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Answer Booklet
The Story Of God’s Dealings
With Our Nation
(A History Of England And Wales)
Volume 1: Earliest Times To The
C.A. Eastwood
Chapter 1
The recorded history of Britain begins in 55 B.C. Why?
Julius Caesar crossed the channel in 55 B.C. This is when written
records about Britain are usually considered to begin.
What does B.C. stand for?
Before Christ.
Which two important minerals were laid down during the flood?
Coal and oil.
Which great monument stands on Salisbury Plain?
What was it used for?
Pagan worship and observation of heavenly bodies.
What was Grimes Graves?
A flint mine where flint for tools was mined.
What word did the Celtic “Brython” tribe probably give us?
While the Celts were living in their small villages, what was the
rest of the country covered with?
Dense forest.
Chapter 2
Name the Celtic tribes that inhabited Britain:
1. Cantii
2. Trinovantes
3. Iceni
4. Coritani
10. Cantuvellauni
5. Brigantes
11. Atrebates
6. Ordovices
Why did Julius Caesar never return to Britain and what happened to
him in the end?
He had to deal with rebellions when he got back to Gaul. Then he
was busy struggling for power with his political rivals in Rome.
He was assassinated.
Hadrian's wall marked the boundary of the Roman Empire and was
built to keep out the Picts.
Name two ways in which God blessed Britain through the Romans.
1. The Romans put down the Druidic religion.
2. Roman soldiers who were Christians brought the gospel with
Who was the first English Martyr?
Why did the Romans leave Britain?
The Roman troops were withdrawn from Britain because they were
needed to defend Rome itself.
Chapter 3
What were the three important things that the Romans left behind
1. Welsh Christianity.
2. Roman roads.
3. Important city sites.
Why could the Celts not keep out the Anglo-Saxons?
They were not trained in warfare and arms.
Before the Romans left the Count of the Saxon Shore organized
defences along the coast from The Wash to Portsmouth. There were
ten large fortresses.
In which parts of Britain did Christianity flourish after the
invasion of the pagan Anglo-Saxons?
Wales, Cornwall and Cumbria.
Where was West Wales?
East Saxons lived in Essex.
Middle Saxons lived in Middlesex.
West Saxons lived in Wessex.
South Saxons lived in Sussex.
Who sent Augustine to Britain?
Pope Gregory the Great.
What was decided by Oswy at the Synod of Whitby, when the Roman
missionaries met the Celtic church leaders?
He had to decide which was the true church, the Roman or the
What did Caedmon and Bede do? They translated parts of the Bible
from Latin into Anglo-Saxon.
Chapter 4
What does Heptarchy mean?
Seven kingdoms.
Egbert can be regarded as the first king of all England.
The Vikings came from Denmark and Norway. The Isle of Sheppey was
the place where they first settled.
The Witan was responsible for deciding who should become king.
Alfred defeated the Vikings in 878, what two things did they
promise to do in the treaty of Wedmore?
1. Leave Wessex alone.
2. Become Christian.
Tick the things that Alfred did:
Organise the navy.
Fought the Romans.
Organise the air force.
Improved the army through improving the fryd.
Rebuilt the City of London.
Learned Latin.
Translated the Bible.
Wrote books on Science.
Established shire boundaries.
Set up officers in each shire.
Made good laws.
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
What were Alfred's Dooms?
The wise Laws that Alfred made.
Alfred's son and grandson Athelstan, re-conquered the Danelaw and
the Vikings merged with the Anglo Saxons.
What was a thing?
The Viking word for a special meeting where legal arguments were
What kind of king was Ethelred the Unready and how did he try to
deal with the new Viking invaders?
He was a weak king. He tried to pay the Vikings to stay away from
What did Aldred and Alfric do?
They translated parts of the Bible into Anglo-Saxon.
Name three things that Canute did.
1. He built churches and monasteries.
2. He divided the country up into provinces each governed by a
3. He used the Danegeld to pay for a bodyguard called housecarls.
Edmund Ironside fought the Vikings. With whom did he divide the
kingdom? Who became king when Edmund died?
