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Transcript
Name__________________________________
Hour_____________
World War II Learning Targets
1. Describe what happened, where and why, for the 1937 ‘Rape of Nanjing.’
2. Describe the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact and why it was signed.
3. Define ‘appeasement’ and give an example of how it happened prior to WW II.
4. Define ‘isolationism’ and provide an example of it prior to WW II.
5. Explain how the roles of appeasement and isolationism helped lead to the outbreak of WW II.
6. Can I locate both the Allied and Axis powers on a map?
7. Describe the two principal ‘theaters of conflict’ in WW II.
8. Describe the following major turning points in WW II:
Germany’s Blitzkrieg
Battle of Britain
Battle of Stalingrad
Battle of El Alamein
Pearl Harbor
Battle of Midway
Battle of Guadalcanal
D-Day (Invasion of Normandy)
Battle of the Bulge
Hiroshima/ Nagasaki
9. Describe at least two key strategic decisions made by world leaders during WW II.
10. Explain the significance of at least two major war conferences at the end of the war, and how
they changed the political geography of Europe.
11. Describe the Nazi policy of pursuing racial purity by explaining ‘who’, ‘why’, and ‘how’, for at
least three different groups they targeted.
12. Explain how the Nazi policy of racial purity turned into Hitler’s ‘Final Solution’.
13. Describe how the Holocaust began, what happened, to whom, when, and why.
14. Describe the human costs of WW II, with special attention to civilian and military losses in the
following countries: Russia, Germany, Britain, United States, China, Japan.
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CHAPTER
16
GUIDED READING
Hitler’s Lightning War
Section 1
A. Following Chronological Order As you read about war in Europe and North
Africa, answer the questions about the time line.
1. What did each leader gain from the secret
agreement?
1939
2. What strategy did Hitler use to conquer Poland?
Aug.
Hitler and Stalin sign a nonaggression pact.
Sept.
Hitler invades Poland.
3. What was Hitler’s plan for conquering France?
1940
4. What happened at Dunkirk?
April
Hitler invades Denmark and
Norway.
June
France surrenders.
Sept.
German Luftwaffe begins
bombing British cities.
© McDougal Littell Inc. All rights reserved.
5. What was the outcome of the Battle of Britain?
Italy moves to seize Egypt
and Suez Canal.
1941
Feb.
June
6. What was the outcome of the fighting at Tobruk?
Hitler sends Rommel to help
Italian troops seize Egypt and
the Suez Canal.
Hitler invades the Soviet
Union.
7. How did Hitler’s invasion compare with Napoleon’s
invasion of Russia?
B. Clarifying On the back of this paper, identify each of the following:
Winston Churchill
Charles de Gaulle
Atlantic Charter
World War II 69
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GEOGRAPHY APPLICATION: MOVEMENT
CHAPTER
The Fall of Singapore
16
Directions: Read the paragraphs below and study the maps carefully. Then
answer the questions that follow.
Section 2
I
n February 1942, the Japanese army inflicted the
most embarrassing defeat suffered by the British
Empire during the Second World War. The British
lost Singapore, a tiny island at the southern tip of
Malaya, a peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Singapore was an extremely important location
during the war. The British used it as a base to protect India to the west and Australia to the south. In
addition, Singapore lay along the prime shipping
route from Europe to China.
The British thought Singapore impossible for
the Japanese to capture. First, to the north across
the Johore Strait the intense heat and dense jungle
of Malaya provided a barrier to invasion. Second,
the south end of the island faced the Strait of
Malacca. There the British placed batteries of huge
fifteen-inch cannons that could blast any enemy
ships.
However, the defenses contained one major
defect. The British had not bothered to fortify the
northern end of the island. They had assumed that
even if the Japanese attempted to come down the
peninsula, it would take them at least a year.
Nevertheless, the Japanese decided to invade
Singapore in this way. The Japanese, concealed by
the dense jungle, were not spotted by British aircraft. By the time the British became aware of the
Japanese, it was too late to mount an effective
defense of the island. The British, who were prepared for an assault by sea, were not able to turn
their guns around to the north in time to halt the
Japanese advance. It took the Japanese 68 days to
storm Malaya, cross the Johore Strait, and take
Singapore.
