Download Unit 6 Learning Open Book Practice Answer Section

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Operant conditioning wikipedia, lookup

Behaviorism wikipedia, lookup

Behavior analysis of child development wikipedia, lookup

Psychological behaviorism wikipedia, lookup

Classical conditioning wikipedia, lookup

Insufficient justification wikipedia, lookup

Learning theory (education) wikipedia, lookup

Differential item functioning wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Unit 6 Learning Open Book Practice
Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
____
1. Conditioning is the process of
a. discrimination.
b. spontaneous recovery.
c. learning associations.
d. observational learning.
e. generalization.
____
2. By directly experiencing a thunderstorm, we learn that a flash of lightning signals an impending crash of thunder. This best illustrates
a. operant conditioning.
b. the law of effect.
c. observational learning.
d. classical conditioning.
e. generalization.
____
3. Seals in an aquarium will repeat behaviors, such as slapping and barking, that prompt people to toss them a herring. This best
illustrates
a. respondent behavior.
b. operant conditioning.
c. observational learning.
d. latent learning.
e. spontaneous recovery.
____
4. Children often learn to associate pushing a vending machine button with the delivery of a candy bar. This best illustrates the process
underlying
a. intrinsic motivation.
b. respondent behavior.
c. spontaneous recovery.
d. operant conditioning.
e. latent learning.
____
5. After one chimpanzee sees a second chimp open a box that contains a food reward, the first animal opens a similar box with great
speed. This best illustrates
a. shaping.
b. spontaneous recovery.
c. respondent behavior.
d. observational learning.
e. positive reinforcement.
____
6. John B. Watson emphasized that
a. learning depends on how predictably rather than how frequently events are associated.
b. unlike lower animals, humans learn through a process of cognition.
c. both humans and lower animals learn to expect that a CS will be followed by a US.
d. learning should be explained without any reference to mental processes.
e. cognition plays a role in conditioning through the power of prediction.
____
7. In Pavlov's experiments, the dog's salivation triggered by the taste of food was a(n)
a. conditioned response.
b. unconditioned response.
c. unconditioned stimulus.
d.
e.
conditioned stimulus.
neutral stimulus.
____
8. In Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the US was
a. a tone.
b. salivation to the sound of a tone.
c. the presentation of food in the dog's mouth.
d. salivation to the food in the mouth.
e. not used in the conditioning trials.
____
9. In Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, infants develop a fear of roses after roses are presented with electric shock. In this fictional
example, the presentation of the roses is the
a. conditioned stimulus.
b. unconditioned stimulus.
c. unconditioned response.
d. conditioned response.
e. fear response.
____
10. After he was spanked on several occasions for spilling his milk at a restaurant, Colin became afraid to go to the restaurant. In this case,
spanking was a(n) ________ for Colin's fear.
a. negative reinforcer
b. conditioned stimulus
c. secondary reinforcer
d. unconditioned stimulus
e. primary reinforcer
____
11. Months after she was raped, Courtney's heart pounds with fear merely at the sight of the place where she was attacked. The location of
her attack is most likely a(n) ________ for Courtney's anxiety.
a. conditioned stimulus
b. negative reinforcer
c. unconditioned stimulus
d. partial reinforcer
e. primary reinforcer
____
12. If a tone that regularly signals food triggers a salivation response, then a light that becomes associated with that tone may also begin to
trigger salivation. This best illustrates
a. latent learning.
b. the law of effect.
c. higher-order conditioning.
d. a variable-ratio schedule.
e. positive reinforcement.
____
13. After Pavlov had conditioned a dog to salivate to a tone, he repeatedly sounded the tone without presenting the food. As a result,
________ occurred.
a. generalization
b. negative reinforcement
c. latent learning
d. extinction
e. discrimination
____
14. After receiving a painful shot from a female nurse in a white uniform, 3-year-old Vaclav experiences fear of any woman wearing a
white dress. Vaclav's reaction best illustrates
a. shaping.
b. extinction.
c. latent learning.
d.
e.
spontaneous recovery.
generalization.