He divided the kingdom with Canute. Canute became king when he
Chapter 5
Describe the character of Edward the Confessor.
He was devoted to the church of Rome and had been brought up in
Describe the ending of the Battle of Hastings.
The invading Normans tricked the English by pretending to run
away. The English ran after them and moved from their defensive
positions. Harold was killed by an arrow in the eye and the Norman
horsemen were able to break through the English defence.
Give the names and dates of the Norman kings.
Henry I
the Conqueror (1066–1087)
Rufus (1087–1100)
What was the Doomsday book?
The record of William's inquiry into the value of all the manors
in the country, made to ensure that all the taxes due to him were
How did William Rufus meet his death?
He was killed by an arrow while hunting in the New Forest. It may
have been an accident or it may have been a deliberate act by
someone who wanted to get rid of him.
Why did Henry I quarrel with Anselm?
Henry wanted the archbishop to do him homage for the lands
attached to the bishopric and to receive the symbols of his office
from the hand of the king. Anselm refused to do this.
What was England like during the reign of Stephen?
There was anarchy as the rival supporters of Stephen and Matilda
fought over the kingdom. The people were oppressed and cruelly
treated. The government was weak and so the church of Rome became
What was the feudal system and how did it work?
Land was not owned but held from someone else. The lords held
their land from the king on condition that they fight for him. The
knight held his land from the lord on condition that he fight for
him. The peasant held his land from the knight on condition that
he fight for the knight and work his lands.
Can you give the Norman word that was equivalent to each of these
Saxon words?
Ox beef; sheep mutton; deer venison; fowl poultry.
Chapter 6
List the first three Plantagenet kings with their dates.
1. Henry II (1154-1189)
2. Richard I (1189-1199)
3. John (1199-1216)
True or false?
Henry II lessened the power of the barons. They had to pull down
unlicensed castles. T
The Bible was widely read during the reign of Henry II. F
Scutage was money paid to the king instead of sending knights to
fight for him. T
Henry II established the Common Law and trial by jury. T
Law in England was the same as law on the continent. F
English Common Law developed by means of precedent. T
Henry II quarrelled with Thomas à Becket over whether the clergy
should be tried in the king's courts. T
What did Richard the Lionheart spend most of his reign doing?
Fighting at the crusades.
Who was Richard I's rightful heir and what happened to him?
Arthur son of Geoffrey, the dead elder brother of Richard and
John. John murdered him.
Why did John quarrel with the pope and how did the pope punish
John wished to choose the new Archbishop of Canterbury himself.
The pope claimed that this was the pope's right not the king's.
What did Stephen Langton and the barons force John to do?
Agree to the provisions of Magna Carta.
Did the city of London favour John or the barons?
The barons.
What did Magna Carta establish regarding the law and the king?
The king must obey the law.
The barons acted together to get John to agree to Magna Carta.
This paved the way for parliament.
What did the pope think of Magna Carta?
He did not like to see his vassal, King John, forced to sign the
Charter. He declared it null and void and authorised the French
barons to undertake a crusade against the English barons on John’s
Chapter 7
List the three Plantagenet kings that followed John and give their
1. Henry III (1216-1272)
2. Edward I(1272-1307)
3. Edward II(1307-1327)
True or false?
Henry III was extravagant, and wasteful. T
Henry III was successful in his wars in France. F
Henry III preferred to listen to foreigners, rather than the
English barons. T
The pope appointed foreign priests to English livings. T
Robert Grossetete, Bishop of Lincoln, was a godly man who went to
Rome to speak out against evils in the church. T
The Provisions of Oxford made clear the barons demand to control
the government. T
Simon De Montfort's army defeated the king. T
Simon ran the country badly. F
The people loved Simon De Montfort and called him
“The Good Earl”. T
Simon thought the king was above the law. F
Simon's parliament included both country members and borough
members for the first time. T
How did the rule of Simon De Montfort end in 1262?
