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1) A 12 foot tall human:
a) Would need a disproportionally larger and stronger skeleton than a 6 foot tall
b) Would need a disproportionally smaller and weaker skeleton than a 2 foot tall
c) Would be able to scale vertical surfaces without any ropes by clinging via
surface tension
2) The animals in the Burgess Shale fossils are:
a) Identical to present day animals
b) Mostly chordates
c) In some cases body plans that do not exist in present day animals
3) Eumetazoans are either:
a) Parazoa or deuterostomia
b) Bilateria or radiate
d) Protostomia or deuterostomia
4) This phylum has a gastrovascular cavity and stinging cells:
a) Platyhelminthes
b) Echinoderms
c) Cnidarians
5) These worms have a circulatory system:
a) Annelid worms
b) Nematode worms
c) Flatworms
6) An animal with the cross section shown above has a:
a) Gastrovascular cavity
b) Pseudocoelom
c) Coelom
7) Which of the following phyla would have an embryo like the one shown above:
a) Rotifer
b) Annelid
c) Chordate
8) Humans are:
a) Parazoa
b) Protostomes
c) eumetazoans
9) What do annelids, lophophorates, and echinoderms share in common?
a) All are deuterostomes
b) All are only found in the ocean
c) All are bilateral
10) Tunicates are:
a) Porifera
b) Chordata
c) Ctenophora
11) How fast can oxygen diffuse?
a) 1 micron in 10-4 seconds
b) 1 micron in 10 seconds
c) 1 micron in 10 minutes
12) Blood in the capillaries of fish gills moves in the opposite direction as water flow:
a) To reduce turbulence and drag
b) To increase the oxygenation of the blood
c) For no reason
13) Oxygenated and deoxygenated blood can mix in which of these cardiovascular
a) 2 chambered heart
b) 3 chambered heart
c) 4 chambered heart
14) In this cardiovascular system, the blood exits the heart ventricle and must be pushed
through two sets of capillary beds in series
a) 2 chambered heart
b) 3 chambered heart
c) 4 chambered heart
15) In birds:
a) The tracheal system supplies oxygen to the tissues
b) The lungs are filled by tidal ventilation
c) Outside air first enters the posterior air sacs before entering the lung
16) Which of the following animals breathe extensively through their skin:
a) Birds
b) Amphibians
c) Reptiles
17) Arteries:
a) Transport blood away from the heart
b) Have the thinnest layer of connective tissue
c) Only carry oxygenated blood
18) When hemoglobin in human blood is exposed to high carbon dioxide it:
a) Has a higher affinity for oxygen promoting oxygen binding
b) Has a lower affinity for oxygen promoting oxygen release
c) Cannot bind oxygen
19) Steroid hormones are:
a) the primary hormones involved in glucose homeostasis
b) a class of hormones that include corticosteroids
c) unable do diffuse across membranes
20) Norepinephrine and epinephrine
a) Lower blood pressure
b) Are released by the hypothalamus
c) Are released by the adrenal medulla
21) Corticosteroids are produced in response to:
a) Short term stress
b) Epinephrine release
22) Insulin is released by
a) Pancreatic beta cells
b) Adrenal medulla
c) Adrenal cortex
23) In this type of digestive system, food enters through the same opening that waste
exits from:
a) Extracellular digestion
b) Gastrovascular cavity
c) Alimentary canal
24) Salivary amylase
a) Breaks down protein in the cecum
b) Breaks down starch in the mouth
c) Is activated by enteropeptidase
25) Hydrochloric acid is produced in this part of the digestive system of humans
a) Mouth
b) Stomach
c) Small intestine
26) The oxygen dissociation curves above are for human adult and human fetal
hemoglobin. Which curve is the fetal hemoglobin A or B?
27) When oxygen concentration is zero, hemoglobin percent saturation is:
a) Also zero
b) There is no way to know
c) 50
28) The Bohr effect which happens when blood pH changes has this effect on
a) It prevents hemoglobin from becoming 100% saturated
b) It causes hemoglobin to release more oxygen under low pH conditions in the
muscle tissue
c) It causes hemoglobin to take up less oxygen under low pH conditions in the
29) In the human circulatory system, deoxygenated blood from the body first enters
which chamber of the heart?
a) Left atrium
b) Left ventricle
c) Right atrium
30) Norepinephrine increases:
a) Blood volume
b) Heart rate
c) Insulin levels
31) The anterior pituitary gland is involved in:
a) Short-term stress
b) Long-term stress
c) Respiration
32) Spiracles are important in:
a) Blood circulation
b) Heart pumping
c) Oxygen supply
33) This enzyme digests protein:
a) Pepsin
b) Amylase
c) Glucagon
34) Hydra
a) Have an open circulatory system
b) Can survive without eating when they have green algae as symbionts
c) Are in the phylum rotifer
35) Which of the following hormones results in increased breakdown of protein and fats:
a) Glucagon
b) Insulin
c) Corticosteroids
36) Villi and microvilli are found:
a) In the adrenal gland
b) In the small intestine
c) On the fish gill
37) Which of the following has a pseudocoelom:
a) Nematode
b) Flatworm
c) Earthworm
38) Arthropods
a) Have a closed circulatory system
b) Usually have lungs
c) Are a highly successful phylum on land
39) Pheromones
a) Are like hormones, but are outside of the body
b) Do not have any effect on humans
c) Must be present in extremely high quantities in order to have an effect on the
target organism
40) In response to low blood sugar:
a) Pancreatic alpha cells release glucagon
b) The pancreas releases chymotrysinogen
c) The anterior pituitary releases insulin
41) Steroid hormones
a) Form a receptor complex that regulates gene expression
b) Are made from proteins
c) Are released from the hypothalamus into the bloodstream
42) Sometimes babies are born with an incomplete septum between the left and right
ventricles of the heart. If left uncorrected, this will result in:
a) Reduced oxygenation of blood supplied to the body
b) Increased oxygenation of blood supplied to the body
c) Difficulty breathing
43) Two basketball players, Aron Baynes and Robbie Cowgill are both 6 feet 10 inches
tall. Baynes weighs 270 pounds and Cowgill weighs 211 pounds:
a) Cowgill has the highest surface area to volume ratio
b) Baynes has the highest surface area to volume ratio
c) Baynes and Cowgill have equal volumes and surface areas
44) In humans, a lot of glycogen is synthesized in this organ
a) Liver
b) Pancreas
c) Brain
45) Amino-acid derived hormones like adrenaline bind to:
a) Internal receptors inside cells
b) Hemoglobin
c) External receptors on the surface of cells that fit the hormone perfectly
46) Homeostasis refers to:
a) An evolutionary trend where animals become more similar
b) Large fluctuations within the body tissues
c) The steady state physiological condition in the body where there are no large
fluctuations in parameters such as glucose
47) Collagen lacking this amino acid has a lower melting temperature
a) Proline
b) Hydroxyproline
c) Glycine
48) Mesoderm
a) Is the outer layer of tissue in animals
b) Is the tissue that forms the digestive system
c) Forms the coelom lining
49) Which phylum has a body plan that completely lacks symmetry:
a) Porifera
b) Metazoa
c) Cnidaria
50) This type of blood vessel consists primarily of endothelium
a) Vein
b) Artery
c) Capillary