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BIOL 120 Animal Systems - Spring 2004, Exam 2
Each multiple choice question is worth 2 points. There are 50 questions. Please choose the
answer that you think is most correct. Remember to answer question 51. Please fill in your
name on the answer sheet. Make sure to fill in the bubbles for the letters in your name.
Return the answer sheet with the question sheet at the end of the exam.
Correct answers are written in red.
1. Lamarck proposed a biological theory. What is a short phrase that summarizes his theory?
a. Evolution by natural selection
a. One gene – one enzyme (protein)
b.. All organisms are made up of cells
c. Inheritance of acquired characteristics
Because of the problem with labeling the answers in this question, both c and d were
accepted as correct. If you wrote that the correct answer was “c”, your answer was graded by the
computer as correct. If you wrote that the correct answer was “d”, I have added 2 points to your
2. Evolution by natural selection is similar to artificial selection by a breeder who is trying to improve the
speed of race horses.
a. True
b. False
3. In special creation theory, species are:
a. subject to evolutionary change over time
b. able to freely interbreed
c. immutable and created over a short time by a deity
d. able to improve themselves over time by inheriting acquired characteristics
4. Uniformitarianism is the idea that
a. It is better to wear a uniform than not
b. The world has been shaped by a series of geological catastrophes
c. The world is not very old
d. The present-day world is the result of processes like those we see acting today
5. Darwin believed that species change because of
a. Special creation
b. Chance genetic recombination
c. Natural selection favoring the best-adapted individuals
d. Use and disuse of characters
6. In a natural population the number of individuals that survive to reproduce is:
a. Large
b. Small
c. Unknown
7. Mutations are directed at producing the fittest organism possible.
a. True
b. False
8. Carolus Linneaus is remembered for which of the following contributions to science?
a. A new concept for explaining evolution
b. The discovery of fossils and their meaning
c. A system of classifying plants and animals
d. The idea of evolution by the inheritance of acquired characteristics
9. The term ______ means that any plane passing longitudinally through the organism divides the body
into equivalent or mirrored halves.
a. Radial symmetry
b. Spherical symmetry
c. Biradial symmetry
d. Bilateral symmetry
10. What was Hutton and Lyell’s major contribution to science?
a. The discredited hypothesis that the earth is 6,000 years old
b. The hypothesis that geological processes observable today formed the modern landscape over
a long period of time.
c. That species are formed by natural selection
d. That fossils represent the animals killed in Noah’s flood
11. What kind of growth is characteristic of animal populations?
a. Exponential growth
b. Linear growth
c. Parabolic growth
d. No growth at all
12. What is the current estimated age of the earth?
a. 6, 000 years
b. 1 million years
c. 500 million years
d. 1 billion years
e. 4.6 billion years
13. What caused speciation in the apple maggot (Rhagolites pomonella)
a. Allopatric speciation
b. Adaptation to an underground life-style in the London subway system
c. A switch in larval food source from hawthorne fruit to apples
d. Sexual selection
14. What is a problem with applying the biological species concept?
a. It can’t be applied to species that live in different ranges
b. It can’t be applied to asexually reproducing species or species known only as fossils
c. Applying it makes too many small species with few members
d. It disagrees with the concept of a Scala Naturae
15. When a taxonomist is reconstructing the phylogeny of an animal group what characteristics are
a. Shared ancestral characteristics (pleisiomorphy)
b. Shared derived characteristics (synapomorphy)
c. Character similarities that misrepresent common descent (homoplasy)
16. What are the 5 kingdoms in the 5 kingdom system?
a. Animals, Plants, Algae, Protozoans, Bacteria
b. Animals, Fungi, Algae, Bacteria, Plants
c. Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists, Monera
d. Eukaryota, Achea, Bacteria, Animals, Plants
17. What is the name for the characteristic movement using pseudopodia?
a. Ameboid movement
b. Flagellary action
c. Peristalsis
d. Ciliary action
18. Which of the following protozoans has a complex life cycle involving two different hosts?
a. Amoeba proteus
b. Paramecium caudatum
c. Plasmodium vivax
d. Euglena viridis
19. What is the purpose of the contractile vacuole in Paramecium
a. Osmoregulation
b. Sensory stimulation
c. Locomotion
d. Reproduction
20. You find a protozoan in the sea. It has pseudopodia and a beautiful skeleton of radiating silica spikes.
You also find lots of microfossils from the organisms in the sediment of the deep sea. What is it?
a. A foraminiferan
b. An amoeba
c. A paramecium
d. A radiolarian
21. What happens to the macronucleus during conjugation in the genus Paramecium?
a. It undergoes meiosis and the daughter “gametes” combine with the daughter gametes of the
other individual of the conjugating pair
b. It maintains cell function
c. It divides
d. It disappears only to be reconstructed after conjugation is finished
22. Cilia and flagellae have a similar microstructure.
a. True
b. False
23. Plasmodium is the sporozoan parasite that causes malaria. It produces merozoites that live in a
specialized location in the human body. These merozoites also have a specialized food. Where do they live
and what do they eat?