____
15. An allergy attack triggered by the sight of plastic flowers best illustrates the process of
a. latent learning.
b. delayed reinforcement.
c. generalization.
d. secondary reinforcement.
e. spontaneous recovery.
____
16. Jacqueline is sexually aroused by the sight of her handsome boyfriend but not by the sight of her equally handsome brother. This best
illustrates the value of
a. latent learning.
b. shaping.
c. intermittent reinforcement.
d. discrimination.
e. spontaneous recovery.
____
17. Voluntary behaviors that produce rewarding or punishing consequences are called
a. respondent behaviors.
b. prosocial behaviors.
c. operant behaviors.
d. conditioned responses.
e. unconditioned responses.
____
18. A Skinner box is a(n)
a. soundproofed cubicle in which organisms are classically conditioned in the absence of distracting noise.
b. aversive or punishing event that decreases the occurrence of certain undesirable behaviors.
c. “slot machine” used to study the effects of partial reinforcement on human gambling practices.
d. chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a reward.
e. television projection device designed for use in laboratory studies of observational learning.
____
19. To teach an animal to perform a complex sequence of behaviors, animal trainers are most likely to use a procedure known as
a. classical conditioning.
b. delayed reinforcement.
c. latent learning.
d. generalization.
e. shaping.
____
20. Because Mr. Baron demonstrates appreciation only for very good classroom answers, his students have stopped participating in class.
Mr. Baron most clearly needs to be informed of the value of
a. generalization.
b. modeling.
c. shaping.
d. latent learning.
e. spontaneous recovery.
____
21. On Monday, Johnny's mother gave him cookies and milk after he had played quietly for 10 minutes. On Tuesday, she required 20
minutes of quiet play before treat time, and on Wednesday, the cookies were given to him only after a full half hour of quiet play.
Johnny was taught to play quietly for extended periods through
a. latent learning.
b. secondary reinforcement.
c. partial reinforcement.
d. shaping.
e. modeling.
____
22. Any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response is called a(n)
a. conditioned stimulus.
b. unconditioned stimulus.
c. positive reinforcer.
d. negative reinforcer.
e. positive punishment.
____
23. The more often Matthew is scolded following a temper tantrum, the more frequently he loses his temper. In this case, the scolding
serves as a ________ for Matthew's temper tantrums.
a. negative reinforcer
b. conditioned stimulus
c. positive reinforcer
d. punishment
e. unconditioned stimulus
____
24. Innately satisfying stimuli that fulfill biological needs are called ________ reinforcers.
a. fixed
b. primary
c. positive
d. continuous
e. unconditioned
____
25. Despite the painful hangovers that follow his use of alcohol, Boris continues to drink because just a couple of drinks begin to reduce
his anxiety. His continued drinking most clearly illustrates the power of
a. generalization.
b. spontaneous recovery.
c. extinction.
d. immediate reinforcement.
e. partial reinforcement.
____
26. Purchasing state lottery tickets is reinforced with monetary winnings on a ________ schedule.
a. fixed-interval
b. intermittent-continuous
c. fixed-ratio
d. variable-ratio
e. variable-interval
____
27. A small-town radio disc jockey frequently announces how much money is currently in a jackpot. Every day several randomly selected
residents are called and asked to identify the amount, and thereby win it. Those who keep track of the jackpot amount are most likely
to be reinforced on a ________ schedule.
a. fixed-ratio
b. variable-interval
c. variable-ratio
d. fixed-interval
e. partial-delayed
____
28. On the first day of class, Professor Wallace tells her geography students that pop quizzes will be given at unpredictable times
throughout the semester. Clearly, studying for Professor Wallace's surprise quizzes will be reinforced on a ________ schedule.
a. fixed-interval
b. conditioned-response
c. variable-interval
d. variable-ratio
e. fixed-ratio
____
29. Revoking the driver's license of a reckless driver is intended to serve as a
a. negative reinforcement.
b. positive reinforcement.
c. negative punishment.
d. positive punishment.
e. punishing reinforcer.