The British surrendered Singapore on February
15, 1942. Adding to the humiliation of the defeat was
the fact that British forces actually outnumbered the
invading Japanese army. In the end, 130,000 British
troops surrendered to 50,000 Japanese soldiers.
Invasion of Singapore
MALAYA
MALA
Jo
yy
yy
h
or
e
St
SINGAPORE
Japanese
Landings
Dec. 8, 1941
M
South
China
Sea
AL
Singapore City
AY
A
Strait of Malacca
Singapore
76 Unit 4, Chapter 16
Railroad
British military bases
Japanese attack route
© McDougal Littell Inc. All rights reserved.
r
ai
t
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The Fall of Singapore continued
Interpreting Text and Visuals
1. Where is the island of Singapore located? __________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
2. Why do you think the British did not expect the Japanese to attack Singapore by land? ______
____________________________________________________________________________
3. In how many places did the Japanese land troops on December 8, 1941? ________________
4. On which part of Singapore did most of the Japanese army invade? ______________________
____________________________________________________________________________
5. How many British military bases were located on Singapore? __________________________
On which part of the island were most of them located? ______________________________
6. Why do you think the Japanese were able to capture Singapore even though the British had a
great advantage in number of soldiers? ____________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
© McDougal Littell Inc. All rights reserved.
____________________________________________________________________________
7. What do you think made Singapore an important military target for the Japanese?
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
World War II 77
The Holocaust: 1933-1939
Once firmly in power, Hitler's plans for the ending of the struggle between the Aryan race and the
"inferior races" was set to work. These races were feared as a biological threat to the "master race"
purity. Hitler gained further support for his ideas via the Nazi Propaganda Ministry, headed by Dr.
Joseph Goebbels, which filled the popular media with pro-Nazi material. Anything opposing the Nazi
Party was censored and removed from the media. All forms of communication, newspapers,
magazines, books, public meetings, rallies, art, music, movies, and radio, was controlled by the
Nazis. Book-burnings of books that didn't gel with the "Nazi ideals" were frequent, some due to the
their authors being Jewish, such as Albert Einstein and Sigmund Freud, but many of them by nonJews such as Ernest Hemingway, Jack London, Sinclair Lewis, and Helen Keller (a particularly
offensive person to the Nazis since she successfully overcame her handicaps).
The Jewish population of Germany hovered around 600,000 in total, less than 1 percent of the entire
German population. Nonetheless, Nazi propaganda identified them as a "race" (incorrect) and an
inferior one at that, the source of all the economic depression and defeat in World War I- failing to
mention that many of the more than 100,000 Jews who had served in the war were highly decorated
soldiers. The Jews of Germany still had some prejudices held against them but they were becoming
more and more accepted. Interfaith marriages were on the rise and many Jews were prominent
citizens: fourteen of the 38 Nobel Prizes awarded to Germans went to Jews. This was about to
change, and for the worse. Laws were instituted against Jews forcing them out of public life, i.e. civil
service jobs, law court and university positions, etc. Jewish business were boycotted as of 1935, the
first organized boycott was on April 1, 1933. Jews were forced to label all exterior clothing with a
yellow Star of David with the word Juden, (Jew). The "Nuremberg Laws" proclaimed Jews secondclass citizens. Furthermore one's Jewishness, according to the Nuremberg Laws, was dependent on
that of a person's grandparents, not that person's beliefs or identity. More laws passed between 1937
and 1939 were increasingly strict: Jews were more and more segregated and life was made much
harder. Jews could not go to public schools, theaters, cinemas, or resorts, and furthermore, they were
banned from living, or sometimes even walking, in certain parts of Germany. The Jewish population
was less persecuted during the Summer Olympics of Berlin in 1936, however, no German Jewish
athletes were allowed to compete.
The period between 1937 and 1939 also saw the economic hardship for Jews increase. Actions
against Jewish businesses and properties escalated from boycotts and seizures to destruction of
stores and synagogues. In November 1938, the Kristallnacht took place, in which Jewish buildings
were destroyed, and Jewish men were arrested and murdered. The riot (or pogrom) came be to
known as the "night of broken glass," thus the name Kristallnacht. Over 1000 synagogues were
burned, 7,000 Jewish business were wrecked. It had all been very carefully planned by Dr. Goebbels
and other Nazi officials. Thirty thousand more male Jews were arrested the next morning for the
"crime" of their religious beliefs. Some female Jews were arrested and sent to local jails. More
restrictions were placed on the Jewish people, making it particularly tough for children, who were
essentially housebound.
