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Steps in the Development of Democracy
Classical Greece
(2000 B.C. – 300 B.C.)
Roman Empire
(500 B.C. – A.D. 500)
Middle Ages
(500 – 1200)
Renaissance and
(1300 – 1600)
Greek culture developed, rose to new heights, and spread to other lands. The
Greek city-states established the first democratic governments. Greek
scientists made advances in mathematics, medicine, and other fields. The
Greeks produced great works of drama, poetry, sculpture, architecture, and
philosophy that still influence people today.
At its heights, the Roman Empire united much of Europe, the north coast of
Africa, and a large part of the Middle East. The Romans admired Greek art,
literature, architecture, and science, and so they adopted and preserved much
of Greek culture, The Romans also created their own legacy with outstanding
achievements in engineering, architecture, the arts, and law. The Romans
spread Christianity throughout Europe, and their official language—Latin—
gave rise to French, Italian, Spanish, and other romance languages. Western
civilization has its roots in Greco-Roman culture.
The West Roman Empire fell to Germanic conquerors who formed kingdoms
out of former Roman provinces. A new political and military system called
feudalism became established. Nobles were granted the use of lands that
belonged to their kings in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and
protection of the peasants who worked the land. Western Europe became
divided into feudal states. The Middle Ages was the time of castles and
The Renaissance was a period of rebirth of learning and the arts based on a
revival of classical study. The study of Greek classics gave rise to an
intellectual movement called humanism, which emphasized human potential
and achievements rather than religious concerns. The works of the Italian
artists Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo and the English dramatist
William Shakespeare represent the cultural height of the Renaissance. The
Reformation was a movement for religious reform that led to the founding of
the Protestant churches. These churches rejected the authority of the pope,
and the power of the Roman Catholic Church declined.
The Development of Democracy:
Case Study: England
1. From Roman Empire to Feudalism
A. CeltsB. Roman Invasion, 43AD, Influence
II. Developments in England: Strong Monarchs and World Power
A. Early History
1. From 1st Century to the 11th Century A.D. England invaded
and inhabited by several
a. 7 Kingdoms struggle for dominance
2. Assimilation
B. Norman Invasion—1066
1. King Edward “the Confessor”
2. Harold Godwinson vs. William, Duke of Normandy
3. Battle of Hastings (October 14, 1066)
4. William Strengthens Royal Power
5. Early Norman Kings
III. Foundations for Democratic Growth
A. Henry II
B. Richard II and “King” John
C. Magna Carta (1215)
D. Model Parliament (1295)
1. Edward I (1272-1307) expands Great Council’s
membership to include commoners
E. Common Law
F. Parliamentary Lawmaking in 1300s
IV. Rise of Absolute Monarchs in Europe
A. From Weak Medieval King to Absolute Monarch
B. Factors Strengthening Royal Power
C. “Divine Right of Kings”
D. Beginning of the Nation-States
V. Hundred Years War (1337-1453)
A. Causes
D. Military Highlights
1. English won battles at
a. Henry V (1413-1422)
2. Longbow causes a revolution in warfare and
3. Hundred Years War is like a basketball game
a. Treaty of Troyes
4. Joan of Arc
C. Effect of War on England
VI. War of the Roses (1455-1485)
A. Cause
B. Results
a. Edward IV
b. Edward V
c. Richard III
VII. Tudor Rule (1485-1603)
A. Henry VII (1485-1509)
B. Luther attacks the Church
1. 95 theses
2. Calls for reform of Church
3. Excommunicated, but Protestantism spreads
throughout Europe
4. Reformation in Europe
C. Henry VIII (1509-1547)
1. 18 years old when he becomes king
2. Devout Catholic
Quote: “What serpent so venomous as who calls the pope’s authority
tyrannous?...the whole Church is subject not only to Christ but…to
Christ’s only vicar (representative, the pope of Rome.” –Henry VIII
3. Married Catherine of Aragon
4. Henry’s solution
5. Henry’s many wives
D. Edward VI (1547-1553)
E. Mary I (1553-1558)
F. Elizabeth I (1558-1603)
VIII. Unpopular Stuarts: Conflicts with Parliament (1603-1642)
A. James I (1603-1625)
Here is what one historian had to say about James I: He had a
certain genius for getting into difficulties, but was not without a
certain shrewdness in stopping just short of catastrophe. If he steered
the ship straight for the rocks, he left his son to wreck it.”
B. Charles I (1625-1642)
C. Long-term Causes of Civil War
D. Short-term Causes of Civil War
E. Parliament wins the Civil War (1642-1645)
1. Roundheads vs. Cavaliers
Quote from Roundhead: “The question in dispute between the King’s
party and us was whether the king should govern as a god by his will,
and the nation be governed by force like beasts; or whether the
people should be governed by laws bade by themselves and live under
a government derived from their own consent.”
3. Roundheads have money, but need a good military
4. Oliver Cromwell
IX. Cromwell Rules as Military Dictator (1653-1658)
A. Lord Protector
B. Puritans reform English society
C. Irish
X. Charles II Restored to the Monarchy
A. Restoration (1660-1685)
B. James II (1658-1688)
1. James upsets supporters and opponents
C. Glorious Revolution or Bloodless Revolutions (1688)
1. William and Mary
2. Troops desert James II
XI. Rule of William and Mary
A. Changes
1. Recognize Parliament as a leading partner in ruling
2. Bill of Rights