____
30. Golf instruction that reinforces short putts before attempting to reinforce long putts best illustrates the process of
a. generalization.
b. shaping.
c. modeling.
d. discrimination.
e. delayed reinforcement.
____
31. Two years ago, the de Castellane Manufacturing Company included its employees in a profit-sharing plan in which workers receive
semi-annual bonuses based on the company's profits. Since this plan was initiated, worker productivity at de Castellane has nearly
doubled. This productivity increase is best explained in terms of
a. observational learning.
b. latent learning.
c. operant conditioning.
d. classical conditioning.
e. spontaneous recovery.
____
32. Both classical and operant conditioning are forms of
a. associative learning.
b. respondent behavior.
c. observational learning.
d. intrinsic motivation.
e. latent learning.
____
33. Classical conditioning involves a learned association between
a. two stimuli.
b. two responses.
c. two reinforcers.
d. behavior and its consequence.
e. reinforcers and punishers.
____
34. Rats easily learn to associate nausea-producing radiation treatments with
a. loud sounds.
b. bright lights.
c. novel tastes.
d. high-pitched sounds.
e. acrid smells.
____
35. An integrated understanding of associative learning in terms of genetic predispositions, culturally learned preferences, and the
predictability of certain associations is most clearly provided by
a. Pavlov's experiments.
b. Watson's behaviorism.
c. a biopsychosocial approach.
d. the law of effect.
e. operant conditioning.
____
36. Operant response rates remain highest when individuals anticipate that their behavior will actually lead to further reinforcement. This
best illustrates the importance of ________ in operant conditioning.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
secondary reinforcers
cognitive processes
biological predispositions
intrinsic motivation
spontaneous recovery
____
37. If rats are allowed to wander through a complicated maze, they will subsequently run the maze with few errors when a food reward is
placed at the end. Their good performance demonstrates
a. shaping.
b. latent learning.
c. delayed reinforcement.
d. spontaneous recovery.
e. modeling.
____
38. Some psychologists believe that rats develop mental representations of mazes they have explored. These representations have been
called
a. primary reinforcers.
b. successive approximations.
c. discriminative stimuli.
d. cognitive maps.
e. intrinsic motives.
____
39. Professor Kohler observed chimpanzees discover a novel way to reach a banana hung out of their reach. This scenario is most likely
an example of which type of learning?
a. operant learning
b. classical conditioning
c. observational learning
d. insight learning
e. latent learning
____
40. Laura fails to recognize any connection between her unsafe sexual practices and the likelihood of contracting a sexually transmitted
infection. Laura's lack of perceptiveness best illustrates the dangers of
a. free association.
b. the self-reference phenomenon.
c. the spotlight effect.
d. an external locus of control.
e. unconditional positive regard.
____
41. Julio believes that no matter how hard he works, the “system” is so biased against his ethnic group that he will be unable to achieve
economic success. Julio's thinking most clearly demonstrates
a. displacement.
b. reaction formation.
c. the self-reference phenomenon.
d. an external locus of control.
e. the spotlight effect.
____
42. Emma believes that she will succeed in business if she works hard and carefully manages her time. Her belief most clearly illustrates
a. reaction formation.
b. reciprocal determinism.
c. unconditional positive regard.
d. the self-reference phenomenon.
e. an internal locus of control.
____
43. Julio believes that no matter how hard he works, the “system” is so biased against his ethnic group that he will be unable to achieve
economic success. Julio's thinking most clearly demonstrates
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
displacement.
reaction formation.
the self-reference phenomenon.
an external locus of control.
the spotlight effect.
____
44. Corbett refuses to take reasonable precautions to protect his health because he believes good health is just a matter of luck anyway.
Corbett's attitude best illustrates
a. the Barnum effect.
b. an external locus of control.
c. self-serving bias.
d. the self-reference phenomenon.
e. reciprocal determinism.
