Download CE...Chapter 3 - Dictatorship in Russia (summary diagram)

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Urban skilled
factory workers
Lenin’s April Theses
appeals to radical soviets
Factors in army: democratization
of command/end war
Radical peasant impetus:
return land to workers
Support of the masses
…despite weak
Kornilov Revolt
Problematic dual power base: Constitutional
Democrats/Octobrists and Petrograd Soviet
E.H. Carr – Stalin
‘an agent of history’,
‘an emancipator and a tyrant’
Brezhnev re-establishes
Stalinism (1964–81)
Stalin’s legacy arguably
survives until 1991
The weaknesses ofthe
Provisional Government
Early democratic organization
and decentralization
The revolution of
October/November 1917
Lenin’s regime, 1917–24
Reflections on Stalin’s dictatorship
…but not necessarily
Why did the Bolsheviks
win the Civil War?
New Economic Policy, 1921:
satisfies peasant rebels
Reds control communications
The nationalities (60+ ethnic
groups) eventually aid Reds
Creating the Bolshevik
state, 1918–24
Whites become
common enemy of
Reds and Greens
Dissolution of the Constituent Assembly
War Communism, 1918
Economic changes
New Economic Policy, 1921
Stalin over Trotsky
Political system: tight control
over Central Committee vs.
progressive constitution
Basis for Stalin’s
Successful establishment
of personality cult
Dictatorship in Russia
Ruthless dictator but with
limited control over
implementation of changes
Terror: 1930s purges eradicate
potential opposition and create
labour force through Gulags
Marxist ideology
Support for Slavic
history and culture
Cold War with
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany
(1918) allows Russia to focus on east
The succession and
struggle for power, 1924–9
Ruthless strategies
to gain power…
Reasons for
Civil War
Political changes
and terror
Lenin/Bolsheviks seize power
Phase 3 (Red-Green II): Socialist
Revolutionaries supported by
peasant armies, 1921
Phase 2 (Red-White): military coups
attempted by ex-Tsarist officers, 1918
The survival of Bolshevik Russia:
the Civil War, 1918–22
Why were the
Bolsheviks successful?
Centralized strategies hampered
by dependence on local implementation
Phase 1 (Red-Green I): Bolsheviks
vs. other revolutionary groups incl.
Socialist Revolutionaries, 1917–18
Stalin’s rule to 1941
Economy: collectivization
and industrialization
1945–53: mature dictatorship?
Post-war foreign
The nationalities:
Control over eastern
Economic block
Post-war economics
with eastern Europe
The regime and the
man behind it, 1945–53
Nuclear industry:
Renewed Reconstruction of industry
atomic (1949) and
and agriculture
hydrogen (1951) bombs
Soviet foreign policy, 1918–41
The Great Patriotic War, 1941–5
Phase 1 (The invasion of 1941
and Soviet defeat, 1941–2)
Operation Barbarossa
(22 June 1941): Hitler and
other states invade Russia
Massive loss of life
and territory
Author: Susanna Ivanic
(c) 2017 Taylor & Francis
Russia had prepared for
offensive warfare than defensive
and surprise
Industrialization progress
Support, opposition
and resistance
concessions and
Ability to ‘outproduce’
Phase 2 (Revival and
victory, 1943–5)
Equipment provided
by western Allies
Phase 1 (1918–24):
Lenin’s pragmatic
approach to West
Mobilization of
patriotic sentiments
Phase 2 (1924–39):
Stalin breaks diplomatic relations
with West and adapts approach
to Germany
I. Rapallo approach:
continue special relationship
with Germany
Society under Stalin
Social and
gender equality
Realism in art
Educational persecution
Phase 3 (Nazi-Soviet Pact,
1939–41): Non-Aggression Pact
between Germany and Russia
Relationship deteriorates and
II. Collective security approach:
Germany prepares
containing Germany through alliances
to invade Russia
with France and Czechoslovakia