The king's son, Prince Edward, escaped from prison and Simon was
defeated and killed at the battle of Evesham.
What was Edward I like in appearance and character?
He was tall, strong, healthy and brave. He was famous for his
wisdom and justice, although he could be cruel.
Trade in what commodity was becoming important at this time?
Match the statutes to their correct descriptions.
“Quia Emptores”
sub-tenants owe their dues not to the tenant
but to the king
“Quo Warranto”
examined by what right the barons
held their courts
forbade people to leave their estates to the
Why did Edward I think that “... the king must reign under and
through the law, and that the crown opposed to the nation was less
strong than the crown in parliament”?
His experience during his father's reign taught him the value of
Simon de Montfort's idea of summoning knights and burgesses. He
realised that people would be more ready to pay taxes if they
understood why the money was needed.
What did Edward I's desire to unite all Britain under his rule
lead him to do in
1. Wales
Edward fought against Llywelyn ap Griffiths reducing the area
ruled by Llywelyn to Gwynedd, the area round Snowdon. He then
attacked Snowdon. Although it looked as if he would be defeated,
the death of Llywelyn enabled him to conquer the country and
confer the title Prince of Wales on his infant son.
2. Scotland?
Edward was overlord of estates held by the Scottish nobles John
Balliol and Robert the Bruce in England. When the Scottish throne
became vacant they were rival claimant to the throne. They asked
Edward to decide and he asked them to do him homage. Then he
decided on Balliol. This was seen as a trick by Edward to gain
overlordship of Scotland and the Scots rebelled. Edward defeated
the Scots, set up his own officials to rule in Scotland and took
home with him to London the Stone of Scone (on which Scots kings
were crowned) putting it in Westminster Abbey.
What name is given to the very full parliament called by Edward I
in 1295 to obtain a special subsidy?
The Model Parliament.
Describe the character of Edward II.
Vile and immoral with no interest in anything good. He did not
care for the duties of kingship and spent his time with favourites
as vile as himself.
Who were the Lords Ordainers?
English nobles who banded together to issue “Ordinances for the
Better Government of the Realm.”
What happened
The Scots had
army to help
at the Battle
at Bannockburn?
rebelled and when Edward II went to Scotland with an
the English garrisons there he was totally defeated
of Bannockburn.
Who was Piers Gaveston and what happened to him?
He was the immoral favourite of Edward II. The Lords Ordainers
ordered that he be sent back to Gascony in France. The king sent
him back, then recalled him. The nobles captured him and murdered
How did Isabella and Mortimer end the reign of Edward II?
They landed in Suffolk with foreign troops, captured the king and
put him in prison. Isabella called a parliament which deposed
Edward II and put his young son Edward III on the throne. Edward
II was then murdered in his dungeon.
Chapter 8
Give the names and dates of the two kings covered in this chapter.
Edward III (1327-1377)
Richard II (1377-1399)
True or false?
obtained money from Parliament to fight the French. T
had Thomas Bradwardine as his confessor. T
never called Parliament. F
defeated the French at Crecy. T
died of the Black Death. T
claimed the throne of France. T
was an unpopular king. F
encouraged the wool trade. T
improved the system of justice in England. T
Was the Hundred Year's War with France popular in England?
Whose navy gained “command of the sea”?
The English Navy.
What was the difference between the weapons used by the English
and those of the French and how did this affect the outcome of the
The English used the long bow. This needed great strength to draw
but could be used over and over again quickly. The French used the
cross bow. This required less strength to use but had to be wound
up between each shot. This gave the English a decisive advantage.
What were the Free Companies?
English yeomen fighting in France formed themselves into Free
Companies who were like bandits living off whatever they could
plunder in France, even during lulls and truces in the war.
What was the Black Death?
A plague or epidemic illness.
How many people died in England?
less than a quarter [ ]
a third to a half
nearly all
[ ]
over three quarters.[ ]
What happened on the manors as a result of the Black Death?