____
45. The perception that one can strongly influence the outcome and destiny of one's own life exemplifies
a. the self-reference phenomenon.
b. the spotlight effect.
c. the reality principle.
d. an internal locus of control.
e. reciprocal determinism.
____
46. An individual who perceives an internal locus of control would most likely show signs of a
a. weak id.
b. strong id.
c. weak ego.
d. strong ego.
e. weak superego.
____
47. Our ability to learn by witnessing the behavior of others best illustrates
a. respondent behavior.
b. prosocial behavior.
c. operant conditioning.
d. observational learning.
e. classical conditioning.
____
48. The transmission of cultural fads and fashions best illustrates the impact of
a. respondent behavior.
b. immediate reinforcement.
c. spontaneous recovery.
d. primary reinforcers.
e. observational learning.
____
49. Chimpanzees learn foraging and tool use by observing other chimpanzees. This best illustrates
a. generalization.
b. modeling.
c. shaping.
d. insight.
e. habituation.
____
50. Which of the following become active both when people watch an action being performed and when they perform that action
themselves?
a. cognitive maps
b. fixed-ratio schedules
c. mirror neurons
d. operant chambers
e.
biofeedback systems
____
51. Children are helped by ________ to develop a theory of mind.
a. spontaneous recovery
b. mirror neurons
c. instinctive drift
d. operant chambers
e. insight learning
____
52. Bandura's Bobo doll experiment demonstrated that the power of observational learning depends on what?
a. whether the participant is directly rewarded or punished for behaving
b. whether violence is performed
c. whether the conditioned stimulus precedes the unconditioned stimulus
d. whether we see the people as similar to us
e. the power of extinction to overcome conditioning
____
53. In his classic study, Albert Bandura found that children exposed to an adult model who behaved aggressively by beating up a Bobo
doll
a. imitated the adult’s actions.
b. acted aggressively in the presence of other children.
c. behaved aggressively in the presence of their parents.
d. did not demonstrate prosocial behavior even when such behavior was modeled later.
e. displayed little interest in the experimental situation.
____
54. Like European Christians who risked their lives to rescue Jews from the Nazis, civil rights activists of the 1960s had parents who
a. consistently used reinforcement in combination with punishment to shape their children's moral behavior.
b. modeled a strong moral or humanitarian concern.
c. consistently used psychological punishment rather than physical punishment in shaping their children's
behavior.
d. consistently used permissive rather than authoritarian child-rearing practices.
e. consistently explained to their children the harsh consequences of immoral behavior.
____
55. Experiments suggest that children exposed to a model who says one thing and does another will
a. ignore both what the model says and does.
b. ignore what the model does but talk in ways consistent with what the model says.
c. ignore what the model says but act in ways consistent with what the model does.
d. talk in ways consistent with what the model says and act in ways consistent with what the model does.
e. talk in ways that contradict the model in order to match the observed behavior.
____
56. Christian and Maggie are concerned with teaching their children to act prosocially. Social learning psychologists would advise them to
a. read self-help books to their children.
b. begin prosocial modeling after the children turn 8 years old.
c. make sure their own actions and words are consistent.
d. keep their children isolated from antisocial models.
e. avoid reinforcing their children for tasks they already enjoy doing.
____
57. Children of abusive parents often learn to be aggressive by imitating their parents. This illustrates the importance of
a. delayed reinforcement.
b. spontaneous recovery.
c. observational learning.
d. respondent behavior.
e. shaping.
Unit 6 Learning Open Book Practice
Answer Section
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. ANS:
TOP:
2. ANS:
TOP:
3. ANS:
TOP:
4. ANS:
TOP:
5. ANS:
TOP:
6. ANS:
TOP:
7. ANS:
TOP:
8. ANS:
TOP:
9. ANS:
TOP:
10. ANS:
TOP:
11. ANS:
TOP:
12. ANS:
TOP:
13. ANS:
TOP:
14. ANS:
TOP:
15. ANS:
TOP:
16. ANS:
TOP:
17. ANS:
TOP:
18. ANS:
TOP:
19. ANS:
TOP:
20. ANS:
TOP:
21. ANS:
TOP:
22. ANS:
C
PTS: 1
DIF: Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 26-1
How do we learn?
