Universals - The Metaphysicist
... By contrast, we humans invent abstract concepts like redness.
We know that these cultural constructs exist nowhere in nature as
physical structures. We create them. Cultural knowledge is relative
to and dependent on the society that creates it.
However, some of our invented abstract concepts seem to ...
Philosophical axioms of
... • The (simplistic) model developed in class is designed to contrast
the mainstream Western tradition with the presentation of most
Chinese approaches in this course. It entails 5 “axioms” that
grow out of the Greek commitment to philosophy as a quest for
knowledge based on Reason.
What is “Reason?”
Bertrand Russell. The World of Universals [The Problems of
... about it, taking care not to use any characteristic which it does not share with other triangles.
The beginner, in order to avoid error, often finds it useful to draw several triangles, as unlike
each other as possible, in order to make sure that his reasoning is equally applicable to all of
them. B ...
plato n aristotle
... there must be standards that are more conventional. The Forms, the dialectic about
Justice, and the subordination of everything else to the Form of the Good all reflect his
view against relativism and skepticism. For Aristotle, though, such a problem never
existed. One reason why could be because Pl ...
Greek Philosophy - HCC Learning Web
... - “Man is the measure of all things.”
- people see themselves as the standard of
beauty, or judge other things in relation to
- “sophists” = skilled debaters can defeat
rational arguments – PLATO DISAGREED,
SAYING THERE IS OBJECTIVE REALITY
... English Romanticism, and Indian spirituality/Hinduism.
● Knowledge is not based on experience or dogma but comes from within.
● The inner essence of the individual is the root of all meaningful knowledge.
● Organized religion and institutions corrupt mankind. (Similar to Rousseau’s
caustic critique ...
... To resolve this problem, Plato formalized the classic view
of idealism in his doctrine of Forms.
... • The thinking of the Sophists
caused the state to deteriorate to a
... • The thinking of the Sophists
caused the state to deteriorate to a
Morality and Practical Reason: Kant
... • Kant begins by saying that what is ultimately
good is a good will. And a good will, in turn, is
the will that exercises pure practical reason
• What we will, that is, what we try to do, is wholly
within our control. And reason serves the
purpose of instructing our will in our duty. “The
notion of ...
... rules that we use to constitute our
experience, namely, that we shall
always interpret our experience of
[sensible] objects [as being] in space,
external to us, and material.”
Robert C. Solomon, Introducing Philosophy,
trilogy 三部曲 obscure = delphic 隐晦的 Idealism 唯心主义 entity 实体
... The Critique of Pure Reason/ The Critique of Practical Reason/ The Critique of Judgement
In Kant's critique of pure reason, he thought our minds never come into direct contact with
ultimate reality. Because of the way our senses work, and because our brains are prefitted with
various concepts and fi ...
... 4. Abaelard is now ready to answer Porphyry’s questions.
a. Are Universals real entities existing independently of
the mind that conceives them?
Abaelard: Universal terms refer to reality. They do
not refer to nothing at all as the Nominalists maintain.
Yet in a certain sense universals exists only ...
Plato and Aristotle
... • Substance is that which stands alone
• It is independent being; a horse, a tree, and
a human are all substances
• Secondary substances are what Aristotle
called the species and genus to which a
thing belongs, and these are less real
• He also claimed that forms are real but that
they cannot exist ...
Marco Trivellato - Professor Dugan - PHI 101 ISL - Due date 05
... incarnation and the trinity. Aquinas’s ideas about the existence of God, made me think about that. There are still things that are not
understandable to humans. So there must be something or someone that makes these things happen. During the modern era,
philosophy focused on pragmatism, idealism and ...
Plato, knowledge and virtue
... • The Form of beauty is pure beauty; it (alone) is not
both beautiful and not beautiful.
• Therefore, we can have knowledge of the Forms,
though not through our senses.
• The highest knowledge is knowledge of the Form of
the Good: it is from the good that ‘things that are
just and so on derive their ...
TRANSCENDENTALISM “Transcend” to a higher spiritual
... become a transparent eye-ball; I am nothing; I see all; the
currents of the Universal Being circulate through me; I am part
or particle of God. . . . Nothing divine dies. All good is eternally
reproductive. The beauty of nature reforms itself in the mind,
and not for barren contemplation, but for ne ...
Colena Sesanker. Philosophy Club. 12/2014 Kant on the Duty to
... Imperative is, just as advertised, categorical. There are no circumstances in which it does not
hold. There are no scenarios in which one is excused from one’s moral duty, no matter how difficult
it might be. The CI is formulated in three distinct, but functionally equivalent, ways. The three ways
... means creator, causer, intelligence, sustainer
of the universe.
the arguments that philosophers
consider,examine whether it is reasonable to
suppose there is such a being.
... Sophists: They were people who used
rhetoric to answer questions of nature and
reality. They especially questioned ideas of
good and evil.
Notes to Introduce Epistemology
... Locke’s epistemological dualism: The two factors
involved in knowledge are (1) mind which knows, and
(2) its ideas which are known.
The ego-centric predicament: If we know only our
ideas directly, how can we be certain of their
correspondence with things in the external world?
doc the problems with philosophy
... The fact of whiteness being white, can be applied to many white things.
These things are participating in a common essence. Forms.
Russell renames forms as universals. According to Plato the real world
was a universal.
Human speech habitually involves at least one universal per sentence.
This is me ...
Plato - Start.ca
... Plato held that determining what constituted a “good life” was an
intellectual task similar to the discovery of mathematical truths
o Just as the latter can’t be discovered by the untrained, neither
can the former
o Only after they have been educated in various disciplines
(math, philosophy, etc.) t ...
Problem of universals
In metaphysics, the problem of universals refers to the question of whether properties exist, and if so, what they are. Properties are qualities or relations that two or more entities have in common. The various kinds of properties, such as qualities and relations are referred to as universals. For instance, one can imagine three cup holders on a table that have in common the quality of being circular or exemplifying circularity, or two daughters that have in common being the daughter of Frank. There are many such properties, such as being human, red, male or female, liquid, big or small, taller than, father of, etc.While philosophers agree that human beings talk and think about properties, they disagree on whether these universals exist in reality or merely in thought and speech.