a. They live in the intestine and they eat your intestinal contents
b. They encyst in muscles and they remain dormant until eaten by another host
c. They live in the liver and consume liver bile
d. They live in red blood cells and consume hemoglobin
24. What locomotive organelle is used by the subphylum Ciliata?
a. Pseudopodia
b. Cilia
c. Flagellae
d. Muscles
25. The bodies of sponges are little more than masses of cells embedded in a gelatinous matrix and
stiffened by a skeleton of
a. Pinacocytes
b. Myocytes
c. Spicules
d. Canal systems
26. Which statement is not true of the sponge?
a. All life activities depend on water current flowing through the body
b. Digestion is intracellular
c. The respiratory organ is located in the spongocoel
d. Sponges are capable of sexual reproduction
27. There is a type of cell in sponges that is very important in their life style. These cells have a single
flagellum which is ringed by microvilli are identified as:
a. Pinacocytes
b. Myocytes
c. Amebocytes
d. Choanocytes
28. What class of sponge has spicules of silica that are woven into a basket-like structure. The best
example is Euplectella, the Venus Flowerbasket.
a. Demospongiae
b. Sclerospongiae
c. Hexactinellida
d. Calcarea
29. A particularly mean child takes a sponge from the sea puts it into a cloth bag and bashes it with a
hammer. The child dumps the smashed contents of the bag into a tray of sea-water and leaves it
overnight. Is this a bad thing? What happens?
a. Yes, it is a bad thing. Call the SPCA. The child has killed the sponge
b. No, it is not a bad thing. The sponge has remarkable powers of regeneration. The next
day the separated sponge cells will have come back together to produce lots of little
c. Yes, it is a bad thing because the body of the sponge is totally smashed. It will die
d. No, this is not a bad thing. The sponge is filled with eggs that will hatch to produce new
30. No sponges are found in freshwater
a. True
b. False
31. What is the one cell type that is unique to the Cnidaria?
a. The nematocyst
b. The amoeboid cell
c. The choanocyte
d. The neuron
32. Metridium (which you saw in lab) belongs to the class:
a. Cubomedusa
b. Anthozoa
c. Scyphozoa
d. Hydrozoa
33. The hydrozoans have alternation of generations. What two life-forms do they have?
a. Larva and adult
b. Sporozoite and merozoite
c. Choanozoite and archeozoite
d. Polyp and medusa
34. Which of the following cnidarians is found in freshwater?
a. Obelia
35. Corals have been a great evolutionary success on earth. What is the key to their success?
a. Fast reproduction
b. Ability to live in very cold, dark parts of the ocean
c. A symbiotic relationship with algae
d. A very efficient digestive system
36. How many germ-layers do Cnidaria have?
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4
37. What do zooxanthellae do?
a. They aid the discharge of nematocysts
b. They are algae which supply photosynthate to the coral in exchange for mineral nutrients
c. They are cells in corals which are a last line of defense against predators
d. They form the coral skeleton
38. The small gap between neurons is called:
a. Acetylcholine
b. Ganglion
c. Synapse
d. Dendrite
e. Axon
39. What do the nodes of Ranvier do?
a. They insulate axons
b. They slow down nerve impulses
c. They allow nerve impulses to jump the gaps between neurons
d. They speed up the action potential by allowing salutatory conduction
40. A healthy axon at rest shows which of the following conditions:
a. A higher concentration of K+ on the inside and Na+ on the outside
b. The same concentration of ions on both sides
c. K+ and Na+ on the inside, nothing special on the outside
d. Positive ions at the axon end and negative charges near the cell body
41. What happens to a nerve cell during an action potential?
a. The cell membrane depolarizes because Na+ rushes in through Na channels
b. The cell membrane depolarizes because K+ rushes out through K channels
c. The action potential is conducted down the axon just like electricity flows down a copper
d. The axon twitches slightly to communicate the action potential down the nerve
42. Lidocaine is an anesthetic that is frequently used in dentistry. How does it work?
a. It blocks Na channels and stops action potentials
b. It blocks pain receptors
c. It depolarizes neurons and stops action potentials
d. It stops the action potential from jumping the gaps between neurons
43. What is a neurotransmitter
a. A substance that enhances action potentials
b. A substance that opens Na channels in neurons
c. A substance that transmits the nerve impulse across the synaptic cleft
d. A substance that transmits messages across various parts of the brain
44. Do Platyhelminths have a coelom?
a. Yes
b. No
45. The class of flatworms that is typically free living and non-parasitic is the:
a. Cestoda
b. Turbellaria
c. Tremetoda
46. Eating raw fish is dangerous to humans. What flatworm parasite is common in raw fish?
a. Tape worms
b. Schistosoma
c. Liver flukes
d. Trichina worms
47. What is the structure that attaches a tapeworm to the intestinal wall?
a. Proglottid
b. Scolex
c. Pharynx
d. Rhabdite
48.New species can arise only when:
a. Populations are genetically isolated
b. Populations are able to interbreed
c. Natural selection is active
c. Oceans separate populations
49. Hybrids between good biological species are usually fully fertile.
a. True
b. False
50. Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection was based on several observations. Which one of the
following was not one of Darwin's observations?
a. Like begets like
b The world was created at 9 AM. Oct. 28, 4004
c. Individuals in a population differ from one another
d. some individuals are more successful in reproducing than others
51. How many pluses (+) are in the lower left hand corner of this page?