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Digestive System Digestive System- a series of organs that work together to break down foods into substances that your cells can use. Digestion- The process which the body breaks food down into smaller components that can be absorbed by the bloodstream and sent to each cell in your body. Also, eliminates undigested food and waste products from the body. 2 Types of digestion 1. Mechanical- the breakdown of food by the mouth and teeth. Prepares for chemical digestion. 2. Chemical- enzymes are responsible for the breakdown of food into smaller particles so that they can be absorbed. The Process and Parts 1. Mouth and Teeth- Break down food into smaller pieces so they can be swallowed. 2. Saliva- a digestive juice produced by the salivary glands in your mouth. Contain enzymes which begin to break down food and make it easier to swallow. (softer) 3. Esophagus- long tube that leads from mouth to stomach. 4. Epiglottis- small flap of tissue that closes the windpipe as food is swallowed. 5. Stomach- a muscular organ that mixes and churns food with acid and enzymes to further break down food. (Chyme) 6. Small Intestine- a coiled tube about 20 feet long, where most of the digestive process takes place. Waste that is not digested moves on to large intestine. a. Villi- small fingerlike projections in the walls of the small intestine increase surface area 600x so more digestion can take place. 7. Large Intestine (Colon)- 6 foot long tube that absorbs water and some remaining nutrients. 8. Rectum- where waste is stored for elimination 9. Anus- where solid waste is removed as feces and digestion ends. Helper Organs 1. Liver- Largest gland in the body. Produces bile(to help digest fat), maintains blood sugar, stores glycogen, makes vitamin A. 2. Gallbladder- stores bile (yellowish-green fluid) 3. Pancreas- produces enzymes for digestion of fat, carbohydrates, protein. Produces bicarbonate which reduces acid levels. Excretory system Functions of the Excretory System 1. Filters wastes from the circulatory system 2. Eliminates wastes from the body in the form of urine Liquid Waste 1. Kidneys- filter liquid waste from the blood, maintains proper levels of water and salts. 2. Ureters- two tubes that connect the kidneys with the bladder 3. Bladder- a storage pouch for urine 4. Urethra- where urine passes. A signal from the nervous system is sent when bladder is full.