SKL: Factual/Definitional
D
PTS: 1
DIF: Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 26-1
How do we learn?
SKL: Factual/Definitional
B
PTS: 1
DIF: Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 26-1
How do we learn?
SKL: Factual/Definitional
D
PTS: 1
DIF: Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 26-1
How do we learn?
SKL: Conceptual/Application
D
PTS: 1
DIF: Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 26-1
How do we learn?
SKL: Conceptual/Application
D
PTS: 1
DIF: Difficult
OBJ: Unit VI | 26-2
Classical conditioning
SKL: Factual/Definitional
B
PTS: 1
DIF: Easy
OBJ: Unit VI | 26-2
Pavlov's experiments
SKL: Factual/Definitional
C
PTS: 1
DIF: Easy
OBJ: Unit VI | 26-2
Pavlov's experiments
SKL: Factual/Definitional
A
PTS: 1
DIF: Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 26-2
Pavlov's experiments
SKL: Conceptual/Application
D
PTS: 1
DIF: Difficult
OBJ: Unit VI | 26-2
Classical conditioning
SKL: Conceptual/Application
A
PTS: 1
DIF: Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 26-2
Classical conditioning
SKL: Conceptual/Application
C
PTS: 1
DIF: Easy
OBJ: Unit VI | 26-3
Acquisition SKL: Factual/Definitional
D
PTS: 1
DIF: Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 26-3
Extinction and spontaneous recovery
SKL: Factual/Definitional
E
PTS: 1
DIF: Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 26-3
Generalization
SKL: Conceptual/Application
C
PTS: 1
DIF: Difficult
OBJ: Unit VI | 26-3
Generalization
SKL: Conceptual/Application
D
PTS: 1
DIF: Difficult
OBJ: Unit VI | 26-3
Discrimination
SKL:
Conceptual/Application
C
PTS: 1
DIF: Easy
OBJ: Unit VI | 27-1
Operant conditioning
SKL: Factual/Definitional
D
PTS: 1
DIF: Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 27-1
Skinner's experiments
SKL: Factual/Definitional
E
PTS: 1
DIF: Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 27-1
Shaping behavior
SKL: Factual/Definitional
C
PTS: 1
DIF: Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 27-1
Shaping behavior
SKL: Conceptual
D
PTS: 1
DIF: Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 27-1
Shaping behavior
SKL: Conceptual/Application
C
PTS: 1
DIF: Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 27-2
TOP:
23. ANS:
TOP:
24. ANS:
TOP:
25. ANS:
TOP:
26. ANS:
TOP:
27. ANS:
TOP:
28. ANS:
TOP:
29. ANS:
TOP:
30. ANS:
TOP:
31. ANS:
TOP:
32. ANS:
TOP:
33. ANS:
TOP:
34. ANS:
TOP:
35. ANS:
TOP:
36. ANS:
TOP:
37. ANS:
TOP:
38. ANS:
TOP:
39. ANS:
TOP:
40. ANS:
TOP:
41. ANS:
TOP:
42. ANS:
TOP:
43. ANS:
TOP:
44. ANS:
TOP:
45. ANS:
TOP:
46. ANS:
TOP:
Types of reinforcers
SKL: Factual/Definitional
C
PTS: 1
DIF: Difficult
OBJ: Unit VI | 27-2
Types of reinforcers
SKL: Conceptual/Application
B
PTS: 1
DIF: Easy
OBJ: Unit VI | 27-2
Primary and conditioned reinforcers
SKL: Factual/Definitional
D
PTS: 1
DIF: Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 27-2
Immediate and delayed reinforcers SKL: Conceptual/Application
D
PTS: 1
DIF: Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 27-3
Reinforcement schedules
SKL: Conceptual/Application
B
PTS: 1
DIF: Difficult
OBJ: Unit VI | 27-3
Reinforcement schedules
SKL: Conceptual/Application
C
PTS: 1
DIF: Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 27-3
Reinforcement schedules
SKL: Conceptual/Application
C
PTS: 1
DIF: Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 27-4
Punishment SKL: Factual/Definitional
B
PTS: 1
DIF: Easy
OBJ: Unit VI | 28-1
