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Part B Review Guide Endocrine System (Pages 997-1008 of textbook) 1. Define hormone. A chemical released in 1 part of the body and affects cells of a different part of the body. 2. What is the function of the endocrine system? To deliver messages throughout the body 3. What is the difference between exocrine and endocrine glands? Exocrine: releases secretions through ducts. Endocrine: releases secretions through the bloodstream 4. Give 1 example of an exocrine gland. Sweat glands, tear glands, digestives juices being released from various glands 5. 6. Know the locations of the major organs of the endocrine system on page 998 What is the function of the following organs? a. Hypothalamus Controls the secretions of the pituitary gland b. Pituitary gland Makes hormones that controls the function of other endocrine glands c. Parathyroid glands Releases parathyroid hormone, which regulates calcium levels in the body (when Ca levels are low, the parathyroid glands release parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH stimulates the intestine to absorb more Ca from food, kidneys to retain more Ca and bone cells to release some stored Ca into bloodstream) d. Thymus Releases thymosin (stimulates T cell production for immune system) e. Adrenal glands Releases epinephrine and norepinephrine in response to stress (“fight or flight”). These hormones increase heart rate, blood pressure and blood flow to the muscles. They cause air passageways to open wider and the release of extra glucose into the blood give sudden bursts of energy. f. Pineal gland Releases melatonin, which regulates our daily sleep/wake cycle. Melatonin makes us sleepy! g. Thyroid Produces thyroxine (made up of the amino acid tyrosine and also iodine), which regulates metabolism h. Pancreas Releases insulin and glucagon, which both regulate blood sugar levels. Clusters of cells called beta cells and alpha cells release these hormones (beta cells secrete insulin; alpha cells secrete glucagon). i. Ovaries Produces estrogen (responsible for egg development and the formation of the physical characteristics associated with puberty) and progesterone (prepares uterus for pregnancy) j. Testes Produces testosterone (sperm production and the formation of the physical characteristics associated with puberty) 7. Which gland is considered part of both the endocrine and digestive systems? 8. Explain how the thyroid gland maintains homeostasis. 9. Explain how the pancreas maintains homeostasis. pancreas The hypothalamus senses low thyroxine levels in the body. It secretes thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). TRH stimulates the pituitary gland to secrete thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). This prompts the thyroid to release more thyroxine. When blood sugar levels are too high, the pancreas secretes insulin. Insulin stimulates liver and muscles to store excess glucose as glycogen. When blood sugar levels are too low, the pancreas secretes glucagon. Glucagon stimulates liver and muscles to break down glycogen and release glucose back into the blood. Respiratory System (pages 956-963 of textbook) 1. What is the function of the respiratory system? Exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between blood, air and tissues. 2. Be able to identify the major organs of the respiratory system on page 957. 3. What is the function of each of the following organs? a. Nose and mouth Warms, moistens and filters the air we breathe in. b. Epiglottis Covers the entrance to the trachea when we are swallowing c. Pharynx (throat) Passageway for food and air d. Larynx (voicebox) Muscles pull vocal cords together and air moving between them produces sound e. Trachea (windpipe) Takes in oxygen from the environment f. Lungs Essential respiratory organ g. Bronchioles Leads into the lungs from the trachea; branches out until it reaches alveoli h. Diaphragm Large, flat, thin muscle that is between heart and liver and is involved in breathing. 4. Where does gas exchange take place? In the alveoli (air sacs), which are grouped into clusters that look like grapes; a delicate network of thin-walled capillaries surrounds each alveolus. 5. Explain how the diaphragm moves when we inhale and exhale. When we inhale, the diaphragm moves down to open up the chest cavity; the rib cage rises. When we exhale, the diaphragm moves up to push air out of the lungs; rib cage lowers. Part C Review Guide Circulatory System (pages 943-948) 1. What organs does the circulatory system include? Heart, blood vessels and blood The heart is enclosed in a protective sac of tissue called the ___pericardium___________. The __septum____divides the left side of the heart from the right side of the heart. How many chambers does a human heart have? ___4___ The upper chambers are called the ___atria____and the bottom chambers are called the ___ventricles____. The heart functions as two separate pumps. The right side of the heart pumps blood from the heart to the lungs and is called the ____pulmonary_______circulation pathway. 