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Unit test review
1. What is the function of the digestive system?
The digestive system: a) Digests food (break down large particulate food particles into
molecules that can be absorbed), b) Produces enzymes that help in the digestion process, and
c) Absorption: moves molecules from the alimentary canal to the bloodstream.
2. Is the digestive system a multi-organ system? If yes, name 5 of these organs.
Esophagus, stomach, small intestines, large intestines, pancreas
3. What are two types of contraction that move materials along the alimentary canal (from mouth
to anus).
The wave of contraction that moves food along the alimentary canal is called PERISTALTISM.
4. What type of tissue lines the inside of the alimentary canal?
Mucous membrane (mucosa)
5. What kinds of cells produce mucus in the alimentary canal? Why?
They are called mucous cells or goblet cells
6. Describe the type of digestion that occurs in the mouth (mechanical/ chemical).
Mouth- mechanical: chewing of the food
Chemical: enzymes in the saliva start the process of digestion (amylase)
7. What are the three sections of the small intestines? What is the function of each?
Duodenum: Mostly a digestive role, Jejunum and ilium: mostly absorption
8. How does the liver contribute to digestion? What is the function of the gallbladder?
The liver produces a substance (BILE) that is secreted into the duodenum, and it aids in the
digestion of fat (emulsification of fat)
9. How does the pancreas aid in digestion? What enzymes does it produce?
-The pancreas has a major role in the chemical digestion; it produces many enzymes for the
digestion of all molecules.
-The pancreas produces a basic (alkaline) substance that neutralizes the acidic stomach juice
that enters into the duodenum.
10. What type of muscle makes up the intestines? (Smooth or skeletal)
Smooth muscles, because smooth muscles are involuntary
11. Name three functions of the circulatory system.
1) Distribution of oxygen to all body cells
2) Distribution of nutrients to all body cells
3) Picking up waste products from cells and bringing them to appropriate organs
(ex: picking up CO2 and bringing it to the lungs, picking up other waste products and bringing
them to kidneys)
4) Thermoregulation (regulating your body temperature)
12. What are the three components of the circulatory system?
1) heart
2) blood
3) blood vessels
13. What is the function of Hemoglobin? Where do you find this protein? What metal does it
contain? What color is it?
Hemoglobin carries oxygen, you find this protein inside of RBCs, Iron, it is red
14. What is the lifetime of an RBC? Where are new RBCs made? Where do they die?
120 days, born in the bone marrow, die in the liver and spleen
15. What is the major function of the WBC?
White blood cells are a major component of the immune system (defends the body against
foreign invaders)
16. Name 3 proteins that you find in the plasma. What is the function of each?
1) Fibrinogen- involved in blood clotting
2) Albumin- most common in the blood (important for maintaining the colloid pressure)
3) Immunoglobulin (antibodies)- major proteins in the immune system
17. The heart is made out of cardiac muscle. It also contains nervous tissue. What do you think is
the function of the nervous tissue in the heart?
Nervous tissue helps establish the heart rate (pacemaker)
18. What is the difference in structure between veins and arteries? Why?
Arteries have very thick walls because they carry blood that has a very high pressure (they
have to withstand the high pressure). Veins carry blood that has a very low pressure (close to 0
in the vena cava), so they can be thin.
19. Through which vascular component can gas exchange occur (capillaries, veins, arteries,
venules)? Describe its structure.
ONLY capillaries because their wall is thin and porous
20. Which components of the respiratory system are also shared with the digestive system?
Mouth, pharynx, larynx
21. What structure prevents food from entering into the trachea?
Epiglottis
22. Which two muscles are involved in inspiration and expiration?
1) Diaphragm
2) Intercostal muscles (internal and external)
23. Draw a flowchart of inspiration and expiration.
Inspiration:
Diaphragm contracts and flattens intercostal muscles* contract the rib cage (thoracic cage)
expands the lungs follow and expand (increase in volume)  the increase in the volume
causes a decrease in the pressure of the lungs  air goes in (due to pressure gradient)
***pressure Gradient: air moves from an area of a high pressure to an area of a low pressure.
The pressure gradient is the difference between the two pressures (high and low)
Expiration:
Diaphragm relaxes and becomes dome-shaped intercostal muscles* relax the rib cage
(thoracic cage) decreases the lungs follow and decrease in size (decrease in volume)  the
decrease in the volume causes a increase in the pressure of the lungs  air goes out (due to
pressure gradient)
24. Where does gas exchange happen? What process is involved?
In the alveoli, diffusion
25. What type of cell lines the majority of the respiratory tract? What type of cell lines in the inside
of the alveoli?
Ciliated columnar epithelium, simple squamous epithelium
26. What are the three types of alveolar cells? What is the function of each type?
Type I- thin for gas exchange
Type II- Thicker, makes substances (surfactant)
Macrophages- immunity
27. What structure in the brain controls the ventilation rate?
Medulla Oblongata
28. Why is the body more concerned with the levels of CO2 in the body as opposed to the level of
O2?
CO2 is a waste product and having too much CO2 can be very harmful to the body.
The O2 levels would have to be very low to cause harm
29. Is the diaphragm made out of smooth or skeletal muscles?
It is a skeletal muscle
30. What is the relationship between volume and pressure?
The higher the volume, the lower the pressure
*** Know the symptoms and treatments of diseases.
Label the following:
Heart Diagram:
a. Superior vena cava
b. Pulmonary semilunar valve
c. Right atrium
d. Tricuspid AV valve
e. Right ventricle
f. Inferior vena cava
g. Aorta
h. Pulmonary trunk (artery)
i. Pulmonary vein
j. Left atrium
k. Aortic semilunar valve
l. Bicuspid AV valve
m. Left ventricle
n. Septum
o. Apex
Digestive tract:
a. Mouth
b. Liver
c. Gallbladder
d. Large intestines
e. Appendix
f. Anus
g. Esophagus
h. Stomach
i. Pancreas
j. Small intestines
k. Rectum
Respiratory tract:
a. Nasal cavity
b. Pharynx
c. Larynx
d. Trachea
e. Right bronchus
f. Right lung