Applications of operant conditioning
SKL: Factual/Definitional
C
PTS: 1
DIF: Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 28-1
Applications of operant conditioning
SKL: Conceptual/Application
A
PTS: 1
DIF: Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 28-2
Contrasting classical and operant conditioning
SKL: Factual/Definitional
A
PTS: 1
DIF: Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 28-2
Contrasting classical and operant conditioning
SKL: Factual/Definitional
C
PTS: 1
DIF: Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 29-1
Biological constraints on conditioning
SKL: Factual/Definitional
C
PTS: 1
DIF: Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 29-1
Biological constraints on conditioning
SKL: Factual/Definitional
B
PTS: 1
DIF: Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 29-2
Cognition's influence on conditioning
SKL: Conceptual
B
PTS: 1
DIF: Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 29-2
Cognition's influence on conditioning
SKL: Factual/Definitional
D
PTS: 1
DIF: Easy
OBJ: Unit VI | 29-2
Cognition's influence on conditioning
SKL: Factual/Definitional
D
PTS: 1
DIF: Easy
OBJ: Unit VI | 29-2
Cognition's influence on conditioning
SKL: Conceptual/Application
D
PTS: 1
DIF: Difficult
OBJ: Unit VI | 29-4
Internal versus external locus of control
SKL: Conceptual/Application
D
PTS: 1
DIF: Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 29-4
Internal versus external locus of control
SKL: Conceptual/Application
E
PTS: 1
DIF: Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 29-4
Learned helplessness
SKL: Conceptual/Application
D
PTS: 1
DIF: Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 29-4
Learned helplessness
SKL: Conceptual/Application
B
PTS: 1
DIF: Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 29-4
Learned helplessness
SKL: Conceptual/Application
D
PTS: 1
DIF: Easy
OBJ: Unit VI | 29-4
Learned helplessness
SKL: Factual/Definitional
D
PTS: 1
DIF: Difficult
OBJ: Unit VI | 29-4
Learned helplessness
SKL: Conceptual
47. ANS:
TOP:
48. ANS:
TOP:
49. ANS:
TOP:
50. ANS:
TOP:
51. ANS:
TOP:
52. ANS:
TOP:
53. ANS:
TOP:
54. ANS:
TOP:
55. ANS:
TOP:
56. ANS:
TOP:
57. ANS:
TOP:
D
PTS: 1
DIF:
Learning by observation
SKL:
E
PTS: 1
DIF:
Learning by observation
SKL:
B
PTS: 1
DIF:
Learning by observation
SKL:
C
PTS: 1
DIF:
Mirrors and imitation in the brain
SKL:
B
PTS: 1
DIF:
Mirrors and imitation in the brain
SKL:
D
PTS: 1
DIF:
Learning by Observation
SKL:
A
PTS: 1
DIF:
Learning by Observation
SKL:
B
PTS: 1
DIF:
Applications of observational learning
D
PTS: 1
DIF:
Prosocial effects
SKL:
C
PTS: 1
DIF:
Prosocial effects
SKL:
C
PTS: 1
DIF:
Antisocial effects
SKL:
Easy
OBJ: Unit VI | 30-1
Factual/Definitional
Difficult
OBJ: Unit VI | 30-1
Factual/Definitional
Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 30-1
Factual/Definitional
Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 30-1
Factual/Definitional
Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 30-1
Factual/Definitional
Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 30-1
Factual/Definitional
Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 30-1
Factual/Definitional
Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 30-2
SKL: Factual/Definitional
Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 30-2
Factual/Definitional
Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 30-2
Conceptual/Application
Medium
OBJ: Unit VI | 30-2
Factual/Definitional