The surviving peasants demanded more money for their services.
Many lords gave more land over to raising sheep since this
required less labour.
The Statute of Praemunire 1353 made what two things illegal?
To bring law cases before a papal court or to bring papal bulls
into the country without the king's permission.
What did Wycliffe teach?
The clergy should live like the apostles and give up their
property. Pilgrimages, penances, worship of relics, masses for the
dead, and the papacy itself were wrong. Everything you need to
know for salvation is to be found in the Bible.
Who protected him at first?
John of Gaunt.
In the Peasants' Revolt what were the peasants' demands?
No one should be forced to work as a villein but all should be
free to work for wages. Land should be leased to those who had
been villeins for a fixed rent of fourpence per acre.
Who ended the crisis and how?
The young king ended the crisis by promising the mob that he would
be their leader and grant to them all that they wanted. The
peasants disbanded but the king did not keep his word. He hunted
down the peasants and had them hung.
Who was Anne of Bohemia and what was her character?
She was Richard II's wife and was of a godly character, interested
in Wycliffe's teaching and a great restraining influence on
Richard’s violent temper.
How did Henry of Lancaster become King?
He returned from banishment to get back his inheritance. Many
nobles with their soldiers joined him because of the unpopularity
of Richard. With all this support he decided to aim for the throne
itself. He had the support of the archbishop of Canterbury.
Richard gave way without much struggle and parliament declared
Henry king.
Chapter 9
List the kings of England with their dates from Henry IV to
Richard III.
Henry IV(1399-1413)
Henry V (1413-1422)
Henry VI (1422-1461)
Edward IV (1461-1483)
Edward V (1483)
Richard III (1483-1485)
Who was Henry IV's father?
John of Gaunt
How did he come to the throne?
The barons and the bishops brought him to power and he was king by
the will of parliament.
What was his attitude to the Lollards?
He persecuted the Lollards.
What was De Heretico Comburendo?
A cruel law which said that if anyone was convicted in the church
courts of heresy, they could be handed over to the secular
authorities to be burnt alive.
Who was Lord Cobbam and what did he do during the reign of Henry
He was a Lollard who earned the king's favour by maintaining order
in West Herefordshire on the Welsh border. Then he married a lady
who was heiress to estates in Kent. He moved there after his
marriage and continued to protect Lollard preachers in his new
What happened to him in Henry V's reign?
Henry V tried to make him change his opinions. Then he handed him
over to the church to be tried. He was condemned and handed back
to be burnt. He escaped and fled to Wales but was eventually
recaptured and put to death.
Who won the Battle of Agincourt and why?
The English won because their knights were lightly clad and
mobile. The French were in very heavy armour and as the ground was
ploughed and very muddy from heavy rain, they became bogged down.
How old was Henry VI when he came to the throne? One year old.
What was his character?
He was gentle and hated war and fighting.
Who was Joan of Arc?
A French peasant girl who believed she heard voices telling her to
save Orleans and have the Dauphin crowned king of France. She led
the French army to victory until she was captured when attempting
to capture Paris. She was tried for witchcraft and burnt to death.
Why was Richard Duke of York made regent?
Henry VI became insane and unable to govern.
Why did the queen gain control again?
Henry recovered.
Lancaster: red rose, York: white rose.
True or false?
The Lancastrians won the first battle at St Albans. F
Henry VI was taken prisoner. T
Henry VI would have liked the Duke of York to rule for him. T
At first Queen Margaret could not defeat the Earl of Warwick. T
The Duke of York was killed at the Battle of Wakefield and his son
Edward took over the leadership of the Yorkists. T
Edward was not a good soldier. F
Edward defeated the Lancastrians and took Henry VI captive. F
The Earl of Warwick changed over to the Lancastrian side. T
Warwick approved of Elizabeth Woodville as a wife for
Edward IV. F
Warwick defeated Edward IV. F
Edward defeated Warwick and Henry VI's son was killed in
battle. T
Henry Tudor was the only Lancastrian with a claim to the throne.