Jews were not the only target of Nazi persecution despite their status as the main "problem." Nazi
hatred extended to include groups deemed racially or genetically "inferior," which was advocated by
scientists who promoted "selective breeding," or eugenics for the "improvement" of the human race.
Laws were passed between 1933 and 1935 to reduce the number of genetically "inferior" individuals
in the gene pool through involuntary sterilization programs. The result: 500 African-German children
and 320,000 to 350,000 people judged to be handicapped either physically or mentally were sterilized
surgically or subjected to sterilizing radiation. The program drew support from people claiming that
the handicapped population was a burden due to their care costs. Many Blacks and Gypsies were
also sterilized and prevented from intermarrying with Germans. The Nazi tradition of mixing old
prejudices in showed again when laws were passed decreeing Gypsies (30,000 of which resided in
Germany) as "criminal and asocial" as a race in general.
Other victims of Nazi persecution included political opponents of Hitler and trade unionists as well as
other "enemies of the state." Between 5,000 and 15,000 homosexuals were placed in concentration
camps. Due to the newly revised 1935 Nazi criminal code, simply being called a homosexual could
result in arrest, trial, and conviction. The 20,000 Jehovah's Witnesses in Germany were banned in
April 1933 because their religion prohibited them from swearing any oath to the state or providing
service in the state military. The literature of the Jehovah's Witnesses was confiscated. They lost their
jobs along with their unemployment benefits, social welfare benefits, and pensions. Many of them
were put in concentration camps and prisons; their children went to juvenile detention centers and
orphanages.
In this time, approximately half the Jewish population of Germany fled along with more than two-thirds
of the Austrian Jewry, the latter fleeing between 1938 and 1939. Emigration took them to Palestine
(mainly), but also the United States, Latin America, Shanghai (where no visa was required for entry, a
great convenience), along with eastern and western Europe, (a poor choice, since the Nazis would
soon catch many of them again as they conquered Europe). The Jews who remained in Nazi
Germany were either unwilling to leave or unable to obtain visas. Some could not get sponsors in
host countries, or were simply too poor to be able to afford the trip. Many foreign countries made it
even harder to get out due to strict emigration policies designed to thwart large amounts of refugees
from entering, particularly in the wake of the Depression. The United States, Britain, Canada, and
France were among these. Thirty-eight countries met at Evian, France to discuss the treatment of the
Jews in Germany, but no real help was offered, to the delight of the German government, which was
amused that while the world criticized their treatment of Jews, nobody was offering the Jews a place
to go to when the opportunity was there.
Directions: The year is 1938 and you are a German citizen living in Berlin. You have just heard that Jewish
synagogues and businesses have been vandalized and destroyed all across the country. After hearing reports of
the destruction, you are so moved that you feel it necessary to write an editorial for your newspaper, The Berlin
Post, the most widely read newspaper in Germany. In one paragraph describe how you, a German newspaper
editor, feel about events of Kristallnacht. However, you understand that the newspapers in Germany were not
free to write whatever they wanted. With that in mind, use the back of this sheet, class notes, and your textbook
to write an editorial that could get published and not result in your imprisonment.
THE BERLIN POST
Friday, November 11, 1938
What I think of the Versailles Treaty—
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
Directions: The year is 1938 and you are an American citizen living in Kansas City. You have just heard that
Jewish synagogues and businesses have been vandalized and destroyed all across Germany. After hearing
reports of the destruction, you are so moved that you feel it necessary to write an editorial for your newspaper,
The Kansas City Star, the most widely read newspaper in the region. In one paragraph describe how you, an
American citizen from the midwest, feel about events of Kristallnacht. Use the back of this sheet, class notes,
and your textbook to write an editorial that could get published and not result in your imprisonment.
The Kansas City Star
Friday, November 11, 1938
What I think of Kristallnacht—
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
Timeline of the Holocaust During WWII
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CHAPTER
16
Section 4
© McDougal Littell Inc. All rights reserved.
