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The English Renaissance, 1485 – 1625 pp. 226 - 236 1485 – King Henry VII becomes the first Tudor king. 1534 – King Henry VIII establishes the Church of England 1564 – Shakespeare is born! 1599 – The Globe Theater opens. 1611 – King James Bible is published. 1625 – King James I dies. Historical Background A period of “re-birth” and interest in the Greek and Roman classics. Age of naval exploration due to the development of the compass. Catholic Church came under scrutiny; many felt members of the church were corrupt. Martin Luther published his dissenting beliefs, the Protestant Reformation begins; new Christian denomination, Lutheranism Tudor monarchs – Henry VII, then his son Henry VIII who dissolves the Catholic Church in England in order to obtain a divorce from Catherine of Aragon (Spain) so that he can marry Anne Boleyn. Henry and Catherine had a daughter, nicknamed Bloody Mary for her persecution of the Protestants. Henry and Anne had a daughter who became Queen Elizabeth I. Elizabeth’s greatest contribution was establishing a policy of religious compromise. Elizabeth was the last Tudor king; King James I of Scotland (and a member of the Stuart family) is her successor. James I was a patron of the arts. His reign is known as the Jacobean Era. Jamestown, Virginia, was founded and named after him. James’s belief in the divine right of kings offended the Puritans, leading to their migration to Plymouth Colony in 1620. Literature of the Period Elizabethan poetry: lyric poems were most popular, replacing the narrative poems of the Middle Ages (like Canterbury Tales). Sonnets: 14-line poems in iambic pentameter, about love, Italian: abbaabba cdecde, English abab cdcd efef gg Pastoral poetry: rustic simplicity of rural life; typically idealized the life of the shepherds without acknowledging the hardships of such agrarian-based lifestyles. Elizabethan drama: modeled in the classic Greek and Roman tragedies. Comedies: Stories of family conflict and some violence; end with a wedding Tragedy: downfall of a tragic hero; ends with death(s) History: Plays about the English kings Prose: Not as popular as poetry. But some authors were writing about science, philosophy and literature. The King James Bible.