7. Oxygen-rich blood from the lungs (where carbon dioxide was exchanged for oxygen) flows into the left side of the heart and is pumped to the rest of the body. This is called the _____systemic_________circulation pathway. **See Figure 1 and 2 on the next pages** 8. Blood that returns to the right side of the heart is oxygen-poor because____cells have already absorbed the oxygen____. The cycle starts again when this blood goes to the lungs. 9. Why are valves important in the heart? They keep blood moving through the heart in only 1 direction 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 10. What are the 3 types of blood vessels in the circulatory system? Arteries, capillaries and veins 11. Complete the chart below: Type of blood vessel Function Artery Carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body Capillaries Veins Brings nutrients and oxygen to cells; removes CO2 and waste from cells Returns oxygen-poor blood to heart from the body Other information Largest vessel; has thick walls; blood is oxygen-rich Smallest vessels; one-cell thick Contains valves to keep blood flowing toward heart; blood is oxygen-poor 1. What is the function of the digestive system? Convert food into simpler molecules that the cells can use. 2. Be able to identify the structures of the digestive system on page 979 3. Briefly describe the function of the following organs of the digestive system: a. Pharynx (throat) Passageway for food b. Salivary glands Contains enzymes to start breaking down food in the mouth. c. Esophagus Connects the mouth to the stomach (contracts to help guide food down to stomach – this is called peristalsis) d. Stomach A large muscular sac that contains digestive enzymes to break down food e. Small intestine Most chemical digestion takes place here; where nutrients are absorbed from food f. Large intestine (colon) Retains water; develops feces g. Pancreas Secretes enzymes to digest carbohydrates, lipids and proteins h. Liver Detoxifies blood, produces bile (which breaks down fats) i. Gallbladder Stores bile j. Spleen Destroys and makes red blood cells; produces antibodies for the immune system 4. What is peristalsis? Contractions of smooth muscle in the esophagus to help us swallow 1. What is the function of the excretory (urinary) system? Remove waste from the body 2. What is the function of the following organs? a. Kidney Removes waste products from the blood; maintains blood pH, regulates the amount of water in the blood. b. Ureter Carries urine from kidney to bladder c. Bladder Stores urine d. Urethra Carries urine from bladder to outside of body filtration and reabsorption. a. Define each. Filtration: removes wastes from blood (amino acids, vitamins, water, urea, salts, glucose) Reabsorption: water and nutrients are reabsorbed by the blood 3. The mechanism of blood purification involves two distinct processes: 4. The kidneys filter all of the blood in the body every 45 minutes! 5. A person can live without one of their kidneys. True or false? True 1. Define puberty. Period of rapid growth and sexual maturation a. Approximately what age does puberty occur? 9-15 years old b. Explain how the onset of puberty begins. The hypothalamus stimulates the pituitary gland to release luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) 2. What is the primary function of the male reproductive system? Produce and deliver sperm 3. What is the function of the following organs? a. Scrotum An external sac that hold the testes at a couple of degrees cooler than the human body b. Seminiferous tubules Hundreds of tiny tubes where the sperm are produced c. Epididymis Where the sperm mature and are stored 4. What is the primary reproductive organ in a female? Ovaries 5. What are the primary functions of the female reproductive system? Produce mature eggs every 28 days and prepare the body for pregnancy 6. A female is born with all of the eggs she will ever have. About how many eggs are usually released in her lifetime? 400 (it is estimated that about 800,000 eggs never mature!) 7. Define ovulation. The process in which an egg or eggs are released from one or both ovaries. 8. What is the function of the following organs? a. Fallopian tubes Where the egg is fertilized by the sperm b. Uterus Where the fertilized implants and grows and develops for 40 weeks (9 ½ months) c. Placenta Supplies nutrients and oxygen to the fetus; eliminates waste and carbon dioxide Part F Review Guide 1. What is the function of the nervous system? Controls and coordinates the functions throughout the body; responds to internal/external stimuli. 2. The cells that transmit impulses within the nervous system are called neurons 3. The central nervous system relays messages, processes information and analyzes information. It consists of the brain and spinal cord 4. The layers that surround the brain are called meninges 5. Cerebrospinal fluid bathes the brain and spinal cord and acts as a “shock absorber”. nutrients and waste products between blood and nervous tissue. 6. Be able to identify the following on page 901: a. Cerebrum b. Cerebellum c. Medulla oblongata It also allows for the exchange of 7. What is the function of the following: a. Cerebrum Largest part of brain; involved in: thinking, logic, intelligence, learning and judgment b. Cerebellum Back of skull; controls muscle movement c. Medulla oblongata Part of brain stem; connect brain and spinal cord; controls: blood pressure, heart rate, breathing, swallowing, vomiting and defecation.