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Theory of Evolution Evolution: A change in a species over time (many generations) Adaptation: Characteristics / Traits which improve an organism’s ability to survive and reproduce Natural Selection “Survival of the Fittest” Environmental conditions influence which organisms in a population survive. Artificial Selection Selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals to produce desired offspring. Fossils The remains or traces of organisms that lived in the past. Extinct When a species no longer exists on Earth. Mutation A change in a gene. Variation Differences among members of a species. Charles Darwin Came up with the Theory of Evolution. Traveled around the world for 5 years studying various types of life. Spent a lot of time in the Galapagos Islands. Darwin’s 4 Principles 1. Variation 2. Inherited genes 3. Overproduction 4. Natural selection Jean Baptiste Lamarck “Missed the mark” Thought animals change during their life time and pass these traits on to their young. Example: If you dye your hair pink your children will have pink hair. 5 Pieces of Evidence of Evolution 1. Fossils 2. Embryology 3. Biochemistry 4. Biogeography 5. Comparative Anatomy 1. Fossils: Show us organisms in the past were different but also share some of the same traits as modern organisms found today. 2. Embryology: Embryos of closely related organisms often have similar stages in development. 3. Biochemistry Comparing DNA of organisms. 4. Biogeography Differences and similarities between organisms in different parts of the world. Emu – Australia Ostrich - Africa Rhea – South America 5. Comparative Anatomy Similarities in structures of different organisms can show how closely related they are.