Timon, Antigonus, Diogenes Laertius, Sextus,
Numenius in Eusebius). The Peripatetic Aristocles refers to Timon’s
DAMIAN ILODIGWE OAKESHOTT`S CRITIQUE OF SOVEREIGNTY
... and truth is not co-extensive with the bound of reason.9 In other words logic cannot impose
itself on life but must allow itself to be guided by the inherent template of life.10
Thus it emerges that pressed to the limit, political realities–like all existential realities, are
ridden with ambiguities ...
Rationalism, Sentimentalism, and Ralph Cudworth
... non-rational part of our constitution. So for Cudworth’s TEIM, moral rationalism is the view that we grasp morality through our understanding of necessary
propositions, and moral sentimentalism is the view that our grasp of morality is
based at least in part on some other aspect of our constitution. ...
“Moral Perfectionism” or Emerson`s “Moral Sentiment”?
... selfhood. Thus, very explicitly, “Self-Reliance”:
We first share the life by which things exist, and afterwards see them as appearances in
nature, and forget that we have shared their cause. Here is the fountain of action and of
thought. Here are the lungs of that inspiration which giveth man wisdom ...
The Theaetetus as a Superior Apology.
... ranks of the sophists. Plato’s audience was familiar with such men who proclaimed they had
attained some truth and sought to propagate it (Cooper xix). In the Apology, Socrates seeks to
differentiate himself from sophists by claiming he has no knowledge (22c). This is why he
believes the Delphic ora ...
Scholastic Qualities, Primary and Secondary
... and other qualities. Eustachius a Sancto Paulo puts the ﬁrst idea quite clearly in his early
seventeenth-century textbook: “these qualities are called primary because from their
blending (temperie) results the nature of a mixed body, and when this blending is
dissolved, the mixed body is necessarily ...
Schopenhauer`s Theory of Justice
... but little or nothing about his philosophy. If pressed, many would identify him as a precursor of some aspects of fascism or Hitlerism, and perhaps he might have been, but his philosophy was not. The truth is that we
would all be much better off if we knew something about his philosophy,
but forgot ...
METAPHORS IN LEIBNIZ`S PHILOSOPHY
... Let us consider these hypotheses in turn. In his well-known work on formal
languages, Leibniz follows the predominant tendency of his time, which views
precise definitions of all terms as a sine qua non for rigorous scientific and
philosophical discourse, thereby minimizing the use of tropes therein ...
Univocity and Analogy: A Comparative Study of Gilbert
... Read in this way, Heidegger's project does share the importance of analogous being with Aquinas. It would be a dreadful mistake, however, to say that he is
Whereas Aquinas unifies his analogous understanding of being by appealing to the absolute contingency of the created order upon its C ...
Merleau-Ponty`s transcendental theory of perception - SAS
... There is, furthermore, the obvious difference of Merleau-Ponty from the other
phenomenologists, that Merleau-Ponty pays close attention to psychological science, and to its
detail, rather than just referring in wholly general, critical terms to the very idea of empirical
psychology. It is true that ...
... conception is associated with notorious problems in that it identifies propositions that are
necessarily true or necessarily false.3 The second conception avoids such problems by
reflecting (to an extent) in the meaning of the sentence itself the syntactic structure of the
sentence as well as the wa ...
Recovering Play: On the Relationship Between Leisure and
... was that new forms of technology, with machines replacing humans, would
decrease work and increase leisure. Philosophers like John Stuart Mill and
Karl Marx envisioned a leisure society where material abundance would
reduce the need for busy workdays and free up time for more authentic—creative and ...
Getting Priority Straight
... idea, these explanations thereby confer ontological sparsity. The priority theorist holds that, since the existence and features of raindrops can be explained
solely by reference to the existence and features of other things, the world is no
more ontologically lush for containing raindrops than it i ...
6 S Being and Being Grounded
... adds that this claim follows from the principle that nothing comes to be
While Leibniz seems to think that the principle of sufficient reason,
together with the principle of contradiction, holds for all true propositions, he distinguishes the scope of what depends upon it from the ...
Giambattista Vico`s Idea Of "Progress": The Collapse Of Reason
... Vico was diligent about explaining who had influenced his writing; he acknowledged
those thinkers that had set his mind into motion. Early on he was introduced to both
Aristotle and Plato, and though he found great use in Aristotle's syllogisms to bridge two
ideas, he ultimately found Plato and his ...
The Problem of Nonexistence: Truthmaking or
... it allows for a predicate ‘Professor x was an expert on Tarot’ to be
generated by removing ‘Dummett’ from ‘Professor Dummett was
an expert on tarot’. But it does not make any sense to predicate this
of an object, as can be seen by completing the predicate with some
other phrase that picks out Dummet ...
Entitlement, Justification, and the Bootstrapping
... One way to prohibit bootstrapping, then, would be to deny the possibility of basic
justification. This move would be especially appealing to the philosopher who holds that
the concept of justification centers on the idea of being receptive to the reasons one has
and using them to shape one’s doxasti ...
Why did Hume call his Enquiry concerning the Principles of Morals
... (xxii, quoting GG), yet in the end he merely concludes: ‘It is better to read Hume in the
Enquiries than not to read him at all’ (p. xxxi). Grose had claimed earlier that Hume had
apparently given up deep thinking for pleasant and successful writing, remarking that
‘few men of letters have been at h ...
Problem of universals
In metaphysics, the problem of universals refers to the question of whether properties exist, and if so, what they are. Properties are qualities or relations that two or more entities have in common. The various kinds of properties, such as qualities and relations are referred to as universals. For instance, one can imagine three cup holders on a table that have in common the quality of being circular or exemplifying circularity, or two daughters that have in common being the daughter of Frank. There are many such properties, such as being human, red, male or female, liquid, big or small, taller than, father of, etc.While philosophers agree that human beings talk and think about properties, they disagree on whether these universals exist in reality or merely in thought and speech.