A
Date
PRIMARY SOURCE
from Hiroshima
by John Hersey
On August 6, 1945, the United States dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima,
Japan. Journalist John Hersey wrote an account of six Japanese survivors whose
lives were forever changed by the blast. As you read part of this account, consider what each of the survivors was doing when the bomb exploded.
t exactly fifteen minutes past eight in the
morning, on August 6, 1945, Japanese time, at
the moment when the atomic bomb flashed above
Hiroshima, Miss Toshiko Sasaki, a clerk in the personnel department of the East Asia Tin Works, had
just sat down at her place in the plant office and
was turning her head to speak to the girl at the next
desk. At that same moment, Dr. Masakazu Fujii
was settling down cross-legged to read the Osaka
Asahi on the porch of his private hospital, overhanging one of the seven deltaic rivers which divide
Hiroshima; Mrs. Hatsuyo Nakamura, a tailor’s widow,
stood by the window of her kitchen, watching a
neighbor tearing down his house because it lay in
the path of an air-raid-defense fire lane; Father
Wilhelm Kleinsorge, a German priest of the Society
of Jesus, reclined in his underwear on a cot on the
top floor of his order’s three-story mission house,
reading a Jesuit magazine, Stimmen der Zeit; Dr.
Terufumi Sasaki, a young member of the surgical
staff of the city’s large, modern Red Cross Hospital,
walked along one of the hospital corridors with a
blood specimen for a Wassermann test in his hand;
and the Reverend Mr. Kiyoshi Tanimoto, pastor of
the Hiroshima Methodist Church, paused at the
door of a rich man’s house in Koi, the city’s western
suburb, and prepared to unload a handcart full of
things he had evacuated from town in fear of the
massive B-29 raid which everyone expected
Hiroshima to suffer. A hundred thousand people
were killed by the atomic bomb, and these six were
among the survivors. They still wonder why they
lived when so many others died. Each of them
counts many small items of chance or volition
[will]—a step taken in time, a decision to go indoors,
catching one streetcar instead of the next—that
spared him. And now each knows that in the act of
survival he lived a dozen lives and saw more death
than he ever thought he would see. At the time,
none of them knew anything. . . .
Then a tremendous flash of light cut across the
sky. Mr. Tanimoto has a distinct recollection that it
travelled from east to west, from the city toward
the hills. It seemed a sheet of sun. Both he and Mr.
Matsuo reacted in terror—and both had time to
react (for they were 3,500 yards, or two miles, from
the center of the explosion). Mr. Matsuo dashed up
the front steps into the house and dived among the
bedrolls and buried himself there. Mr. Tanimoto
took four or five steps and threw himself between
two big rocks in the garden. He bellied up very
hard against one of them. As his face was against
the stone, he did not see what happened. He felt a
sudden pressure, and then splinters and pieces of
board and fragments of tile fell on him. He heard
no roar.
from John Hersey, Hiroshima (New York: Bantam, 1946),
1–7.
Research Option
Forming and Supporting Opinions
Use on-line or print resources to research the
debate in 1945 among scientists and American government officials over whether the United States
should use the atomic bomb on Japan. Then, with
your classmates, hold a mock debate in which you
argue for or against using the bomb.
Excerpt from Hiroshima by John Hersey. Originally appeared in The New Yorker.
Copyright 1946 and renewed 1974 by John Hersey. Used by permission of the Estate of
John Hersey.
World War II 81
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Name
Date
CHAPTER
16
GUIDED READING
Europe and Japan in Ruins
Section 5
A. Summarizing As you read this section, fill out the chart by writing notes to
describe conditions in postwar Europe and Japan.
Postwar Europe:
1. Note three ways war
affected the land and
people of Europe.
2. Note three political
problems postwar
governments faced.
3. Note one way the
Allies dealt with the
Holocaust.
Postwar Japan:
© McDougal Littell Inc. All rights reserved.
4. Note two effects of
Allied bombing raids
on Japan.
5. Note three ways U.S.
occupation changed
Japan.
6. Note three provisions
in Japan’s new
constitution.
B. Clarifying On the back of this paper, explain the objectives of the Nuremberg
Trials and the demilitarization of Japan.
World War II 73
Reasons for
The Problem
Use pages 512-513 to complete the organizer
The Atomic
Bomb
The Decision
Results
Reasons against
New Conflicts Develop
The Aftermath of WWII
Use pages 514-517 in your text to complete the organizer.
United Nations
Alliances Break Up