He was sent away to Brittany for safety. T
How old was Edward V when he became king?
Twelve years old.
How did he die?
He was murdered by Richard Duke of Gloucester (Richard III)
Was Richard III a popular king and why or why not?
No. He had murdered his nephews.
Why did Henry Tudor choose to land in Wales?
He had Welsh blood in his veins. The barons there wanted
Welshman for king. He could therefore count on support in Wales.
Chapter 10
Who were the first two Tudor monarchs?
Henry VII(1485-1509)
Henry VIII(1509-1547)
How were the houses of York and Lancaster united under Henry VII?
Henry was descended from the House of Lancaster. He married Edward
IV's daughter, Elizabeth of York.
What happened to the Lollards in Henry VII's reign?
There was a revival in Lollardry but Lollards
Who were Lambert Simnel and Perkins Warbeck?
Both were imposters who led rebellions organised by Margaret
Duchess of Burgundy, the sister of Edward IV. Lambert Simnel
claimed to be the young Earl of Warwick. Perkins Warbeck claimed
to be the younger son of Edward IV.
Both rebellions were put
What was Henry VII's attitude to money?
He wanted to gather as much of it as he could in order not to be
hampered by shortage of money and to allow him to be independent
of Parliament.
Who were Empson and Dudley?
These men were employed by the king to raise money for him. They
did this by reviving old laws that had been forgotten and then
fining people for not obeying them. They became hated throughout
the kingdom.
What was
This was
used it
the Star Chamber?
a special court under the king’s direct authority. Henry
as a tool to deal with rebellion, lawlessness and over
subjects. The court could use torture but not the death
The Renaissance was a reawakening of interest in the
sciences and literature of the ancient Greek civilization.
What important book in Greek did Erasmus publish?
The New Testament.
Who was Catherine of Aragon and whom did she come to England to
She was a Spanish princess and she came to England to marry Prince
Arthur, Henry's eldest son.
True or false?
Henry VIII inherited very little money from his father. F
Henry VIII was not clever and disliked sports. F
Cardinal Wolsey became Henry VIII's most important advisor. He
almost ran the country. T
Henry VIII and Wolsey tried to pursue a balance of power in
Europe. T
Henry VIII liked Martin Luther. F
William Tyndale's English New Testaments were smuggled into
England. T
Henry VIII broke with the pope because he wanted to divorce
Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn. T
Henry VIII dissolved the monasteries. T
What was the “Whip with Six Strings”?
The Act of Six Articles passed by parliament in 1539. This listed
six of the old errors (transubstantiation, celibacy of the clergy,
the usefulness of private masses, confession to the priest, the
binding nature of monastic vows and the denial of the wine to the
people at mass)and proscribed severe penalties for denying them.
The six wives of Henry VIII. Number them in order:
Anne of Cleves [4], Catherine Parr [6], Catherine Howard [5],
Catherine of Aragon [1] Anne Boleyn [2], Jane Seymour [3].
Henry VIII's children:
Edward's mother was Jane Seymour
Mary's mother was Catherine of Aragon
Elizabeth's mother was Anne Boleyn
Can you think of one good thing that Henry did at the end of his
A new translation of the Bible (by Miles Coverdale) was ordered to
be made and a copy chained up in all the parish churches in the
land. Anyone who wished to do so could go and read the Bible in
the church.
Chapter 11
Give the names and dates of the next three Tudor monarchs,
including the “Nine Days' Queen”.
Edward VI(1547-1553)
Jane Grey (1553)
Mary I (1553-1558)
True or false?
