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Page 1 of 2
1. Study guides (same as what they appear in the PowerPoint slides):
 Critically read Chapter 12 pp. 442-461 (textbook) before section 12.5 Synapses.
 Comprehend Terminology (those in bold in the textbook) within the reading scope above.
 Study-- Figure questions, Think About It questions, and Before You Go On (section-ending)
questions (within the reading scope above).
 Do end-of-chapter questions: Testing Your Recall— 1-4, 7, 11-17; True/False– 1-4, 6, 8
2. Key concepts:
A. 12.1 Overview of the nervous system—the central nervous system including brain and spinal nerve
cord and the peripheral nervous system including the somatic and autonomic nervous systems;
understand Figures 12.1, 12.2
 Match each statement with a response chosen from the key: afferent neuron, association neuron
(interneuron), central nervous system, efferent neuron, ganglion, neuroglia, peripheral
nervous system
1 The brain and spinal cord collectively
2 Specialized supporting cells in the CNS
3 Neuron serving as part of the conduction pathway between sensory
and motor neurons
4 Ganglia and spinal and cranial nerves
5 Collection of nerve cell bodies found outside the CNS
6 Neuron that conducts impulses away from the CNS to muscles and
7 Neuron that conducts impulses toward the CNS from the body
B. 12.2 Properties of neurons--types, structural features, and functions of the major types of neurons;
understand Figures 12.3-12.5
 Draw a “typical” neuron in the space below. Include and label the following structures on your
diagram: cell body, Nissl bodies, dendrites, axon, myelin sheath, axon terminals, axon
hillock, and neurofibrils.
 Match the above terms with the appropriate description or function.
1 Region of the cell body from which the axon originates
2 Secrets neurotransmitters
3 Receptive region of a neuron
4 Insulates the nerve fibers
5 Site of the nucleus and is the most important metabolic area
6 May be involved in the transport of substances within the neuron
7 Essentially rough endoplasmic reticulum, important metabolically
8 Impulse generator and transmitter
Page 2 of 2
C. 12.3 Supportive cells (Neuroglia)--types and functions of neuroglia cells including myelination; types
of neuroglia in the CNS? Those in the PNS? Table 12.1 is essential. Understand Figures 12.6-12.8
and read INSIGHT 12.1-12.2
 Complete the following table.
Types of neuroglia in the
1 Phagocytosis of debris, bacteria etc.
Ependymal cells
Myelinate neuron processes in the CNS
Name the PNS glial cell that forms myelin. Answer: __________________________
Name the PNS glial cell that surrounds neuron cell bodies in ganglia. Answer: ____________
Certain diseases cause demyelination of nerves. Name one disease of this type. How will the
disease affect nerve function? (read INSIGHT 12.2 on page 450) Answer: ______________
D. modes of transportation within the neuron and regeneration of the axon;
E. 12.4 Electrophysiology of neurons--electrophysiology of neurons especially resting, local, and action
potentials; Understand Figures 12.11-15; Table 12.2 on page 456 is very important
 Complete the following table.
Local potential
Action potential
Graded—proportional to stimulus strength
Reversible—returns to resting membrane
potential if stimulation ceases before
threshold is reached
Local—has effects for only a short distance
from point of origin
Decremental—signal grows weaker with
What ion produces the spike of the action potential? Answer: ________________________
Nerve A has a refractory period of 5 milliseconds and nerve B has a refractory period of 10
milliseconds. Which nerve can fire at the fastest rate (the most impulses per second)? Answer:
 Nerves C and D are identical except that nerve C has a myelin sheath. Which nerve has the fastest
conduction velocity? Answer:
F. concepts related to nerve message conduction including action potential, local potentials, threshold,
refractory period, saltatory, and nondecremental impulses; understand Figures 12.16-17;
Watch/comprehend video clips appear in chapter 12 on