Edward VI was an old man when he came to the throne. F
Henry VIII had appointed a Council of Regency. Lord Somerset
became Lord Protector. T
Somerset did not wish to persecute anyone. T
Somerset had the Six Articles (The “Whip with Six Strings”)
repealed by Parliament. T
Hugh Latimer called on rich people to help the poor. T
In Cornwall there was a rebellion because people could not
understand Latin. F
In East Anglia, Ket led rebels who wanted enclosures. F
After Ket's rebellion, Northumberland took control. T
Somerset was executed. T
Jane Boucher was the first English Baptist martyr. T
Where did Mary I go for help when Lady Jane Grey was proclaimed
To Norfolk where Northumberland was very unpopular because of his
suppression of Ket's rebellion.
What did Northumberland do when he found he would not be able to
defeat Mary I?
Declared himself to be a Catholic and acclaimed Mary as the
rightful queen.
Whom did Mary I marry?
Philip son of the Emperor Charles V, soon to become King Philip II
of Spain.
About how many Christians were burnt to death in Mary I's reign?
Who recorded the persecutions of Mary's reign in a book? John Foxe
What did Archbishop Cranmer do to show how sorry he was that he
had recanted?
When put to death by burning he held his right hand in the flame
so that it burned first because with it he had signed the
Why did English people come to dislike and fear Catholicism?
They saw innocent and godly people burnt for their faith.
Chapter 12
Elizabeth I (1588–1603)
The pope said that Mary Stuart (Mary Queen of Scots)
rightful queen of England.
was the
Elizabeth became the Supreme Governor of the Church of England.
Elizabeth took a political view of religious matters.
Elizabeth's policy was to create a broad church.
The puritans wanted the Church of England to be more biblical.
Mary Stuart (Mary Queen of Scots) fled to England in 1568. Why was
it so difficult for Elizabeth to decide what to do with her?
As a queen herself she did not like the idea of encouraging those
who rebelled against their queen. Therefore she could not hand her
over to the rebellious Scottish nobles. However, she already had
an alliance with the protestant Scottish nobles and so would not
help Mary regain her throne. The pope said that Mary was the
rightful queen of England. This made her the constant focus for
plots against Elizabeth all the while Elizabeth kept her a
prisoner in England.
Elizabeth was reluctant to persecute Roman Catholics. Why did she
feel forced to act against them? Jesuit priests came to England.
They taught that excommunicated monarchs (such as Elizabeth) could
rightly be assassinated by their subjects.
Who singed the king of Spain's beard and how?
Francis Drake. He sent fire ships into the harbour at Cadiz where
Philip II had his Armada of ships for invading England.
What happened to the Spanish Armada?
Drake warped his ships out of the harbour at Plymouth and got them
to windward of the Armada. He was then able to attack with his
guns. The Spanish were then driven along the coast by the south
westerly wind while the English ships attacked them. When they
anchored Drake sent fire ships towards them and they cut their
cables and fled. A strong north west wind put them at the mercy
of the English ships which defeated them by quick manoeuvring and
strong guns. Not daring to sail back down the channel the Spanish
tried to return to Spain by sailing round the coast of England,
Scotland and Ireland. Many of the ships were wrecked on the rocks
around the coast.
Who were the Brownists?
Separatists who wanted a separate church of their own.
What did “Martin Marprelate” write and why was it popular?
Witty tracts mocking the bishops, quoting their own writings
against them and recording the cruel things they did to puritans
and separatists. The popularity of the tracts was increased by
their serial nature each one promised some new revelation in the
next issue.
Why did Elizabeth find it difficult to “live off her own”?
Inflation had been caused by the importation of gold from the New
World by the Spanish. Government costs were higher since the
government intervened in more matters.
What were the main provisions of the Elizabethan Poor Law?
Each parish was responsible for its own poor and two overseers
were appointed in each parish to see to the relief of the poor.
Money for this purpose was to be raised by means of rates.
Orphaned or destitute children were to be apprenticed. Houses were
to be provided for the old or disabled. Those able to work were to
be set to work in Houses of Correction. Remaining idlers or
vagabonds were to be caught and punished.
Draw some ships of the Spanish Armada. Find some pictures to help
Copyright © 2007 by C.A. Eastwood
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced
without prior permission of the author.
Published by Ichthus Resources